## A complete beginner’s guide to baseball stats: Batting statistics, and what they mean

It’s not always possible for a reliever to earn a save, but a hold is the next best thing. A hold happens when a reliever enters the game in a save situation, records at least one out, and then exits the game with his team still in the lead, according to baseball.com. For him to be credited with a hold, his side must maintain a one-point advantage during his time in the game. In Major League Baseball, holds are an unofficial statistic that is very recently introduced. If you find yourself unfamiliar with any of the phrases used by gamblers, you might also find our wagering dictionary to be helpful.

#### At Bats (AB)

If a relief pitcher is unable to earn a save, a hold is the next best thing. A hold happens when a reliever enters the game in a save situation, records at least one out, and then exits the game with his team still in the lead. For him to be credited with a hold, his team must maintain their advantage throughout his time on the field. holds are a novel statistic that is not officially tracked by Major League Baseball. If you find yourself unfamiliar with any of the phrases gamblers use, you might also find our wagering dictionary useful.

#### Run (R) and Runs Batted In (RBI)

When a hitter reaches home plate, either via their own efforts (a home run) or through the efforts of another batter, they are awarded an Arun(R). It is possible to score a run as a consequence of a batter’s efforts, which is denoted by the term “run batted in.” Confused? It’s not an issue. We can see in the box score above that Jeimer Candelario has scored a run, but he does not have an RBI. While he did cross home plate and score a run, it did not happen as a consequence of his own at-bat. RBIs have been recorded by bothNicholas Castellanos andNiko Goodrum.

Let’s see what happens.

I’m not sure how I figured it out without searching.

Based on the batting order and the restricted amount of runs and RBIs scored throughout the game, it was easy to come to the conclusion stated above.

#### Hits (H)

During an at bat, a hit (H) is defined as when the hitter reaches at least first base. Thus becomes a little more complicated since a hitter can reach first base on an error or a fielder’s choice, and this does not count as a hit in the final analysis. ** I’m included this disclaimer since I’m continuing to use the terminology and don’t want to cause any misunderstanding. An erroris was defined as any situation in which a fielder made a mistake that allowed the batter to advance to second base without being thrown out.

- Afielder’s choice denotes that an offensive player permitted the batter to advance to first base as a consequence of an unsuccessful attempt to put out a different runner in the field of play at the time.
- This would be deemed a fielder’s choice.
- Because a hit does not include an error or a fielder’s choice, it is possible for a hitter to reach first base without it being counted as a hit in baseball.
- A double, in which the hitter advances to second base, is denoted by the number 2B.

An HR is a representation of a home run. Every one of them is referred to as a “extra base hit.” In most cases, basic game box scores just indicate hits; however, a player’s stat page on a website such as Baseball Reference or FanGraphs will provide a more extensive assessment of their performance.

#### Base on Balls (BB)

This statistic is a slang term for the act of walking. This only applies when a hitter hits four balls in a row and is awarded first base as a result of doing so. An intentional walk (also known as IBB, or intentional base on balls) counts as a walk in the same way. An exception to this rule is when a hitter gets struck by the ball (also known as a hit by pitch or HBP) and is awarded a tripe to first base in response to the hit. Strikeouts are a type of dismissal (K) Strikeouts are rather easy; a strikeout occurs when a hitter sees or swings at three strikes, resulting in the batter’s at-bat being terminated.

If the batter is struck out looking, the batter is struck out looking, and the strikeout is signified by a K.

### Batting Stats

Batting average (also known as AVG above), on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG) are the three most important batting statistics to grasp in baseball (SLG). These are sometimes depicted as three stats side by side, separated by slashes, which has given rise to the moniker “slash line,” as in.220/.267/.314 (James McCann’s 2018 slash line), which is an abbreviation for “slash line.” If you ever read that a player “slashed” a given number, it will almost always be followed by one or more of the three statistics listed above.

Examine the methods used to calculate each of those numbers.

#### Batting Average (AVG or BA)

This one is really straightforward. The batting average (BA) of a player is derived by dividing the total number of hits by the total number of at bats. An individual player’s season overall batting average, rather than simply a single game average, would be represented by the box score shown above. This provides a more thorough picture of how a player has performed to this point in time. It would be reasonable to assume that every third at bat resulted in a hit for a player with a.300 average.

#### On-base percentage (OBP)

This is also referred to as the “on-base average” from time to time in baseball (OBA). If you’ve seen the movieMoneyball, you might have a rudimentary concept of why this statistic is prized by certain teams and is considered more useful than batting average by others. This statistic is more comprehensive than batting average since it takes into account all of the times a batter advances to second base. Unlike in previous years, errors and fielder’s choice do not go towards this total, but it does include hits, walks, and batters who are hit by a pitch.

According to mathematical formulas, on-base percentage is computed by subtracting the total number of hits from the total number of walks and strikeouts, then dividing the result by the total number of at bats, walks, strikeouts, and sacrifice flies.

Yes, that is a significant amount. It’s no surprise that it is regarded as more inclusive.

