Baseball (ball) – Wikipedia
There is a redirection here from “Baseballs.” The Baseballs are a German rock’n’roll cover band that was formed in 1989. In the sport of baseball, abaseball is a ball that is used in the game of the same name. The ball is made out of a rubber or cork center that is wrapped in yarn and coated with white real horsehide or cowhide, or a synthetic composite leather that is white in color. It has a circumference of 9–9 +1 4inches (229–235mm) and a diameter of 2 +55 64inches or 73–75mm. It weighs 5–5 +1 4oz and measures 9–9 +1 4inches (229–235mm) in circumference (142 to 149g).
It is normal for the leather cover to be constructed from two peanut-shaped pieces of leather that are sewn together, generally using red-dyed thread.
A pitcher’s ability to control the orientation of the stitches as well as the pace at which the ball rotates allows him or her to influence the behavior of the thrown ball in certain ways.
When baseball first began to gain popularity in the early to mid-1800s, there was a considerable deal of variation in the size, shape, weight, and manufacture of baseballs. Old, melted shoes were used as a rubber core for the first baseballs, which were then covered in yarn and leather. In other cases, fish eyeballs were employed as cores as well as other materials. It was customary for pitchers to make their own balls, which were utilized throughout the game, weakening and unraveling with each pitch as it progressed.
- Lemon peel baseballs were darker, smaller, and weighted less than other baseballs, allowing them to go longer and bounce higher than other baseballs, resulting in extremely high-scoring games for the players involved.
- They came at the conclusion that baseballs should weigh between 512 and 6 ounces and have a circumference between 8 and 11 inches.
- Generally speaking, balls with more rubber and a tighter winding traveled further and quicker (known as “live balls”), but those with less rubber and a looser winding (known as “dead balls”) did not move nearly as far or quickly.
- Teams frequently took use of this information, as players from the squad were typically responsible for manufacturing their own baseballs for use in games.
- According to some historians, it was devised by Ellis Drake, the son of a shoemaker, in order to make the cover tougher and longer-lasting.
- Cutler in 1858 and sold to William Harwood the following year.
- The National League (NL) was established in 1876, and uniform rules and regulations were put in place to govern the sport.
Spalding, a well-known baseball pitcher who was recognized for making his own balls, persuaded the National League to accept his ball as the official baseball of the National League (NL).
In 1910, the cork-core ball made its debut on the market.
After a while, everything returned to normal.
It was in 1920 when a few of significant modifications were made to baseballs.
Despite the fact that there was no evidence that these balls had an influence on the game, offensive statistics began to rise during the 1920s, and players and spectators alike felt that the new balls allowed batters to smash the ball further than before.
An inner cork core was encircled by a layer of black rubber, which was subsequently followed by another layer of red rubber.
In the end, they decided on a cushion cork center, two wrappings of yarn, a specialrubber cementcoating, two additional wrappings of yarn, and a horsehide covering.
Rubber was forbidden for non-war-related products, including baseballs, during World War II, according to the United States Department of Agriculture.
That year, there was a considerable reduction in hitting.
After the switch back to the standard ball and the return of players from active duty, the offense would resume to normal operations.
Cowhide, on the other hand, was more readily available.
The dramatic rise in the quantity of home runs since the beginning of the 2016 baseball season prompted Major League Baseball executives to form a committee to investigate the manufacturing process.
On February 5, 2021, the Major League Baseball published a statement in which it stated that Rawlings had revised their production process in order to lessen the bounce in the balls and that, following thorough testing, “we are certain that these baseballs exceed all of our performance standards.” Another point raised in the same document was the fact that more clubs had sought for authorization to store their baseballs in humidors.
As of 2020, just four teams were employing the devices: the Arizona Diamondbacks, the Boston Red Sox, the Colorado Rockies, and the Seattle Mariners.
Two baseballs, one with the typical cork in the center (on the left) and the other with the rubber in the middle (on the right). Padded wood cores were invented by sports equipment manufacturerSpalding, which was founded by former baseball starA.G. Spalding. They were first patented in the late nineteenth century. A variety of synthetic materials have been utilized to make baseballs in recent years; nevertheless, they are typically regarded lesser quality, are sewn with two red thick threads, and are rarely used in the big leagues due to their poor quality and durability.
