How It’S Made Baseball

“How It’s Made: American Made” Baseball Edition (TV Episode 2017)

How It’s Made: It’s made in the United States. YOUR PERFORMANCE RATINGS1.E1 All of the episodes Documentary The following are the top 5 baseball items on the list: 5. Baseball Gloves. 4. Scoreboards. 3. Hamburgers and hot dogs. 2. Watches made of wood. 1. Softball bats made of carbon fiber. Countdown of the top 5 baseball players: 5. Baseball gloves are a must-have. 4. The use of scoreboards. 3. Hamburgers and hot dogs. 2. Watches made of wood. 1. Softball bats made of carbon fiber. Countdown of the top 5 baseball players: 5.

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YOUR PERFORMANCE RATING

  • Yves Martin Allard, Frédéric Caudry, Jean-Francois Despres
  • Yves Martin Allard, Frédéric Caudry, Jean-Francois Despres
  • Linda Boyle (primary writer)
  • Oisin Curran (principal writer)
  • Lynn Herzeg (principal writer)
  • Credits at the top
  • Look at the production and box office information
  • Look at the production and box office information
  • IMDbPro.

How baseball is made – material, history, used, parts, dimensions, composition, machine, Raw Materials

The baseball may be traced back to the game of the same name, which is where it got its start. In the early part of the nineteenth century, the English game of “rounders” gave birth to the modern game of baseball. In 1845, Alexander Cartwright of New York drafted the first set of baseball regulations, which called for the substitution of the soft ball used in rounders with a smaller hard ball. Even though it appears to be a simple object, the baseball is in reality a very precise piece of machinery that has been the subject of much intense debate throughout its history.

  • Baseball manufacturers and Major League Baseball, on the other hand, have categorically refuted any such accusations, and no evidence of covert adjustments in the ball’s design or composition has ever been shown.
  • It is estimated that around 600,000 baseballs are used by all Major League clubs together during the course of a season.
  • According to Major League Baseball regulations, each ball must weigh between 5 and 5.25 ounces (141.75-148.83 grams) and measure between 9 and 9.25 inches (22.86-23.49 cm) in circumference to be considered legal.
  • The contemporary standard for baseball weight and size was created in 1872, when the baseball was weighed and measured for the first time.
  • The baseball had a circular rubber core when it was invented at the turn of the century.

Since then, the baseball has seen just one important change: in 1974, a scarcity of horses drove the move from horsehide to cowhide coverings due to a lack of available horses.

Raw Materials

A baseball is made up of three fundamental components: the round cushioned cork pill in its center, the wool and poly/cotton windings in its midsection, and the cowhide covering that covers the outside of the ball’s shell. The pill is composed of a sphere with a diameter of 13/16 of an inch (2.06 cm) and is constructed of a cork and rubber composite substance, according to the manufacturer. This spherical is enclosed in two layers of rubber, one of which is black on the inside and the other of which is red on the outside.

  1. The complete pill has a circumference of 4-1/8 inches (10.47 cm) in diameter.
  2. In the first winding, a four-ply gray woolen yarn is used, followed by a three-ply white woolen yarn in the second winding, a third-ply gray woolen yarn in the third, and a fourth-ply white poly/cotton finishing yarn in the fourth winding.
  3. When securely wrapped around the pill, it increases the circumference of the unfinished ball to 7-3/4 inches when completed (19.68 centimeters).
  4. Wool was chosen as the principal material for the baseball’s windings because of its inherent tenacity and “memory,” which allow it to compress when pressure is applied, then quickly return to its original shape once the pressure is removed.
  5. The outside wrapping of the ball was made of a poly/cotton blend to provide it greater strength and lessen the likelihood of rips when the cowhide cover is placed.
  6. The inside cover is composed of Number One Grade, alum-tanned full-grained cowhide.
  7. The cover of an official baseball must be white, and it must be sewn together with a length of waxed red thread of 88 inches (223.52 cm) in length.

The ManufacturingProcess

The manufacturing of a baseball may be thought of as a process of layering various layers of material (rubber, fabric, and cowhide) around a rubbery spherical that is not much larger than a cherry in diameter. There are three separate techniques in which these materials are wrapped around the little sphere: the rubber is molded, the fabric is coiled, and the cowhide is sewed together. The placing of materials around the sphere is done under carefully regulated circumstances to guarantee that the sphere’s size, form, and quality are maintained consistently throughout the process.

  1. hade catalog, about 1891, promoting the product “baseball.” baseball is the precise emblem, the outward and apparent embodiment of the drive and push and hurry and fight of the roaring, ripping, booming nineteenth century,” observed Mark Twain (Samuel L.
  2. In the beginning, baseball became a popular American sport because it was more physically demanding and faster-paced than its English forebears, cricket, town-ball, and rounders, which were slower and less muscular.
  3. After the game’s rules were set down in the 1840s, the game and its equipment—as well as its popularity—began to change.
  4. Particularly during the American Civil War, the game experienced a surge in popularity.
  5. A.
  6. Spalding made international headlines in 1888-89 when he organized a tour of American baseball players who competed in exhibition games in nations all over the world.

Towards the turn of the century, Spalding was offering four boy’s-size baseballs and eight regulation-size baseballs, with prices ranging from four cents to one dollar apiece. William S. Pretzer is an American businessman and author.

Molding rubber

  • 1 It is molded to a rubberized cork sphere with a percent, of an inch (2.06 centimeters) in diameter by two black rubber shells that are approximately 5/3 of an inch (.39 centimeters) thick and 5/3 of an inch (.39 centimeters) in thickness. A pair of red rubber gaskets are used to seal the two tiny gaps that divide the two shells. The initial stage in the production of a baseball is the molding of two shells of black rubber to a cork that has been rubberized. Following the application of a thin coating of red rubber to the ball and the application of a layer of cement, wool yarn is twisted around the ball. There are three layers of yarn woven together: four-ply gray yarn, followed by three-ply white yarn, and finally three-ply gray yarn, all wound together. The ball is then wrapped in a final layer of poly/cotton finishing yarn to complete the look. The last layer is the cowhide cover, which is made up of two figure-eight pieces that are stapled to the ball and then sewn together
  • This is the most expensive layer. 2 To complete the assembly process, a layer of red rubber approximately 3/32 of an inch (.24 centimeter) thick is molded to the black rubber encasement. A complete circle is formed out of the entire “pill,” which weighs around 7/8 of an ounce (24.80 grams) and has a diameter of approximately 4-18 inches in circumference (10.48 centimeters). An very thin coating of cement is placed to the surface of the pill after it has been formed. During the first winding operation, this layer helps to retain the wool yarn in position on the pill as the process continues.