#### Slugging (SLG)

Accept my apologies in advance for getting a little mathematical here. Slugging is defined as the sum of all bases (including all extra base hits) divided by the number of at bats. The most straightforward approach to comprehend this is to look at the formula. Thanks to Wikipedia for this image. Who else has the impression that they’re back in high school math class? It is advantageous to use slugging as a stat rather than batting average since it gives more weight to a player’s extra base hits rather than giving equal weight to all hits, as batting average does.

It enables for a more complete picture of a player’s overall performance at the plate to be obtained.

#### On-base plus slugging (OPS)

This may be regarded an overall evaluation of a player’s productivity because it takes into account both how frequently the batter gets to base (on-base percentage) and how frequently they hit for extra bases (on-base percentage) (SLG). It is usually accepted that if you see someone hitting with an OPS of over 1.000, it means that they are having an exceptionally outstanding season at the plate. Niko Castellanos was the Tigers’ top offensive performer last season, posting an OBP of.354, an SLG of.500, and an OPS of.854.

OPS+ analyzes a player’s overall point total and adjusts it for external factors like as the parks in which the game was played (as some are more hitter friendly than others).

For example, Castellanos had an OPS+ of 130 in 2018, which indicates that he performed 30 percent higher than the league average.

Because OPS+ begins to introduce us to more sophisticated statistics, we’ll conclude our fundamental statistics course here.

## How to understand the most important baseball stats

Have you ever observed the folks at a baseball game who appear to be taking notes on the game’s proceedings? A forgotten skill of baseball scorekeeping, it is essential in keeping track of every single play on the baseball field and recording it as a statistic for future reference. Baseball statistics are everything, and they are deeply ingrained in the game’s long and illustrious history. As a result, a stat is almost certain to exist for practically every play that can be imagined. Even while events such as “Pinch runner who has hit more than two home runs during a game wearing the No.

6″ appear to be information overload, numerous statistics like as these are critical to the game’s progression and success. With the start of baseball season upon us, let’s take a look at some of the most essential baseball statistics.

### Batting Average

The total number of hits a player has accumulated divided by the total number of at bats a player has had. Despite the fact that it is expressed as a three-place decimal, it is spoken as a whole number. As a result, even though a player’s batting average is listed as.278 on the scoresheet, an announcer will refer to the player as “hitting two-seventy-eight.”

### Key Batting Averages

- 400: To reach 400 points over the course of a season is a remarkable accomplishment. In fact, the last player to accomplish this feat was Ted Williams, who accomplished it in 1941.

- 300: This is the line that separates having a decent season from having a terrific season. 300: Hitting. At the start of the season, every player aspires to achieve the 300-point mark.

- The “Mendoza Line” is a number between 100 and 200. (named for utility infielder Mario Mendoza). I’m going to hit you below. At the big league level, a batting average of 200 is unacceptable.

### Batting Average with runners in scoring position

Because they are in “scoring position,” runners on second or third base can attempt to score on an infield single to left field. The batting average of a player with runners in scoring position is a means of determining whether or not that player gets important or “clutch” hits in the field.

### Earned Run Average

The term “ERA” is frequently used to refer to this process. The total number of earned runs allowed divided by the total number of innings pitched multiplied by nine. An ERA of less than 4.00 is considered excellent. An ERA of less than 3.00 is considered outstanding.

### Innings Pitched

This pitcher’s stat is based on the number of outs he has recorded, and it is displayed in thirds. Pitchers are given 5 2/3 innings pitched if they finish five innings and then get two outs in the sixth inning, respectively. Although it is incorrect, 5.2 would be written as a decimal, despite the fact that it is incorrect.

### Left On Base

This is sometimes referred to as the LOB (Loss of Bases) statistic, which indicates how many runners reached base without scoring. It is most commonly represented as a team statistic for a given game.

### On-Base Percentage

This influences the number of times a player may take a stroll. It is calculated by dividing the total number of hits plus walks by the total number of Plate Appearances (At-Bats plus Walks).

### OPS

Bonus Percentage on Top of the Base Percentage Slugging Percentage is a measure of how much a player slugs. A lot of experts believe that this is the finest statistic to use when determining who the top player is at any particular time.

### RBI

Runs that have been batted in The player who batted in the run is given credit for the run if he or she has a hit and a base runner scores as a result of the hit. If a player hits a home run, he is also given credit for a run batted in, which allows him to score as well. However, despite the fact that the term “run” is in the plural in this statistic, the plural form of RBI is RBIs, not RsBI. This statistic is referred to as “ribbies” in some circles.

### Runs Created

There are two parts to this statistic: the total number of runs scored and the total number of RBIs. Then there is the total number of home runs hit. The rationale for deducting home runs is that each home run results in a player being credited with both a run scored and an RBI, even if the home run results in just a single run.

### Runs and Earned Runs

When a pitcher allows a runner to reach base and that runner scores, the pitcher is charged with a run, even if he is removed from the game and a new pitcher is on the mound at the time of the base runner’s score (in that case, the relief pitcher who came in is charged with a “inherited run” or “inherited runner scored”). In baseball, the term “Earned Runs” refers to the amount of runs a pitcher allows that are not due to mistakes. If a man reaches base on an error and scores, the pitcher is charged with a run, but not with an earned run, because the guy reached base on error.