- In general, a tighter-wound baseball will leave the bat faster and fly farther than a loosely wrapped baseball.
- In general, the seams on baseballs used in Little League through college levels are far greater than those used in professional leagues.
- After a few games, a normal ball would get discolored from dirt and other materials applied by players; damage would also develop, resulting in minor rips and seam breaks; and finally, the ball would become brittle from repeated use.
- However, following the death in 1920 of hitter Ray Chapman, who was struck in the head by a pitch, possibly as a result of his inability to see the ball during dusk, an attempt was made to replace filthy or old baseballs with new ones.
- Reach patented the ivory-centered”ivory nut” in Panama in 1909, claiming that it was “even better” in a baseball than cork at the time of invention.
Shibe, the president of the Philadelphia Athletics and the inventor of the cork-centered ball, stated, “I expect the leagues will adopt a ‘ivory nut’ baseball just as soon as they adopt a ferro-concrete bat and a base studded with steel spikes.” In 1910, both leagues adopted Shibe’s cork-centered ball, which was invented by him.
- Attempts to automate the production process were never totally successful, which resulted in the continuous usage of hand-made balls throughout history.
- Throughout the twentieth century, Major League Baseball employed two balls that were theoretically identical but were marked differently.
- The National League baseball laces were black with red interlaced, according to Bob Feller, who recalled that the American League baseball laces were blue and red when he was a rookie in the 1930s.
- To be eligible to play in the Major League Baseball (MLB) in the current season, the baseball must weigh between 5 to 5 14 ounces (142–149 grams) and measure 9 to 9 14 inches (229–235 millimeters) in circumference (2 +7 8–3 inches or 72-74 millimeters in diameter).
- Because of the scratches, discolouration, and unattractive texture that might occur during a regular professional game, many dozen baseballs are used in a typical professional game nowadays.
- In exchange for the unique ball, the player will typically provide the fan with an autographed bat and/or other autographed memorabilia in addition to the special ball.
Rubbing mud is put to baseballs in the professional game before each game, and it is designed to improve the pitcher’s grip on the ball. It is normally done by the umpire before each game, and it is supposed to aid in the pitcher’s grip. There are several distinct forms of baseball that are played.
- The term “baseball” refers to the ordinary baseball that is used in Major League Baseball, but is also used in high school baseball and above for (hardball) baseball, and is referred to as “baseball.” Rubber baseball, also known as Nanshiki, is a type of baseball played in Japan before to high school that is played using rubberballs. It is also known as Japanese rubber baseball. Soft (compression) baseball – A type of baseball that is used for batting practice and fielding training, as well as softball baseball that can be safely played indoors, and is often composed of polyurethane (PU) material
- Baseball in its various forms: regular baseball, rubber baseball, soft (compression) baseball
There have been many recorded examples of humans catching, or attempting to catch, baseballs that have been associated with Major League Baseball milestones:
- The following are examples of people catching, or attempting to catch, baseballs that have occurred in the past that are associated with Major League Baseball milestones.
Other well-known baseballs include:
- Babe Ruth’s home run in the 1933 Major League Baseball All-Star Games sold for more than $800,000. His signature was placed on the ball, which sold for $650,000 at auction in 1999. Hank Aaron’s 755th home run ball was autographed by him as well. For 23 years, the ball was stored in a safety deposit box after groundskeeper Richard Arndt was sacked from the Milwaukee Brewers for failing to return the ball, despite his repeated attempts the day before. An auctioned baseball signed by bothJoe DiMaggio and Marilyn Monroe (who had been married for less than a year) in 1961 during spring training in Florida sold for $191,200
- The ball that rolled betweenBill Buckner’s legs (and cost Boston extra innings during the1986 World Series) sold for $418,250
- And Steve Bartmaninterferedwith a play while attempting to catch afoul ball, causing the Chicago Cubs to not get an out in ” The The stray ball was grabbed up by a Chicago attorney and auctioned off in December 2003 for a tidy profit. For $113,824.16 dollars, Grant DePorter acquired it on behalf of the Harry Caray’s Restaurant Group. In a technique created by Cubs fan and Academy Awardwinning special effects guru Michael Lantieri, it was publicly detonated on February 26, 2004 in front of thousands of people. In 2005, the restaurant utilized the remaining pieces of the ball to make a pasta sauce out of them. The sauce did not contain any actual pieces of the ball
- Rather, the ball was cooked in a mixture of water, beer, vodka, and herbs, with the steam being caught, condensed, and then added to the final concoction.