Winding fabric

  • 3 The pill is wrapped in wool yarn that has been kept under regulated fabric temperature and humidity settings for several months. Using automated winding machines, this is accomplished by maintaining a continuous level of extremely high tension in order to avoid “soft patches” and provide a uniform surface. The ball is weighed and measured by computer after each stage in the winding process to ensure that the official size criteria have been satisfied. When a baseball is dissected, the wool yarn is twisted so tightly that it seems to be threaded through the baseball. 121 yards (110.6 meters) of four-ply gray yarn is used for the first layer
  • 45 yards (41.13 meters) of three-ply white yarn is used for the second layer
  • And 53 yards (48.44 meters) of three-ply gray are used for the third layer. For protection and to keep the wool yarn in place, a layer of 150 yards (137.1 meters) of fine poly/cotton finishing yarn is wrapped around the ball and secured in place. It is next necessary to cut away any surplus fabric from the wrapped ball and prepare it for the attachment of the exterior cowhide covering by dipping it in an adhesive solution.

Sewing hide

  • Figure-8 motifs are carved into the cowhide covering in step 5. Each design covers half of the total wrapped ball surface area. Cowhide covers are moistened before to being sewn to the wound ball in order to improve its pliability and flexibility. Additionally, the insides of the covers are coated with the same glue that was used to seal the wound ball
  • 6 Using 88 inches (223.52 cm) of waxed red thread, the two figure-8 covers are stapled to the wrapped ball, and then they are hand-stitched together. The stitching technique consists of 108 stitches, with the start and end stitches being totally hidden. Hand-sewing a baseball takes an average of 13 to 14 minutes
  • 7 minutes is necessary to hand-sew a baseball. After the covers have been sewn together, the staples are removed and the ball is examined for any flaws or defects. After that, the ball is placed in a rolling machine for 15 seconds in order to level any elevated stitches on the surface. After that, the baseballs are measured, weighed, and evaluated based on their look. Acceptable baseballs are branded with the manufacturer’s trademark and the league identifier
  • Otherwise, they are deemed unacceptable.

Quality Control

In accordance with Major League Baseball’s officially sanctioned testing standards, a statistically representative sample of each shipment of baseballs is examined in order to determine the Co-Efficient of Restitution (COR). Essentially, the COR is a measure of a baseball’s ability to bounce back from adversity. An air cannon fired at an eight-foot-high (2.43-meter) distance fires a baseball at a wooden wall at a velocity of 85 feet per second (25.90 meters per second), and the speed with which the baseball bounces off of the wall is measured.

Another requirement is that a baseball must maintain its round shape after being struck 200 times by a 65-pound (29.51-kilogram) force.

The Future

It seems expected that the size of baseballs, as well as the raw materials required to create them, will stay unaltered in the near future. In addition, a finished baseball weighs between 5 and 5.25 ounces and measures between 9 and 9.25 inches in circumference, thanks to the 88 lengths of waxed red thread connecting the two cowhide covering pieces together. There will be few, if any, modifications to the process through which baseballs are created, according to industry experts. Although attempts to automate the process of stitching cowhide coverings on baseballs have been done in the past, none of these attempts have proven successful.

Also certain is that the debate regarding juiced-up balls will continue for the foreseeable future, as long as baseball is played and fans continue to seek an explanation for changes in the number of home runs hit by their favorite teams and individual players.

Where To Learn More

Cleary, David Powers, and others. Brands that are synonymous with America. Fairchild Applications was founded in 1981. Danzig, Allison, and Joe Reichler are three of the most famous musicians in the world. Baseball’s Origins and Development. Prentice Hall Publishing Company, 1959. Mr. James and Mr. Bill In this section, you can find the Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract. Villard Books published the book in 1986. Harold Seymour is a fictional character created by author Harold Seymour. Baseball is known as “The People’s Game.” Oxford University Press published this book in 1990.

The Entire Baseball Catalogue is available.

Periodicals

Souther Living magazine published an article titled “Batter Up for a Baseball Factory Tour” in November 1989 on page 34. —SuzyFucini

Baseball (ball) – Wikipedia

There is a redirection here from “Baseballs.” The Baseballs are a German rock’n’roll cover band that was formed in 1989. In the sport of baseball, abaseball is a ball that is used in the game of the same name. The ball is made out of a rubber or cork center that is wrapped in yarn and coated with white real horsehide or cowhide, or a synthetic composite leather that is white in color. It has a circumference of 9–9 +1 4inches (229–235mm) and a diameter of 2 +55 64inches or 73–75mm. It weighs 5–5 +1 4oz and measures 9–9 +1 4inches (229–235mm) in circumference (142 to 149g).

It is normal for the leather cover to be constructed from two peanut-shaped pieces of leather that are sewn together, generally using red-dyed thread.

A pitcher’s ability to control the orientation of the stitches as well as the pace at which the ball rotates allows him or her to influence the behavior of the thrown ball in certain ways.

History

When baseball first began to gain popularity in the early to mid-1800s, there was a considerable deal of variation in the size, shape, weight, and manufacture of baseballs. Old, melted shoes were used as a rubber core for the first baseballs, which were then covered in yarn and leather. In other cases, fish eyeballs were employed as cores as well as other materials. It was customary for pitchers to make their own balls, which were utilized throughout the game, weakening and unraveling with each pitch as it progressed.

  • Lemon peel baseballs were darker, smaller, and weighted less than other baseballs, allowing them to go longer and bounce higher than other baseballs, resulting in extremely high-scoring games for the players involved.
  • They came at the conclusion that baseballs should weigh between 512 and 6 ounces and have a circumference between 8 and 11 inches.
  • Generally speaking, balls with more rubber and a tighter winding traveled further and quicker (known as “live balls”), but those with less rubber and a looser winding (known as “dead balls”) did not move nearly as far or quickly.
  • Teams frequently took use of this information, as players from the squad were typically responsible for manufacturing their own baseballs for use in games.
  • According to some historians, it was devised by Ellis Drake, the son of a shoemaker, in order to make the cover tougher and longer-lasting.
  • Cutler in 1858 and sold to William Harwood the following year.
  • The National League (NL) was established in 1876, and uniform rules and regulations were put in place to govern the sport.

Spalding, a well-known baseball pitcher who was recognized for making his own balls, persuaded the National League to accept his ball as the official baseball of the National League (NL).

In 1910, the cork-core ball made its debut on the market.

After a while, everything returned to normal.

It was in 1920 when a few of significant modifications were made to baseballs.

Despite the fact that there was no evidence that these balls had an influence on the game, offensive statistics began to rise during the 1920s, and players and spectators alike felt that the new balls allowed batters to smash the ball further than before.

An inner cork core was encircled by a layer of black rubber, which was subsequently followed by another layer of red rubber.

In the end, they decided on a cushion cork center, two wrappings of yarn, a specialrubber cementcoating, two additional wrappings of yarn, and a horsehide covering.

Rubber was forbidden for non-war-related products, including baseballs, during World War II, according to the United States Department of Agriculture.

That year, there was a considerable reduction in hitting.

After the switch back to the standard ball and the return of players from active duty, the offense would resume to normal operations.