Furthermore, if an error happens in an inning, any runs that score after there have been two outs in the inning are considered unearned runs (because in that situation the inning would have been over had the error not occurred).

### Saves

Even though there are numerous regulations for when a save should be awarded, the most usual scenario is when a pitcher effectively concludes a game with a lead of three runs or less.

### Slugging Percentage

The sum of a player’s total bases divided by the number of at-bats. Similar to a batting average, this figure is expressed as (e.g.645)

### Total Bases

When the players’ hits are totaled, they receive a score of 1, 2, 3, or 4 for a single, double, triple, or home run respectively. This is a method of measuring hitting and accounting for power.

### WHIP

Per Innings, the number of walks plus the number of hits Pitched: The sum of the total number of walks plus the total number of hits divided by the total number of innings pitched. This is considered to be one of the most accurate indicators of good pitching. A WHIP of less than 1.000 is considered excellent. Featured picture courtesy of Scanvive

## How to Read Baseball Statistics

Documentation Download Documentation Download Documentation Baseball fans and analysts rely heavily on statistics to determine the worth of individual players. Even if conventional statistics continue to have a significant impact, new methods of statistical analysis have demonstrated tremendous success in reviewing records and projecting player performance. Fans may evaluate players for fantasy leagues or simply have a better knowledge and enjoyment for the game by learning how to interpret baseball statistics.

- 1Look through a regular box score. Box scores are statistical representations of how players fared in individual games and may be found in the Sports section of a newspaper or on a sports website. Box scores are a type of statistical representation of how players performed in specific games. 4 offensive statistics and 6 pitching categories are given in a tabular style in the standard box scores list
- 2 Take a look at the team’s starting lineup. The offensive, or hitting, portion of the box score contains a complete listing of the starting lineup. Players are listed in batting order, with the positions they played throughout the game following their names on the team sheet of paper. Replacement players’ names are indented within the box score and listed under the person they are replacing in the standings. The four offensive categories indicated in the offensive table are as follows:

- Take a look at a typical box score. Players’ box scores, which are statistical representations of how they fared during specific games, may be found in the Sports section of a newspaper or on a sports website, and they can be found in the Sports section of a newspaper. 4 offensive statistics and 6 pitching categories are included in the standard box scores list, which is presented in tabular form. 2 The team’s starting lineup may be viewed on this page. The offensive portion of the box score has a complete listing of the starting lineup. Players are listed in batting order, with the positions they played throughout the game following their names on the team sheet of honor. Replacement players’ names are indented within the box score and listed under the player they are replacing in the scorebook. Listed below are the four categories that make up the offensive table:

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- s3 Examine the additional in-depth fielding and hitting stats included beneath the offensive chart. Individual accomplishments are highlighted in this section of the report. A player called Smith may smash his sixth home run of the season, and the box score would read, HR: Smith (6th) (6). Other statistics categories that would be included in this portion of the box score would include:

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- s3 Analyze additional fielding and hitting statistics located beneath the offensive table. Several individuals’ achievements are highlighted in this section. The box score would read, for example, if a player by the name of Smith hit his sixth home run of the season (6). In this portion of the box score, there are a number of additional statistical categories to consider:

- 1 Look at the pitching statistics. The pitchers are listed in the order in which they appeared throughout the game. Winning, losing, or saving a game is shown after a pitcher’s name in the event that he or she earned a choice in the game. When the sign appears, it is accompanied by either his current win-loss record or the total amount of saves he has amassed to far. The pitching table has six categories, which are as follows:

- It is possible to have a decimal value of either.1 or.2, which represents a portion of an innings, when you pitch an inning. For example, a starting pitcher may go six innings and only allow one hitter to reach base in the seventh inning. His innings pitched would be 6.1
- H would represent hits allowed
- R would represent runs allowed
- ER would represent earned runs allowed
- BB would represent walks allowed
- K would represent strikeouts.

- 2 Gather in-depth pitching data from many sources. A collection of extra pitching statistics may be found beneath the pitching table. They can include the following:

- The terms wild pitches (WP) and balks (BK) are interchangeable, as are HBP (hit by pitch) and passed balls (catcher’s statistics).

- 3 Examine the season’s statistical data. Besides the categories given in box scores, season statistics include a variety of other useful information. The following are some of the most notable:

- For a player’s on-base percentage (OBP), put together his totals of hits and walks as well as runs scored by being hit by pitches. Divide that total by the sum of his at-bats, walks, runs scored by being hit by pitches and sacrifice flies. (H+BB+HBP/AB+BB+HBP+SF)
- Slugging percentage (%): To calculate a player’s slugging percentage, divide his total bases by his total at-bats. Total bases are the aggregate of a player’s home runs multiplied by four, triples multiplied by three, doubles multiplied by two, and singles multiplied by one. In order to compute Avg., divide the number of hits by the number of at-bats. This results in the player’s batting average, which is calculated as follows: ERA (earned-run average): The earned-run average, or ERA, of a pitcher is a measure of his overall efficiency across nine innings. To calculate an earned run average (ERA), divide the pitcher’s earned runs by the number of innings pitched and multiply the quotient by 9