- Ball used in cricket of similar construction (cork center wrapped tightly with string and enclosed in leather with a raised sewed seam of threads by the “equator” of the ball)
- Cricket ball (also known as cricket ball). Spaldeen is a ball that is used in stickball, which is a baseball version. Theory of the juiced ball
Notes and references
- “2014 Official Baseball Rules” are a set of rules that govern baseball in 2014. (PDF). Retrieved2014-12-29
- s^ Phillip Mahony’s Baseball Explained is available online. McFarland & Company, 2014. See theWayback Machine for further information
- Abcdef Jimmy, please stamp. “A Brief History of Baseball”.smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 13 May 2015
- “Baseball (equipment)”.baseball-reference.com. Baseball Reference. Retrieved 13 May 2015. 13th of May, 2015
- Retrieved 13th of May, 2015
- BIG LEAGUES AGREE ON LIVELIER BALL
- The sphere used in the American Championship last year is accepted in Toto by the National.” The New York Times, January 6, 1934, ISSN 0362-4331. 2017-03-22
- Retrieved 2017-03-22
- AbcRymer, Zachary D., “The Evolution of Baseball From the Dead-Ball Era Through Today.” The Evolution of Baseball From the Dead-Ball Era Through Today. Bleacher Report is a sports news website. Retrieved2017-03-22
- s^ James Wagner is a writer who lives in the United States. “The Major League Baseball Organization will change its baseballs following record home run rates.” The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City. “Baseball Bat Reviews of 2017 (BBCOR Certified Bats)”.BaseballRace. Retrieved2017-03-22
- “Baseball Bat Reviews of 2017 (BBCOR Certified Bats)”.BaseballRace. Retrieved2017-03-22
- “Baseball Bat Reviews of 2017 (BBCOR Certified Bats (8 August 2005). The Sports Illustrated article “Rapid Robert Can Still Bring It” appears on pages 3 and 4 of the magazine (of 11). 15 July 2013
- Retrieved 15 July 2013
- Major League Baseball: “Official Rules: Objectives of the Game,” Major League Baseball
- Schneider, Jason, “Official Rules: Objectives of the Game,” Major League Baseball (2006-07-04). “All-American mud was required to remove the shine off baseballs.” The Florida Times-Union, retrieved on 2009-10-06
- Grunwald, Michael. “The Florida Times-Union.” McFarlane paid $3 million for McGwire’s 70th home run ball, according to tech.mit.edu and The Washington Post, both of which were published on June 8, 2015. Marcio Sanchez is the author of this work. Jose. “The fan who catches the ball with the number 660 also receives the number 661.” usatoday.com. USA TODAY is a news organization based in Washington, D.C. retrieved on June 8, 2015
- Ira Berkow is a writer who lives in New York City. It is said that the 73rd home run ball sold for $450,000. The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City. retrieved on June 8, 2015
- Jack Curry is a fictional character created by Jack Curry. “Bonds hits No. 756 to surpass Aaron’s previous high-water mark.” The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City. “Barry Bonds’ 756-home-run ball, which broke the previous record, was sold for $752,467.20 on June 8, 2015.” psacard.com is a part of the Collectors Universe. The original version of this article was published on May 26, 2015. retrieved on June 8, 2015
- Erik Matuszewski is a writer who lives in Poland. “Jeter fan who returned baseball leaves $180,000 on the table in order to do the right thing.” Bloomberg, retrieved on 10 February 2012
- The Daily, retrieved on 10 February 2012. More Most Valuable Baseballs, including Derek Jeter’s 3,000th hit, Mark McGwire’s 70th home run, and More Most Valuable Baseballs”. It was published on July 16, 2013, and it was retrieved on July 16, 2013. “Ruth home run ball brings in $700,000”, according to Gary Rotstein. post-gazette.com. “Owner of Hank Aaron’s last home run ball braces for new record,” according to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, accessed on June 8, 2015. ESPN.com has a story titled “Ball autographed by DiMaggio and Monroe busts bank”. “Buckner ball from ’86 Series sells for $418,250,” according to ESPN, accessed on June 8, 2015. ESPN.com. Gumer, Jason B.