Cowhide, on the other hand, was more readily available.

The dramatic rise in the quantity of home runs since the beginning of the 2016 baseball season prompted Major League Baseball executives to form a committee to investigate the manufacturing process.

On February 5, 2021, the Major League Baseball published a statement in which it stated that Rawlings had revised their production process in order to lessen the bounce in the balls and that, following thorough testing, “we are certain that these baseballs exceed all of our performance standards.” Another point raised in the same document was the fact that more clubs had sought for authorization to store their baseballs in humidors.

As of 2020, just four teams were employing the devices: the Arizona Diamondbacks, the Boston Red Sox, the Colorado Rockies, and the Seattle Mariners.

Overview

Two baseballs, one with the typical cork in the center (on the left) and the other with the rubber in the middle (on the right). Padded wood cores were invented by sports equipment manufacturerSpalding, which was founded by former baseball starA.G. Spalding. They were first patented in the late nineteenth century. A variety of synthetic materials have been utilized to make baseballs in recent years; nevertheless, they are typically regarded lesser quality, are sewn with two red thick threads, and are rarely used in the big leagues due to their poor quality and durability.

  • In general, a tighter-wound baseball will leave the bat faster and fly farther than a loosely wrapped baseball.
  • In general, the seams on baseballs used in Little League through college levels are far greater than those used in professional leagues.
  • After a few games, a normal ball would get discolored from dirt and other materials applied by players; damage would also develop, resulting in minor rips and seam breaks; and finally, the ball would become brittle from repeated use.
  • However, following the death in 1920 of hitter Ray Chapman, who was struck in the head by a pitch, possibly as a result of his inability to see the ball during dusk, an attempt was made to replace filthy or old baseballs with new ones.
  • Reach patented the ivory-centered”ivory nut” in Panama in 1909, claiming that it was “even better” in a baseball than cork at the time of invention.
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Shibe, the president of the Philadelphia Athletics and the inventor of the cork-centered ball, stated, “I expect the leagues will adopt a ‘ivory nut’ baseball just as soon as they adopt a ferro-concrete bat and a base studded with steel spikes.” In 1910, both leagues adopted Shibe’s cork-centered ball, which was invented by him.

  • Attempts to automate the production process were never totally successful, which resulted in the continuous usage of hand-made balls throughout history.
  • Throughout the twentieth century, Major League Baseball employed two balls that were theoretically identical but were marked differently.
  • The National League baseball laces were black with red interlaced, according to Bob Feller, who recalled that the American League baseball laces were blue and red when he was a rookie in the 1930s.
  • To be eligible to play in the Major League Baseball (MLB) in the current season, the baseball must weigh between 5 to 5 14 ounces (142–149 grams) and measure 9 to 9 14 inches (229–235 millimeters) in circumference (2 +7 8–3 inches or 72-74 millimeters in diameter).
  • Because of the scratches, discolouration, and unattractive texture that might occur during a regular professional game, many dozen baseballs are used in a typical professional game nowadays.
  • In exchange for the unique ball, the player will typically provide the fan with an autographed bat and/or other autographed memorabilia in addition to the special ball.

Rubbing mud is put to baseballs in the professional game before each game, and it is designed to improve the pitcher’s grip on the ball. It is normally done by the umpire before each game, and it is supposed to aid in the pitcher’s grip. There are several distinct forms of baseball that are played.

  • The term “baseball” refers to the ordinary baseball that is used in Major League Baseball, but is also used in high school baseball and above for (hardball) baseball, and is referred to as “baseball.” Rubber baseball, also known as Nanshiki, is a type of baseball played in Japan before to high school that is played using rubberballs. It is also known as Japanese rubber baseball. Soft (compression) baseball – A type of baseball that is used for batting practice and fielding training, as well as softball baseball that can be safely played indoors, and is often composed of polyurethane (PU) material
  • Baseball in its various forms: regular baseball, rubber baseball, soft (compression) baseball

Famous baseballs

There have been many recorded examples of humans catching, or attempting to catch, baseballs that have been associated with Major League Baseball milestones:

  • Mark McGwire’s 70th home run of the 1998 baseball season, which set a new record at the time, was sold by a fan toTodd McFarlane for US$ 3.2 million at auction
  • Larry Ellison, not to be confused with the software entrepreneur of the same name, famously retrieved bothBarry Bonds’ 660th and 661st home runs
  • Barry Bonds’ 73rd home run of the 2001 season
  • And many other notable home runs. Mark McGwire’s single season home run record was broken by him on his final home run of his historic and record-breaking season. The question of who owned the ball sparked a debate, and a lawsuit was filed between the two persons who claimed to have caught it in the end. Up for Grabs is a documentary that was based on the true events. To Todd McFarlane, for $450,000, it was auctioned off as Barry Bonds’ record-breaking 756th home run, which broke the previous mark of Hank Aaron, and was caught by a New York Mets fan in 2007. A truck driver caught Roger Maris’ 61st single-season home run, which was later sold at an online auction for more than $750,000 to Marc Eck, a New York fashion designer
  • Derek Jeter’s 3,000th hit, a home run, was caught by a New York Yankees fan, who returned the ball to the Yankees and was awarded approximately $70,000 in gifts and memorabilia
  • And Derek Jeter’s 3,000th hit, also a home run, was caught by a New The ball was sold for $5,000, which was a record price.

Other well-known baseballs include:

  • Babe Ruth’s home run in the 1933 Major League Baseball All-Star Games sold for more than $800,000. His signature was placed on the ball, which sold for $650,000 at auction in 1999. Hank Aaron’s 755th home run ball was autographed by him as well. For 23 years, the ball was stored in a safety deposit box after groundskeeper Richard Arndt was sacked from the Milwaukee Brewers for failing to return the ball, despite his repeated attempts the day before. An auctioned baseball signed by bothJoe DiMaggio and Marilyn Monroe (who had been married for less than a year) in 1961 during spring training in Florida sold for $191,200
  • The ball that rolled betweenBill Buckner’s legs (and cost Boston extra innings during the1986 World Series) sold for $418,250
  • And Steve Bartmaninterferedwith a play while attempting to catch afoul ball, causing the Chicago Cubs to not get an out in ” The The stray ball was grabbed up by a Chicago attorney and auctioned off in December 2003 for a tidy profit. For $113,824.16 dollars, Grant DePorter acquired it on behalf of the Harry Caray’s Restaurant Group. In a technique created by Cubs fan and Academy Awardwinning special effects guru Michael Lantieri, it was publicly detonated on February 26, 2004 in front of thousands of people. In 2005, the restaurant utilized the remaining pieces of the ball to make a pasta sauce out of them. The sauce did not contain any actual pieces of the ball
  • Rather, the ball was cooked in a mixture of water, beer, vodka, and herbs, with the steam being caught, condensed, and then added to the final concoction.