- 4 Conduct more research into statistical applications. In recent decades, a number of different statistical analysis tools for baseball have been developed. Sabermetrics has transformed the process of judging baseball talent in a way that few other methods have. Even while many of Sabermetrics’ concepts have garnered general acceptance among fans and analysts, the following two have received particular attention:

- OPS: On Base + Slugging (On Base + Slugging). When Bill James developed Sabermetrics, he sought a straightforward, defining statistic that could be used to assess a player’s ability to generate runs. OPS numbers on hundreds of players were compiled over many years and the efficacy of the statistic in estimating a player’s value to his club was again demonstrated. The OPS for the Major Leagues is 0.728, which is below the league average. A superstar has an OPS of 0.900
- A good player has an OPS of 0.800. Analysis of the pitching performance: Sabermetrics developed ground-breaking approaches for analyzing pitchers by employing a number of complicated algorithms and formulas. In addition to having names that are as strange as their formulae, BABIP, dERA, and DIPS are metrics that assess pitching performance while eliminating the influences of luck and defense and factoring in the influence of the stadium.

This statistic indicates how many times a pitcher is allowed to reach base during an inning. A large number of statisticians feel that it is a more accurate formula for evaluating a pitcher’s performance than the earned run average (ERA).

- When the pitcher is permitted to reach base more than once in an inning, this is recorded as a statistic. Numerous statisticians argue that a formula other than the earned run average (ERA) is a superior method of evaluating a pitcher’s effectiveness.

- Over seven innings, Kershaw walks none and allows one hit, for a 1.07 ERA and a 0.143 WHIP. If the hit had been a home run, his earned run average would have been 1.28. However, if it was only a hit, his ERA would be 0.00, which does not completely explain what happened. Consider the following scenario: he spreads three walks and four hits, but he does not generate any runs. His earned run average (ERA) remains at zero, but his whip has increased to one. Depending on your perspective, either he gets out of trouble or he’s been fortunate enough to avoid giving up runs.

1/7 = 0.143 WHIP for Kershaw over 7 innings, with no walks and only one hit allowed. The pitcher’s earned run average (ERA) would have been 1.28 if the hit had been a home run. Nevertheless, even if there was only a single hit, his ERA would be 0.00, which does not completely explain what happened. Suppose he spreads 3 walks and 4 hits, but no runs, to further illustrate the point. The man’s earned run average (ERA) remains at zero, but his whip has risen to one. Depending on your perspective, either he gets out of difficulty or he’s been fortunate enough to escape giving up his run;

- Question What does the abbreviation IBB stand for in pitchers’ statistics? This abbreviation refers to a “intentional base on balls” or an intentional walk
- Question What do the acronyms “A” and “PO” stand for when it comes to fielding statistics? The letters “A” and “PO” stand for “assist” and “putout,” respectively. A putout is the act of retiring (or “putting out”) a hitter or a base runner from the game. In baseball, there are several different methods to get out of a jam, the most popular of which include catching a fly ball, getting out from behind first and second bases while trying to tag the baserunner, getting out from behind third base while trying to strike out. Question: When does a player receive an assist? Answer: When a player tosses a ball to aid in making a putout (with the exception of a pitcher who does not receive an assist when he strikes out a batter)
- So, what does BSA/ATT represent in terms of baseball statistics? This is not a well recognized baseball term, but it most likely refers to “base-stealing average per attempt,” which is what it means. “Stolen base percentage” is a term that refers to the degree of success a specific player (or team) has in attempting to steal bases (that is, the number of successful thefts divided by the total number of attempted steals). What is the proper way to interpret batting averages? Having a batting average of “.256” is referred to as having a “two-fifty-six” batting average. The average of “.000” is referred to as “zero.” A hitter who gets a hit in every at-bat has an average of “1.000” or “one-thousand,” which is the highest possible score.
- sQuestion What do the minuscule letters “a,” “b,” “e,” and other letters that appear before a player’s name in box scores mean, and why do they appear? Those are footnotes, and their significance is described at the end of the box score. Question What does the letter “h” imply after the name of a relief pitcher? Depending on your perspective, it’s either a typo or a footnote that’s clarified towards the bottom of the box score. Question Is there a book that describes how to comprehend the specifics of a baseball game, particularly the Cubs team’s performance? Yes, there are many such books (not all of which are about the Cubs), among them “Little League’s Official How-To-Play Baseball Book” by Peter Kreutzer and Ted Kerley, and “Baseball For Dummies” by Joe Morgan and Richard Lally
- Question: Is it possible to get a copy of “Little League’s Official How-To-Play Baseball Book”? What are the implications of the following batting statistics: 288/.339/.562? A season’s worth of hits might total up to 288 total hits throughout the season. . The numbers 339 and.562 appear to reflect batting average and slugging percentage, respectively (number of total bases divided by the number of at-bats)
- Question What are the three numerals that appear after a batter’s last name? Most of the time, the values are representative of his batting average, on-base percentage, and slugging percentage. Question What exactly is WAR, and how is it determined? “Wins over replacement” is a metric that indicates how important a given player is to his or her own club. It is a rather subjective measurement of the amount of times a player’s very successful actions result in a direct victory

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## About This Article

Summary of the ArticleX Baseball statistics may be used to analyze how well players are performing and to anticipate how they will perform in subsequent games, among other things. Take a look at the four categories displayed at the top of a box score to get an idea of where to begin. At-bats are represented by the letter “Ab,” runs scored by the letter “R,” base hits by the letter “H,” and runs batted in by the letter “RBI.” Each row belongs to a single player, who is mentioned at the bottom of the box score to the left of the scoreboard.

The same is true for pitchers, who have numbers that include things like “H” for hits allowed, “R” for runs allowed, and a “K” for strikeouts among their many other things.

Continue reading to find out how to apply a statistical technique to calculate season averages. Did you find this overview to be helpful? The writers of this page have together authored a page that has been read 148,324 times.

## Did this article help you?

Learning how to interpret baseball data is a simple method to get more enjoyment out of the game, which is especially true if you’re betting on the outcome of the game. The figures that appear on the scoreboard are simply a sliver of the vast universe of baseball statistics. When you watch a game, there are literally hundreds of different stats that are captured. Given the fact that even the tiniest aspects of the game have been measured, it helps to understand what you’re looking at. You will learn how to understand baseball numbers and which ones are the most valuable for evaluating your team’s hitting, pitching, and fielding performance in this straightforward tutorial.

## How to Read Baseball Stats on the Scoreboard

Have you ever found yourself trying to figure out what the score is during a Major League Baseball game? You wouldn’t be the only one. Baseball’s distinctive scoreboard is jam-packed with supplementary information that, in addition to the current score, gives context about the game as a whole. On a traditional baseball scoreboard, each team’s name will be shown on the far left side of the screen. The away team will always appear at the top of the list, with the home team appearing at the bottom (because the home team always bats second).

- Each one corresponds to one inning of a baseball game.
- If any runs are scored during extra innings, they are added to the total in the final column, which is sometimes designated “EI.” Following the inning score boxes, you’ll see three columns with the letters R, H, and E in the heading.
- R represents the total number of runs scored.
- E – Errors in total (number of errors).
- Pitching data, such as the total number of pitches thrown or the number of innings pitched, may also display on the master scoreboard from time to time.
- To realize the full potential of statistics to increase your baseball knowledge, though, you’ll need to explore outside the confines of a baseball stadium.

## Traditional Baseball Stats vs Sabermetrics

Baseball may be America’s national sport, but baseball fans’ favorite pleasure is debating the validity of various statistical indicators. Traditional metrics are primarily concerned with recording the successes and failures of players during the course of the game, with little regard for the greater context in which they occur. In this way, they are beneficial for comparing very particular aspects of a team’s or player’s performance, but their use is severely restricted when comparing high-level assessments of overall quality of play or performance.

This level of detail provides useful indicators of overall quality and player/team potential, but it runs the danger of becoming excessively abstract and attempting to quantify aspects of the game that are better left to qualitative observation.

## Understanding Key Batting Stats

Despite the fact that baseball is America’s pastime, baseball fans’ favorite activity is debating the veracity of various statistical data. Traditional metrics are primarily concerned with recording the successes and failures of players during the course of a game, with little regard for the greater context in which they are played out. In this way, they are valuable for comparing very particular aspects of a team’s or player’s performance, but their worth is highly restricted when comparing high-level assessments of overall quality of play or performance.

This level of detail provides useful indicators of overall quality and player/team potential, but it runs the danger of becoming excessively abstract and attempting to quantify aspects of the game that are better left to qualitative observation.

## Know the Most Important Pitching Stats

The Earned Run Average (ERA) is the most popular (ERA) The earned run average (ERA) is the most extensively used pitching statistic. It is an approximate estimate of how many runs a pitcher has allowed for every nine innings he or she has pitched. When compared to more recently established comprehensive pitching numbers (such as FIP), ERA fails to account for a significant proportion of errors on the defensive side of the ball that result in runs. Pitchers who compete for teams with poor defensive units are severely penalized by this measure.

- It can be useful in assessing how many outs can be credited directly to the efforts of the pitcher who is currently on the mound throughout a single game, or even within a single game.
- If you know how many innings a starter pitches on average every game, you can make an educated guess as to when they will be replaced by the bullpen.
- Pitchers are given an inning for every three outs they record while on the mound in the game.
- The simplicity with which rate statistics may be calculated and understood is one of its most appealing features.
- The greater the difference between a pitcher’s strikeout rate and his or her walk rate, the more effective the pitcher is expected to be.
- It is meant to be a straight substitute for the earned run average (ERA), which means that it may be used to directly compare the relative worth of two or more pitchers in the same situation.
- Earned Run Average for Skill-Interactive Players (SIERA) SIERA (Skill-Interactive ERA) is a metric that is very similar to FIP in that it allows you to assess the overall quality of two or more pitchers in a straightforward manner.
- The SIERA is the most complete and accurate pitching statistic available if you are only looking at one pitching statistic.