See also

  • Ball used in cricket of similar construction (cork center wrapped tightly with string and enclosed in leather with a raised sewed seam of threads by the “equator” of the ball)
  • Cricket ball (also known as cricket ball). Spaldeen is a ball that is used in stickball, which is a baseball version. Theory of the juiced ball

Notes and references

  1. “2014 Official Baseball Rules” are a set of rules that govern baseball in 2014. (PDF). Retrieved2014-12-29
  2. s^ Phillip Mahony’s Baseball Explained is available online. McFarland & Company, 2014. See theWayback Machine for further information
  3. Abcdef Jimmy, please stamp. “A Brief History of Baseball”.smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 13 May 2015
  4. “Baseball (equipment)”.baseball-reference.com. Baseball Reference. Retrieved 13 May 2015. 13th of May, 2015
  5. Retrieved 13th of May, 2015
  6. BIG LEAGUES AGREE ON LIVELIER BALL
  7. The sphere used in the American Championship last year is accepted in Toto by the National.” The New York Times, January 6, 1934, ISSN 0362-4331. 2017-03-22
  8. Retrieved 2017-03-22
  9. AbcRymer, Zachary D., “The Evolution of Baseball From the Dead-Ball Era Through Today.” The Evolution of Baseball From the Dead-Ball Era Through Today. Bleacher Report is a sports news website. Retrieved2017-03-22
  10. s^ James Wagner is a writer who lives in the United States. “The Major League Baseball Organization will change its baseballs following record home run rates.” The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City. “Baseball Bat Reviews of 2017 (BBCOR Certified Bats)”.BaseballRace. Retrieved2017-03-22
  11. “Baseball Bat Reviews of 2017 (BBCOR Certified Bats)”.BaseballRace. Retrieved2017-03-22
  12. “Baseball Bat Reviews of 2017 (BBCOR Certified Bats (8 August 2005). The Sports Illustrated article “Rapid Robert Can Still Bring It” appears on pages 3 and 4 of the magazine (of 11). 15 July 2013
  13. Retrieved 15 July 2013
  14. Major League Baseball: “Official Rules: Objectives of the Game,” Major League Baseball
  15. Schneider, Jason, “Official Rules: Objectives of the Game,” Major League Baseball (2006-07-04). “All-American mud was required to remove the shine off baseballs.” The Florida Times-Union, retrieved on 2009-10-06
  16. Grunwald, Michael. “The Florida Times-Union.” McFarlane paid $3 million for McGwire’s 70th home run ball, according to tech.mit.edu and The Washington Post, both of which were published on June 8, 2015. Marcio Sanchez is the author of this work. Jose. “The fan who catches the ball with the number 660 also receives the number 661.” usatoday.com. USA TODAY is a news organization based in Washington, D.C. retrieved on June 8, 2015
  17. Ira Berkow is a writer who lives in New York City. It is said that the 73rd home run ball sold for $450,000. The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City. retrieved on June 8, 2015
  18. Jack Curry is a fictional character created by Jack Curry. “Bonds hits No. 756 to surpass Aaron’s previous high-water mark.” The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City. “Barry Bonds’ 756-home-run ball, which broke the previous record, was sold for $752,467.20 on June 8, 2015.” psacard.com is a part of the Collectors Universe. The original version of this article was published on May 26, 2015. retrieved on June 8, 2015
  19. Erik Matuszewski is a writer who lives in Poland. “Jeter fan who returned baseball leaves $180,000 on the table in order to do the right thing.” Bloomberg, retrieved on 10 February 2012
  20. The Daily, retrieved on 10 February 2012. More Most Valuable Baseballs, including Derek Jeter’s 3,000th hit, Mark McGwire’s 70th home run, and More Most Valuable Baseballs”. It was published on July 16, 2013, and it was retrieved on July 16, 2013. “Ruth home run ball brings in $700,000”, according to Gary Rotstein. post-gazette.com. “Owner of Hank Aaron’s final home run ball braces for new record,” according to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, accessed on June 8, 2015. ESPN.com has a story titled “Ball signed by DiMaggio and Monroe breaks bank”. “Buckner ball from ’86 Series sells for $418,250,” according to ESPN, accessed on June 8, 2015. ESPN.com. Gumer, Jason B.
  21. May 4, 2012
  22. Gumer, Jason B. (February 23, 2005). In the words of the Chicago Tribune, “Pasta sauce transforms unlucky Cubs baseball into tasty charm.”
  • Major League Baseball: Official Rules: 1.00 Objectives of the GameSee 1.09
  • Major League Baseball: Official Rules: 1.00

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related toBaseballs.

What Are Baseballs Made of?

TECHNOLOGY—Inventions

Have You Ever Wondered.

  • TECHNOLOGY—Inventions

Grant from Belton, Texas, was the inspiration for today’s Wonder of the Day. “Can you tell me how much string is in a baseball?” Grant wonders. Thank you for sharing your WONDER with us, Grant! Do you consider yourself to be patriotic? When you think of honoring America, what are some of the things that come to mind? What about the Statue of Liberty? What do you think of the Fourth of July? What about apple pie? Perhaps one of our favorite pastimes comes to mind: a nice old-fashioned game of baseball.

  1. Many children’s favorite childhood memories include activities such as pitching, catching, and hitting a baseball around.
  2. For starters, it isn’t pumped with a lot of compressed air.
  3. What precisely is included within a baseball?
  4. We’ll start with the baseball’s center and work our way out from there as we learn all there is to know about baseballs.
  5. It is just less than three inches in width and weighs around half an ounce.
  6. In the first layer, you’ll find 121 yards of four-ply, blue-gray wool yarn.
  7. 53 yards of three-ply blue-gray wool yarn are used for the following layer of the project.

After the “pill” has been securely wrapped with several layers of yarn, the entire thing is coated with rubbercement before being covered with two pieces of whitecowhide to complete the look.

Baseballs are put through rigorous testing before they are allowed to be used in a game.

Baseballs must be at least five ounces in weight but not more than 5.25 ounces in total weight.

Baseballs must also pass a “liveliness” test before being sold.

Baseballs are fired from an air cannon at 85 feet per second onto a wall constructed of northern white ash, which is the wood from which many baseball bats are produced, in order to determine their liveliness.

Today, China produces over 80 percent of all baseballs used across the world.

The official baseballs for Major League Baseball, on the other hand, are manufactured in Costa Rica by Rawlings under an exclusive arrangement with the league. Teams in Major League Baseball utilize over one million baseballs in a single season, according to the league’s official stats.

Wonder What’s Next?

Tomorrow’s Wonder of the Day has its ups and downs, to say the least!