The following pitching statistic is the most thorough and accurate if you just have time to look at one pitching statistic. See this collection of starter articles if you’re interested in learning more about this significant number.

## Analyzing Crucial Defensive Stats

The Earned Run Average (ERA) is the most often used measure of effectiveness (ERA) Pitching statistics such as the earned run average (ERA) are the most frequently cited. It is an approximate estimate of how many runs a pitcher has allowed for every nine innings he or she has thrown. The earned run average (ERA) does not adequately account for a lot of bad defensive plays that result in runs, as do more recently created comprehensive pitching measures (such as FIP). Pitchers who play for teams with poor defensive units are severely penalized by this measure.

- It can be useful in assessing how many outs can be credited directly to the efforts of the pitcher who is currently on the mound during a single game, or even over many games.
- The average innings pitched by a starter each game allows you to make an educated guess about when they will be relieved by the bullpen in a given game.
- When a pitcher gets three outs in a row while still in the game, they are given an inning credit.
- The simplicity with which rate statistics may be calculated and understood is their appeal.

It is expected that a pitcher will be more effective the greater the difference between his or her strikeout rate and his or her walk rate Isolated Pitching in the Field (FIP) This statistic does not penalize the pitcher for poor fielding or bad luck, making it a useful alternative to the ERA in that it focuses solely on elements that are entirely within a pitcher’s control rather than on things that are outside of it.

In other words, it is meant to be a straight substitute for the earned run average, which means that it may be used to directly compare the relative worth of two or more pitchers.

Earned Run Average (Skill-Interactive): (SIERA) SIERA (Skill-Interactive ERA) is a metric that is very similar to FIP in that it allows you to compare the overall quality of two or more pitchers in a single calculation.

The SIERA is the most complete and accurate pitching stat available if you just look at one.

The following pitching stat is the most thorough and accurate if you only have time to look at one pitching stat. See this collection of introductory articles if you’re interested in learning more about this strong number.

## One Stat to Rule Them All: WAR

A statistical measure known as Wins Above Replacement (WAR) may be used to assess the worth of players in all positions. WAR is a complicated but extremely useful statistic that can be used to compare the value of players in all positions. WAR is something we enjoy so much that we put together an entire tutorial on how to utilize it to make better baseball wagers.

## Use these Stats to Start Betting on Baseball

You now understand how to interpret the most significant baseball statistics, and it is ready to begin your online MLB baseball betting trip. Visit ourhow to bet on sportssection for more MLB-specific betting information, and good luck on your bets this season!

## MLB advanced stats glossary: A guide to baseball stats that go beyond RBI, batting average, ERA

Having at least a passing acquaintance with advanced statistics, which are measurements that go beyond the traditional fare of RBI, batting average, earned run average, fielding % and the like, is part of being a baseball fan these days. Because certain advanced baseball statistics may be unfamiliar to you, or you may simply want to brush up on your knowledge, we’ve put together the following dictionary of advanced baseball statistics. It is by no means a complete list, but it does cover all of the non-traditional statistics that you are likely to encounter the majority of the time (including within these very pages).

### Batting Average on Balls in Play (BABIP)

Fair-hit balls that don’t leave the park are considered to be in play, and the batting average on balls in play (BABIP) is the batting average on balls that are in play and potentially fieldable. BABIP is typically around.290 for a pitcher, but it may go as high as 1.300. While some pitchers have some ability to manage BABIP to a limited extent, it is more common at the Major League Baseball level when a pitcher’s BABIP is significantly different from that. 290-.300 range, it’s likely that luck – good or bad – is playing a role (in addition to the quality of the defense behind him).

Batters’ BABIP is a little more “sticky” and representative of genuine talent, although broad swings that are out of sync with a hitter’s proven ability and or league averages might suggest the presence of either good or bad luck at the plate.

### Defensive Efficiency Rating (DER)

The proportion of balls in play (i.e., fair hit balls that do not fly over the fence) that are converted into outs by a team’s defense is known as the defensive efficiency ratio (DER). The main idea of team defense, after all, is to keep the other side from scoring a goal. DER, as contrast to the profoundly faulty fielding percentage, takes into consideration range and the ability of the entire team to perform the regular play. The Oakland Athletics were the best team in the Major Leagues in 2018, with a DER of.717, which means they turned 71.7 percent of balls in play into outs.

### Defensive Runs Saved (DRS)

The defensive component of bWAR is known as DRS. It counts the amount of runs saved over the MLB average at a certain player’s position, as well as the “degree of difficulty” of the saves. For example, the less probable it is that a play will be performed by the typical fielder, the more credit a player receives for making the play successfully.

It is based on the plus-minus method found in the Fielding Bible, which you can learn more about here if you click here. According to Fielding Bible, the following factors are included while calculating DRS, which analyzes all stages of defense:

- All non-catchers save runs
- Catchers save earned runs
- Catchers steal bases
- Pitchers save stolen bases
- Outfielders save arm runs
- Bunt runs saved (corner infielders, catchers, pitchers)
- Double play runs saved (middle infielders and corner infielders)
- Good plays/misplays save runs (all fielders)
- Plus/minus runs saved (all non-catchers)
- Plus/minus runs saved (all non-

All non-catchers save runs; catchers save earned runs; catchers steal bases; pitchers save stolen bases; outfielders save arm runs; bunt runs saved (corner infielders, catchers, pitchers); double play runs saved (middle infielders and corner infielders); good plays/misplays runs saved (all fielders); plus/minus runs saved (all non-catchers); plus/minus runs saved (all non-catchers); plus/minus runs saved (all non-

### ERA+

This is a pitcher’s earned run average that has been modified to account for the home stadium and league environment. It is calibrated so that a mark of 100 represents league average performance, and the higher the mark, the better the performance from the pitcher’s perspective. An ERA+ of 110 indicates that a pitcher’s park- and league-adjusted ERA was 10 percent better than the league mean over the course of the season. The same goes for an ERA+ of 90, which indicates that the pitcher’s adjusted ERA was 10 percent worse than the league norm after accounting for park and league adjustments.

Taking the league offensive environment and Tropicana Field into consideration, his 1.89 earned run average was an incredible 119 percent better than the league average.

### Fielding-Independent Pitching (FIP)

FIP is scaled to appear similar to ERA, but it differs in that it only considers outcomes that have nothing to do with fielding, such as strikeouts, walks, and home runs allowed, rather than all outcomes. As a result, it is a more accurate indicator of raw pitching ability than the earned run average. Jacob deGrom was the best pitcher in Major League Baseball in 2018, posting an ERA of 1.70 and a FIP of 1.98. So, while he may have been a touch fortunate to have that ERA, he was virtually as dominant at the FIP level as he was at the ERA level.

### Game Score

FIP is calculated in the same way as ERA, but it differs in that it only considers outcomes that have nothing to do with fielding, such as strikeouts, walks, and home runs allowed. Thus, it is a more accurate indicator of raw pitching ability than the earned run average (ERA). As a result of his 1.70 ERA and 1.98 FIP in 2018, Jacob deGrom was the best pitcher in the majors in 2018. So, while he may have been a touch fortunate to have that ERA, he was virtually as dominant at the FIP level as he was in the ERA department.

- Start with 50 points and increase it by one point for each out that is recorded. Each inning finished beyond the fourth is worth two more points. For each strikeout, add one point to your total. For each hit that is permitted, deduct two points. For each run that is permitted, whether earned or unearned, subtract four points. Make a one-point deduction for each stroll

Kerry Wood’s remarkable 20-strikeout effort against the Astros in 1998 earned him a Game Score of 105, which remains one of the all-time best scores in baseball history.

### Isolated Power (ISO)

ISO, which is often referred to as “Isolated Slugging,” is a measure of a hitter’s raw power that is used in baseball. It’s simply the batting average deducted from the slugging percentage in a game of baseball. Essentially, it is the average number of additional bases a batter gets on a per-at-bat basis. ISO values below.100 suggest a batter with very little power, but ISO values of.250 or more indicate a real hitter with plenty of power.

### On-Base Plus Slugging (OPS)

The on-base percentage (OPS) is the sum of his slugging percentage and his on-base percentage. Consequently, the resultant number provides a useful snapshot of output on a rate-of-production basis (i.e., not reflective of playing time). “OPS allowed” is a phrase that you’ll see from time to time for pitchers, but it’s more commonly seen for hitters. Even though it isn’t ideal, in that the on-base percentage is the more significant component, the on-base percentage formula regards both OBP and SLG as equally valuable components.

However, it is an effective shorthand. In the presence of proper playing, any batter with an OPS of 1.000 or higher is considered to be an excellent hitter. In 2018, the league’s average on-base percentage (OPS) was.728.

### OPS+

OPS+ (on-base percentage plus slugging percentage – see above) is OPS (on-base percentage plus slugging percentage – see above) that has been modified to match league and stadium factors. OPS+ is calculated in the same way as ERA+ (see above), with 100 representing the league average. Similar to this, an OPS+ of 110 indicates that the batter’s OPS was 10 percent better than the league mean after accounting for the hitter’s park and league. With an OPS+ of 90, it signifies that the hitter’s adjusted park and league OPS was ten percent poorer than the league norm for that particular season.

That implies his adjusted OPS was 99 percent greater than the league average when adjusted for park and league.

### Strikeout Percentage (K%) and Walk Percentage (BB%)

This is the number of strikeouts and walks a pitcher (or a hitter) has issued as a proportion of the total number of batters faced/total plate appearances. In comparison to the more commonly used K/9 and BB/9, the K percent and BB percent measure how many batters a pitcher faces in a given inning (i.e., a pitcher who strikes out all three batters he faces in an inning is doing better than one who “strikes out the side” while allowing three runs in the same inning, and K/9 does not account for such things).