Try It Out

Are you prepared to participate in a game of baseball? It is recommended that you participate in some of the following activities with a friend or family member:

  • So, now that you’ve learned more about what’s inside a baseball, are you interested in seeing how everything comes together? Visit the internet to see what’s happening. Baseballs are used in the production of this product. What, in your opinion, is the most difficult component of the procedure to complete? Do you believe you could make any changes to make the process more efficient? If so, please explain how. Do you want to see what’s inside a baseball for yourself? Find an old baseball lying around the home or in the garage and throw it in the game. If it becomes essential, you might go to the shop and get one. You can enlist the assistance of an adult friend or family member to cut the baseball in half. Do not attempt to do this task on your own. This will have to be completed by an adult who is familiar with the use of instruments such as a vise and a saw. Once you’ve obtained your half-baseball, take some time to examine the numerous layers of different materials that make it up. Is it possible to realize there are so many distinct components included within a baseball? Nowadays, in the age of technology, it is uncommon to find something that has not been manufactured by a machine. Despite this, baseballs still have their covers stitched on by hand. If you want to understand more about why this is the case, you may read The Complicated History of Baseball Stitching Machines online. Make a list of at least three intriguing information you’ve learned and share them with a friend or family member

Wonder Contributors

Do you want to see how a baseball is constructed now that you’ve learned more about what’s within it? To see it, go online. Baseballs are used in the construction of this product. Is there a particular stage of the procedure that you find particularly difficult? Do you believe you could make any changes to make the process more efficient or effective? When and how will this be accomplished? Interested in seeing what’s inside a baseball in its natural environment? Search the house or garage for an old baseball to use as a baseball holder.

  1. You can enlist the help of an adult friend or family member to cut the baseball in half.
  2. This will have to be completed by an adult who is familiar with the use of tools such as a vise and a saw.
  3. Did you ever consider that a baseball could contain so many different types of materials?
  4. Baseballs are still covered with hand-sewn covers, despite the advancement of technology.
  5. Make a list of at least three fascinating facts you learned and share them with a friend or family member.
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How Baseballs Are Made – 10 Fun Facts About Baseball Production

Do you want to see how a baseball is put together now that you’ve learned more about what’s within it? Visit the internet to see what’s going on. Baseballs are used in the production of this item. What, in your opinion, is the most difficult portion of the process? Do you believe you could make any improvements to the process? If so, please describe how. Want to see what’s actually going on inside a baseball? Look around the home or in the garage for an old baseball. You could, if required, go to the store and get one.

Do not attempt to do the task on your own.

When you’ve finished with your half-baseball, take some time to examine the numerous layers of different materials that make it up.

Despite this, the baseballs’ covers are still stitched on by hand. For more information on why this is the case, visit the website The Complicated History of Baseball Stitching Machines. Make a list of at least three fascinating facts you learned and share them with a friend or family member;

10 Fun Facts About Making Baseballs

An official Major League Baseball (ROMLB) from Rawlings must satisfy certain requirements in order to be designated as an official ROMLB. Here are some interesting facts regarding the manufacturing process of baseballs.

  1. In Costa Rica, ROMLBs are produced at a pace of around 80,000 per year, although the Rawlings Official Minor League Baseballs, which are the ROMLB equivalent, are produced in China. Baseballs have a cork core, known as a “pill,” that is surrounded by two thin rubber layers that serve as a cushion. The pill weighs exactly 7/8 of an ounce, and it is wrapped in 121 yards of four-ply blue-gray wool, 45 yards of four-ply white wool, and 150 yards of fine white poly-wool blend, all of which are handwoven. Because this is all done by machine, the yarn maintains a constant level of tension. As soon as the wool is introduced, the pill transforms into a center
  2. The cowhide used in the ROMLBs is sourced from the United States and is thoroughly examined for 17 distinct flaws before being utilized. The process of alum tanning, which is carried out in Tullahoma, TN, gives it its white color and texture. It is then transported back to Costa Rica for the last stages of the production process. The center is covered with adhesive, and two pieces of cowhide shaped like the number eight are put on the glue
  3. The cowhide is then brought back to the United States for further processing. The cowhide coverings are stitched together with 5/10 red cotton thread that is 88 inches in length. They are made by hand with 108 stitches, which takes around 10 minutes. As soon as the ROMLB’s are sewn, they are machine rolled for 15 seconds to flatten the stitching. Afterwards, the Rawlings trademark, the Major League Baseball logo, and the commissioner’s signature are stamped onto the balls, which are then allowed to dry for one week. Each ROMLB must weigh between 5 and 5.25 ounces and meet diameter and circumference specifications ranging from 2.86 to 2.94 inches and 9 to 9.25 inches, respectively. As soon as the baseballs fulfill the aforementioned standards, a random selection of balls is fired from an air cannon at 88 feet per second towards a wall constructed of northern ash, the same wood used to produce baseball bats
  4. As the balls hit the wall, they are destroyed. A unique mud from New Jersey’s Delaware River is used by Major League Baseball clubs to prepare their baseballs for the season. Because of the muck, the ball has an off-white look, and pitchers may get a better grip and have more control over the ball.

The National League and the American League used different balls before to the year 2000, and the National League used a ball that said “National League” or “American League.” In the event that you are fortunate enough to obtain one of these baseballs, or any other Major League baseball, you will want to make certain that it is well-protected at all times. BallQube offers a variety of display cases to fit your specific requirements, including UV protection and stackability.

How Are Baseballs Made?

Derek Worlow contributed to this article. Since the middle of 2015, there has been a record-breaking spike in home runs, which has sparked considerable discussion about how the sport has changed since its inception. Baseball has evolved significantly over the years, but there is one tiny aspect of the game that has made a significant difference in how it has evolved through time: the baseball itself. Presented below is a timeline illustrating how baseball has changed over the previous 180 years.

  1. Baseballs were made by the players themselves.
  2. Homemade baseballs were constructed by forming a core out of a solid object such as yarn, string, or feathers and surrounding it with another solid substance.
  3. Early baseballs were smaller, lighter, and softer than the baseballs we know and love today.
  4. Around that time, a Boston Red Sox pitcher by the name of A.G.
  5. Spalding won the games by pitching using baseballs that he had designed and built himself.
  6. Baseballs for Major League Baseball were manufactured by Spalding’s firm, which continues to be one of the world’s most important sports goods companies today, for the following 91 years, until Rawlings took over the task in 1967.

As a result of this decision, the National League adopted the following rule for baseballs used in competition, establishing a standard that has since been universally adopted: “The ball must be a sphere formed by wrapping yarn around a small core of cork, rubber, or similar material, and then covering it with two strips of white horsehide or cowhide that have been tightly stitched together.

  1. Although the adjustment was made for durability reasons, it was also made because the cork-centered baseballs traveled further.
  2. The cushion cork center, invented by Milton B.
  3. With a cork, Reach produced a baseball that has withstood the test of time: first, he wrapped it with a layer of black rubber, and then with a coating of red rubber.
  4. Using red string, two pieces of horse leather formed in figure-8’s are put over the yarn and sewn together.
  5. Despite the fact that the manufacturing method for baseballs has changed little since 1925, there have been a few technical improvements in the field of manufacture.

In order to ensure quality and form, materials are now maintained in climate-controlled facilities, and the balls are woven under continual tension to ensure consistency in size.

American Made Kicks Off Thursday, June 22 On Science Channel – Discovery, Inc.

Products are the focus of a new series. Made in the United States of America The Science Channel series, which has been airing for more than a decade and has focused on the manufacturing of common objects, takes viewers inside U.S. factories to explore how some of the world’s most vital and inventive products are developed and marketed. The ten-episode seriesHOW IT’S MADE: AMERICAN MADE, which premieres on Thursday, June 22 at 9 p.m. ET/PT, will examine a wide range of things that are manufactured in the United States, including 3-D printers, NASCAR engines, apple pie, barber poles, and other items.

  1. ET.
  2. Baseball gloves, scoreboards, hot dogs, and baseball bats are among the other items on display.
  3. Other episodes of HOW IT’S MADE: AMERICAN MADE include:HOW IT’S MADE: AMERICAN MADE – NOSTALGIA EDITION, which premieres on June 29 at 9 p.m.
  4. ET/PT, HOW IT’S MADE: AMERICAN M This episode showcases goods that are associated with American nostalgia, such as bowling balls, barber poles, miniature railway carriages, jukeboxes, and grandfather clocks, among other things.
  5. ET/PT on the History channel and the Discovery Channel.
  6. MADE IN AMERICA debuts on July 13 at 9 p.m.
  7. ET/PT The marimba, clarinets, trumpets, banjos, and hand bells are all discussed in this music episode.

ET/PT on Food Network.

It will broadcast on July 27 at 9 p.m.

It will look at commercial drones, 3-D printers, tube power amplifiers, solid-state drives, and flexible circuit boards, among other things.

produces this program for Science Channel.

Kyle McCabe serves as executive producer for the Science Channel.

It is home to series such as THROUGH THE WORMHOLE WITH MORGAN FREEMAN, OUTRAGEOUS ACTS OF SCIENCE, WHAT ON EARTH?, HOW THE UNIVERSE WORKS, UNEARTHED, and HOW IT’S MADE, among others.

Science Channel assets include the Science Channel television network, which is available in more than 72 million homes in the United States; a complimentary Video On Demand offering; the SCI Go app, which allows viewers to catch up on full episodes of their favorite shows at any time; and the Science Channel social community.

Discovery’s programming is available in more than 220 countries and territories, reaching a total of 3 billion cumulative viewers who together watch 54 billion hours of Discovery material each year.

GO portfolio and Discovery Kids Play are examples of TV Everywhere products; Eurosport Player is an example of over-the-top streaming services; Group Nine Media is an example of digital-first and social video content; Discovery VR is an example of virtual reality storytelling.

For additional information, please see www.discoverycommunications.com. Thanks for your interest.

We X-Rayed Some MLB Baseballs. Here’s What We Found.

Six thousand and one hundred and fifty-five times last season, a big leaguer came to the bat and smacked a baseball over the outfield wall. During the 2017 season, players hit 5,693 home runs, breaking the previous record set in 2000, during the height of the drug era, and they added to the incredible 5,610 home runs hit during the previous season in 2016. It was an awe-inspiring exhibition of force that could be seen in practically every MLB stadium almost every night. And with spring training getting underway in Florida and Arizona, the Major League Baseball power boom shows no signs of abating.

  • Any number of reasons, including larger, stronger players and a renewed emphasis on hitting fly balls, might have played a role in the home run spike.
  • Several times, the Major League Baseball and its commissioner, Rob Manfred, have denied that the ball has been manipulated in any way — or “juiced” — in order to create more home runs.
  • According to the findings of recent study commissioned by ” ESPN Sport Science,” a show that delves into the science of sports (ESPN owns FiveThirtyEight”), Major League Baseball baseballs used after the 2015 All-Star Game were subtly but consistently different from previous baseballs.
  • Looking inside the balls and evaluating their chemical makeup found that the cores of current balls were somewhat less dense than the cores of balls used prior to the 2015 All-Star Game, which was a significant improvement.

When combined with previous research findings that baseballs began to change in other small ways around the same time as the home run surge of recent seasons, it suggests that a number of minor differences may have combined to contribute to the remarkable uptick in home run power we’ve witnessed since 2015, a conclusion that isn’t necessarily conclusive.

They will respond as quickly as possible.

In the opinion of Alan Nathan, one of the commission’s physicists, the task force determined that all of the characteristics that the Major League Baseball routinely measures, including weight, circumference, seam height, and bounciness of the ball, were within acceptable ranges, indicating that variations in the baseballs were unlikely to have a significant impact on home run rates.

  • Independent examinations byFiveThirtyEight, outlets such as The Ringer, and Nathan himself have revealed that the qualities of the ball and the way it operates varies depending on the situation.
  • (Nathan pointed out that the MLB does not routinely test air resistance.) When combined, these modifications would result in a ball that would leave the bat at a faster rate and go farther.
  • So far, the focus of these experiments has mostly been on the baseball’s external appearance.
  • The authenticity of the game-used baseballs was verified through Major League Baseball’s authenticator program.
  • When the sticker is removed, a serial number is revealed, which may be put into the MLB authenticator program to verify that the ball is authentic and to determine the game it was used in.
  • The goal was to determine whether or not the internal composition of the baseballs had altered in a way that would have an impact on the ball’s overall performance.
  • Meng Law, Dr.

Darryl Hwang of the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California (USC) used a computed tomography, or CT, scan to examine the balls.

Law’s team to study the interior of the baseballs without having to split them open and damage them.

In contrast, when the new and old groups were compared, there was a noticeable change in the density of the core.

Specifically, Dr.

Even while the density and volume of the ball varied slightly in other sections of the ball, none of these variances were as noticeable as the variations in the center.

Following their evaluation at the Keck School, the same batch of balls was transported to Kent State University for further testing.

This test effectively cooks a substance in order to determine which elements of it evaporate at certain temperature.

Following the results of this test, it was discovered that the pink layer of the core in baseballs from the new group was, on average, constituted of around 7 percent more polymer than the same area in baseballs from the previous group.

According to the Kent State researchers, these chemical alterations resulted in a more porous and less dense layer of rubber, which explains the results of the CT scan performed at the Keck School of Medicine in Los Angeles.

It is possible that less dense cores will result in lighter baseballs.

It is extremely improbable that this difference was caused by sampling error because it was statistically significant in the first place.

Due to the fact that the ball as a whole weighs significantly more than just the core, as well as the fact that there was more variation in the weight of the full baseballs than there was in the weight of the cores, the bar for statistically significant variations in weight for the whole baseball was significantly higher than it was for the core alone.

According to Nathan’s estimates, a little adjustment such as this could only add around 6 inches to the flight of a baseball hit on an average home run trajectory on a standard baseball field.