### Ultimate Zone Rating (UZR)

When it comes to players other than catchers, this is the defensive metric that is utilized in FanGraphs’ version of Wins Above Replacement (see below). UZR splits the field into defensive zones and also compensates for the speed of a hit ball, which is important in baseball. It is expressed in runs and compares fielders to the average MLB fielder at their individual positions in the league. Because a comprehensive discussion of UZR is beyond the scope of this exercise, please refer to this extensive explanation by Mitchel Lichtman, the program’s designer.

### Weighted On-Base Average (wOBA)

Every probable offensive event that occurs when a batter is at the plate is assigned an appropriate value by the WOBA system. Those accurate assessments of singles, doubles, home runs, walks, and other such events separate wOBA from more traditional measurements such as the average, on-base percentage, and slugging percentage. Also, for the sake of simplicity, wOBA is scaled to appear like OBP, which implies that a wOBA of.400 indicates excellent performance and a wOBA of.290 indicates inferior performance.

More information about wOBA may be found at FanGraphs.

### Weighted On-Base Average, Expected (xwOBA)

Every probable offensive event that occurs when a batter is at the plate is assigned a monetary value by the WOBA algorithm. That is what distinguishes wOBA from more traditional measurements like as AVG, OBP, and SLG, which do not account for singles and doubles properly. Aside from that, for the sake of simplicity, wOBA is scaled to appear like OBP, which implies that a wOBA of.400 indicates excellent performance and a wOBA of.290 indicates inferior performance.

All-time leader Babe Ruth had a very low wOBA of.513, making him the most ridiculous player ever. The web site FanGraphs has further information on the wOBA.

### Weighted Runs Created+ (wRC+)

This one monitors all stages of performance at the plate and modifies them to account for differences in ballpark and league conditions. The greater the wRC+, the more effective the batter was. The value of wRC+ is adjusted so that a score of 100 corresponds to a league-average hitter. In that way, wRC+ is similar to OPS+ (see above), but it is an upgrade above OPS+ since it takes into consideration baserunning, double plays, and other such factors as well.

### Wins Above Replacement (WAR)

When it comes to baseball, Wins Above Replacement (WAR) is a comprehensive statistic that aims to assess a position player’s or pitcher’s overall value. It is taken into consideration for position players when it comes to hitting, base-running, and fielding stats. WAR is evaluated in theoretical runs and is compared to a “replacement level” baseline to determine effectiveness. A replacement-level player is any player type who is readily accessible and inexpensively to major-league clubs when they are in a bind.

- These players, by definition, are not excellent; they are, in a practical sense, the bare minimum that an MLB team can do when it comes to filling a job on short notice.
- It is sometimes abbreviated as “fWAR” since it is based on FanGraphs’ version of WAR, which takes as major inputs those aspects of the game over which the pitcher (and catchers, to a certain extent) has the greatest influence.
- bWAR, on the other hand, is mostly driven by a pitcher’s runs allowed, with adjustments made for the strength of the defense surrounding him.
- It is as a result that the two techniques differ very significantly when it comes to particular pitchers, as shown in the chart below.
- Pitcher value is a difficult concept to grasp, and these two independent measurements do an excellent job of capturing and presenting the many-faceted phenomenon that is pitching.
- Then bWAR is the best option for you.
- Then fWAR is here to assist you.

Those who claim, maybe somewhat simplistically, that WAR should be ignored since even its defenders cannot agree on how to calculate it are actually wishing that pitching itself weren’t quite so convoluted and nuanced in its complexity and nuanced in its subtlety Without a doubt, though, WAR does have some shortcomings, particularly when it comes to position players.

- Each of these measures is among the most effective we have for determining defensive value, although they are far from flawless.
- This is especially true if the defensive performances do not reflect the player’s reputation and past experience.
- A player with a 3.3 WAR isn’t inherently superior to a guy with, say, a 2.9 WAR in every situation.
- In large measure, this is due to the fact that WAR does an excellent job of expressing offensive value as well as the duality of pitching.
- It is erroneous, nearly as stupid as those who repudiate WAR in its whole.
- In the league, a WAR of around 2.0 is considered ordinary, while a WAR of, say, 8.0 or greater is considered MVP-caliber performance.

WARs that are negative are not only feasible, but also prevalent. A player’s WAR, rather than other metrics such as pitching wins or game-winning RBIs, is what experts are referring to when they claim he was a “worthwins” player in their analysis.

### Win Probability Added (WPA)

What effect did a player’s performance have on the outcome of a particular game? This is, in general, the issue that WPA is attempting to address through its work. Essentially, win probability analysis (WPA) examines a team’s probability of winning a particular game – also known as “win expectation” – and measures how a certain player influences that probability. Did you know that an RBI double in the first inning of a 12-3 victory? The hitter’s WPA will increase, but not by a significant amount.

It is likely that his WPA for the game will be significantly reduced as a result of his performance, which was the epitome of a clutch scenario.

You’ll discover that they often correspond to our preconceived assumptions about who the finest manufacturers are in the industry.

As more and more sophisticated statistics become widely utilized by baseball fans and commentators, we invite you to revisit this page from time to time.