A previous analysis conducted by The Ringer found that the increase in bounciness alone would increase the speed of the ball as it exits the bat by approximately 0.6 mph and the travel distance of a fly ball by approximately 3 feet — enough to make the difference between the warning track and the stands.

Because of the smaller, slicker baseball and the lower seaming on the ball, it is likely that drag will be reduced.

When you put all of these elements together — a lighter, more compact baseball with tighter seams and greater bounce — the ball may go as much as 8.6 feet further than it would otherwise.

When asked whether the combination of these changes could have had a significant impact on the home run rate, MLB declined to provide a response.

The remainder can be attributed to a philosophical change among Major League Baseball hitters, who are more inclined to swing higher in order to maximize the amount of balls they hit in the air, and who are not concerned about the potential rise in strikeouts that may result from this strategy.

He has stated on multiple times that league testing has shown that baseballs continue to fall inside the range that MLB considers acceptable, and he recently stated that MLB testing has determined that the balls are substantially the same.

In reality, in January of 2015, Rawlingsfiled a patent applicationfor a manufacturing technique that would allow it to make softballs and non-MLB baseballs The patent applies to balls with foam cores, which might be used in softball or youth-league baseball, for example, but does not apply to the type of baseballs used in MLB, with layers of yarn around a cork-and-rubber core.”> 5that were as bouncy as possible while still falling within the manufacturing specifications set by the league.

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This type of ball is constructed quite differently from MLB baseballs, so there’s no indication that this patent means Rawlings is deliberately manipulating major league baseballs in this way, but it demonstrates that it’s at least theoretically possible for balls to be “fundamentally the same” while also performing differently than they have in the past.

She highlighted that they “continuously tweak” — though later in the conversation she asked that we phrase “continuously refine” — the production process in an effort to decrease differences, but stated that Rawlings’ internal testing has showed no difference in the ball’s weight or bounciness.

In those seven games, the Houston Astros and Los Angeles Dodgers smashed24 homers, includingeight in one game.

Our own study, together with controlled tests from three distinct university laboratories, strongly reveals that the physical characteristics of the ball have altered.

In other words, there are numerous questions for Manfred’s group to answer. Special thanks to Sean O’Rourke, Dr. Cynthia Bir and Nathan Beals for further research support.

Footnotes

  1. Last season, a big leaguer came up to the plate and smacked a baseball over the outfield wall on 6,105 times, according to Baseball Reference. During the 2017 season, players hit 5,693 home runs, breaking the previous record set in 2000, during the height of the steroid era. This was an increase over the previous season’s total of 5,610 home runs. Each and every one of the Major League Baseball stadiums witnessed a spectacular exhibition of power on nearly every single night of the season. Moreover, with spring training now started in Florida and Arizona, the Major League Baseball power boom shows no signs of abating anytime soon. However, although we now know what caused the increase in home runs at the turn of the century – even if we didn’t at the time – the reason for the most recent rush of long balls remains a mystery. A variety of reasons, including larger, stronger players and a renewed emphasis on hitting fly balls, might have contributed to the home run spike. The ball, on the other hand, towers above all of the other choices. Speculation that the baseball has been manipulated in any manner — or “juiced” — in order to create more home runs has been consistently refuted by Major League Baseball and its commissioner, Rob Manfred. However, a vast and rising body of evidence indicates that, beginning in the middle of the 2015 season, Major League Baseball baseball began to fly further than it had previously done. As well as that, according to recent study commissioned by ” ESPN Sport Science,” a show that delves into the science of sports (ESPN owns FiveThirtyEight,”> 1), MLB baseballs used after the 2015 All-Star Game were subtly but consistently different from baseballs used in previous seasons. Research conducted by the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Kent State University reveals changes in the density and chemical composition of the baseball’s core — as well as our first look inside the newer baseballs — in recent years. The cores of current balls were found to be somewhat less dense than the cores of previous balls, which were used before the 2015 All-Star Game, after being examined and tested for chemical composition. In comparison to the earlier cores, the newer cores weigh roughly a half gram less, which might be enough to propel baseballs hit on a conventional home run trajectory around 6 inches further. When combined with previous research findings that baseballs began to change in other small ways around the same time as the home run surge of recent seasons, it suggests that a number of minor differences may have combined to contribute to the remarkable uptick in home run power we’ve witnessed since 2015, a conclusion that has been reached by the National Baseball Association. If you have any questions regarding these findings, please contact Major League Baseball. They will respond as quickly as they can. MLB has commissioned a panel of scientists and statisticians to study any alterations to the ball. According to Alan Nathan, one of the commission’s physicists, the task force determined that all of the characteristics that the Major League Baseball regularly measures, including the weight, circumference, seam height, and bounciness of the ball, were within acceptable ranges, indicating that variations in the baseballs were unlikely to have a significant impact on the number of home runs scored. A request for the data to back up these claims was refused by MLB. The findings of independent examinations by FiveThirtyEight, outlets such as The Ringer, and Nathan himself have revealed that the properties of the ball and the manner it performs differ from one another. According to recent research, baseballs used in games after the 2015 All-Star Game were softer and less air resistive than baseballs used in games following the 2014 season, during which players hit a very modest 4,186 home runs, the fewest in the league’s history. MLB does not routinely monitor air resistance, as Nathan pointed out. When taken collectively, these modifications would result in a ball that would leave the bat at a faster rate and go further. However, while investigators have been able to demonstrate that the baseball has been behaving differently in recent years, no one has examined inside the ball to see if there was evidence of changes to how the baseball was manufactured. These research have thus far largely focused on the baseball’s outer shell, or its outer shell. Overall, Major League Baseball baseballs, which are manufactured by Rawlings in Costa Rica, consist of three components: an outside shell of cowhide, a winding constructed from many layers of yarn, and a cork core with a rubber coating, sometimes known as a “pill.” “ESPN Sport Science” purchased one new baseball from Rawlings and seven game-used baseballs from eBay in order to investigate possible changes to the inside of the ball, particularly the core. The authenticity of the game-used baseballs was verified through the Major League Baseball authenticator program. Contractors working for the Major League Baseball apply a tamper-resistant holographic sticker on balls that they physically see being used in a game while working for the organization. Because of the sticker’s serial number, it may be entered into the MLB authenticator software to verify that the ball is authentic and to determine the game it was used in. two-digit number”> two-digit number”> two-digit number”> two-digit number”> two-digit number”> two-digit number”> Two groups of baseballs were used in our testing: a “old group” of four balls used in games played between August 2014 and May 2015, and a “new group” of three balls used in games played between August 2016 and July 2017, plus a brand-new ball. The old group consisted of four balls used in games played between August 2014 and May 2015. The goal was to determine whether or not the internal composition of the baseballs had altered in a way that would have an impact on the ball’s performance during the experiment. Although this sample is tiny, according to the Kent State scientists with whom we collaborated, it is adequate to assess statistical significance between the two groups.” 3 Dr. Meng Law, Dr. Jay Acharya, and Dr. Darryl Hwang of the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California (USC) performed a computed tomography, or CT, scan on the balls to determine their composition. As a general rule, this test is used to inspect the inside of a person’s brain or body
  2. But, in this situation, it allowed Dr. Law’s team to study the inside of the baseballs without having to split them open or damage them. After a preliminary CT scan, it was discovered that the interior characteristics of baseballs from the same group varied just slightly. In contrast, when the new and old groups were compared, there was a significant difference in the density of the core. It is made up of four parts: a cork pellet in the middle, which is surrounded by black rubber held together by a rubber ring where the two sides meet, and all of which is then molded together in a layer of pink rubber to form the baseball’s outer shell. Specifically, Dr. Law’s team determined that the density change occurred at the outer (pink) layer of the core, which was on average roughly 40% less dense in the new set of balls. Even while the density and volume of the ball varied slightly in other sections of the ball, none of these variances were as noticeable as the variations in the center. But it isn’t simply the appearance of the inside of the ball that has altered
  3. It appears that the chemical makeup of the cores has also shifted. Once the balls had been evaluated at the Keck School, they were shipped to Kent State University for further testing. In Soumitra Basu’s lab in the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, researchers sliced open the balls to study the cores using athermogravimetric analysis, which they developed (TGA). This test effectively cooks a substance in order to determine which elements of it evaporate at which temperature range. A molecular profile of a specific substance can be generated based on the information provided by the researchers. Using this method, it was discovered that the pink layer of the core in baseballs from the new group had around 7 percent more polymer than the same area in baseballs from the previous group on the average. An investigation using a scanning electron microscope also revealed that the same layer in the new balls contained, on average, 10 percent less silicon when compared to the quantity of other chemicals in the pill. It is believed that these chemical alterations resulted in a rubber layer that was more porous and less thick — which explains the results found by Keck School researchers in their CT scan. However, even minute variations in the chemical makeup of the core might have a significant influence on the performance of the balls once they have been sewed together and transported to major league clubs. Lighter baseballs might be produced if cores are less dense. Overall, the new balls’ cores weighted around 0.5 grams less than the cores from the previous group on average, according to the researchers. It is exceedingly improbable that this difference was caused by sampling error because it was statistically significant, as demonstrated above. The overall weight of the balls decreased by an average of around 0.5 grams between groups, but, unlike the difference in the weight of the cores, this difference was not statistically significant (see Figure 1). Due to the fact that the ball as a whole weighs significantly more than just the core, as well as the fact that there was more variation in the weight of the full baseballs than there was in the weight of the cores, the bar for statistically significant variations in weight for the whole baseball was significantly higher than it was for the core-only variation. “> 4Half a gram isn’t much — it’s roughly the same weight as a paperclip, to put it in perspective.” According to Nathan’s estimates, a little adjustment such as this could only add roughly 6 inches to the flight of a baseball hit on a conventional home run trajectory. This shift in core weight and density, however, occurs at the same time as a significant increase in the bouncy characteristics of the ball. That increase in bounciness alone, according to a previous analysis conducted by The Ringer, would add approximately 0.6 mph to the speed of the ball as it leaves the bat and approximately 3 feet to the travel distance of a fly ball — enough to make the difference between the warning track and the stands. Previous study at FiveThirtyEight has shown that, in addition to the fact that the balls were more bouncy as the core itself changed, they also became less air resistive. Because of the smaller, slicker baseball and the lower seaming on it, there is likely to be less drag. Depending on the amount of air resistance present, a fly ball may go an additional 5 feet further. When you put all of these elements together — a lighter, more compact baseball with tighter seams and greater bounce — the ball may go as much as 8.6 feet further than it would normally. As a result, according to Nathan’s calculations, the number of home runs would climb by more than 25% as a result of the change. A spokesperson for Major League Baseball declined to comment when asked whether the combination of these adjustments may have had a substantial impact on the home run rate. In reality, home runs increased by around 46 percent between 2014 and 2017, implying that alterations to the ball might be responsible for more than half of the rise in the number of home runs. All of the rest may be attributed to a philosophical change among Major League Baseball hitters, who are likely to swing upward in order to maximize the amount of balls they hit in the air, and who are not concerned about the increased number of strikeouts that may result as a result. Major League Baseball Commissioner Rob Manfred has categorically denied that the baseballs have been injected with anything. He has stated on multiple times that league testing has determined that baseballs continue to fall inside the range that MLB considers acceptable, and he recently stated that MLB testing has revealed that the balls are substantially the same. Although the baseballs continue to match the league’s manufacturing standards, their performance might be altered to the point where the number of home runs hit in a season is doubled (or, possibly, halved). In reality, Rawlings submitted a patent application in January 2015 for a manufacturing technique that would allow the company to create softballs and baseballs other than Major League Baseball. The patent applies to balls with foam cores, such as those used in softball or youth-league baseball, but it does not apply to the type of baseballs used in Major League Baseball, which have layers of yarn wrapped around a cork and rubber core.”> 5that were as bouncy as possible while still meeting the manufacturing specifications set by the league This type of ball is constructed quite differently from Major League Baseball baseballs, so there is no indication that Rawlings is intentionally manipulating major league baseballs in this way. However, it does demonstrate that it is theoretically possible for balls to be “fundamentally the same” while also performing in a different way than they have in the past. Despite the fact that no changes have been made to the baseballs, Kathy Smith-Stephens, senior director of quality and compliance at Rawlings, stated that “natural variance” happens during the production process. While she acknowledged that they “continuously tweak” — though later in the interview she requested that we use the term “continuously refine” — the manufacturing process in an effort to reduce variations, she asserted that Rawlings’ internal testing had revealed no difference in the ball’s weight or buoyancy. Evidence indicating baseball is at least largely responsible for the recent surge in the rate of home runs accumulated over the summer of 2017 and reached a zenith during the World Series in October, according to the New York Times. A total of 24 home runs were hit by the Houston Astros and Los Angeles Dodgers in the seven games, including eight in one game. As a result of this dominating performance, Manfred ordered all 30 clubs to begin keeping baseballs in a climate-controlled area and commissioned a task force of scientists and statisticians to explore if the ball was laced with steroids in 2017 and beyond. Controlled testing from three different academic laboratories, as well as our own investigation, clearly imply that the physical qualities of the ball have altered. If we combine all of these studies, we have a substantial amount of information to demonstrate that today’s baseballs are significantly different from those used only a few years ago. To put it another way, there are several questions that Manfred’s group must answer. Additional research support was provided by Sean O’Rourke, Dr. Cynthia Bir, and Nathan Beals, who are all gratefully acknowledged.

Rob Arthur worked as a baseball columnist for FiveThirtyEight in the past. In addition, he wrote on crime. @No Little Plans A writer located in Los Angeles, Tim Dix mostly produces television programs that is either about sports, science, or a combination of the two.

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