- May 4, 2012
- Gumer, Jason B. (February 23, 2005). In the words of the Chicago Tribune, “Pasta sauce converts unfortunate Cubs baseball into delectable enchantment.”
- Major League Baseball: Official Rules: 1.00 Objectives of the GameSee 1.09
- Major League Baseball: Official Rules: 1.00
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A Brief History of the Baseball
Poppy Wright is a Flickr user. Every aspect of baseball is well designed, from the grounds and stadiums to the uniforms and statistics. Baseball is superb design. Perhaps no finer example of this can be found than the classic white and red ball. A wonderful combination of form and function, the modern baseball, with its clean white surface and high contrast red stitching, is virtually a perfect Modernist item. However, things didn’t start out that way. Even when the first hitter walked up to the first plate, the baseball did not emerge in its whole shape.
- In certain areas, sturgeon eyeballs were utilized in place of melted shoe rubber, which was more common.
- Obviously, there was some variation in size and weight due to the nature of the handcrafted process and the growth of different regional cultures.
- In one of the most renowned covers, a single piece of leather was wrapped around the coiled core and closed off with four separate lines of stitching, earning it the suitable moniker “lemon peel” because of the way it looked.
- In addition, the game itself was a little different.
- In comparison to today’s balls, these light, compact balls with rubber (or fish-eye) cores were significantly “livelier,” meaning they could be hit longer and bounce higher.
- When ball clubs in the New York region decided to standardize the ball’s weight and diameter at somewhere between 8 and 11 inches in the mid-1850s, it resulted in a ball that was bigger, heavier, and less lively than previous balls.
- While the ball (and the rules) evolved during the 1850s and 1860s, there was still plenty of space for variety – more rubber in the core and a tighter winding resulted in a “live” ball, while less rubber and a loose winding resulted in a “inactive” ball.
- Ball selection was an important strategy, and having home-field advantage provided a significant gain.
- On the subject of the genesis of the 2-part “figure 8” cover that we are all familiar with, there is some controversy.
- If this is accurate, Drake was unsuccessful in his attempt to patent his innovation, and others began making designs that were identical to Drake’s.
- Cutler, who may have devised the recognizable stitching in 1858 and sold it to William Harwood, one of the earliest baseball producers, is credited by some as the inventor of the stitching.
Baseball regulation 1.09, which is both officially and loosely enforced by Major League Baseball, states that the changing size and weight of the baseball was stabilized to something quite close to the one we know and love today, which is legally and vaguely regulated by the MLB under rule 1.09: The ball must be a spherical produced by wrapping yarn around a tiny core of cork, rubber, or similar material, and then covering it with two strips of white horsehide or cowhide that have been securely sewn together.
- Neither less than five ounces nor more than 5.25 ounces avoirdupois, nor less than nine inches nor more than nine and a quarter inches in circumference, shall be allowed.
- Baseball in the Nineteenth Century Baseball’s first official game in the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs took place in 1876, and the league’s rules and regulations were standardized – including the introduction of the standard baseball.
- Spalding retired the following year after winning 241 of 301 games throughout the course of his four-year career.
- When he persuaded the National League to use his ball as the league’s standard, the seeds of an empire were planted.
- Early professional baseball was characterized by very low-scoring games, which was mostly due to the ball’s performance.
- This was the period of baseball when the “dead ball” was first introduced.
As noted at the time by Popular Mechanics, “the cork allows for a more solid construction as well as more consistent resilience.” It is said to outlive the rubber center balls by a factor of several hundred times since it will not soften or shatter in any areas even under the most rigorous use.” More significantly, it has the potential to be struck.
- After a few years, though, pitchers began to adjust (and learn a few tactics) and numbers began to level off — that is, until Babe Ruth began hitting balls out of the park, bringing the dead-ball period to a dramatic conclusion.
- The next major breakthrough occurred in 1925, when Milton B.
- It wasn’t until 1934 that the American League, which prized live balls and large hitters, and the National League, which supported thicker, looser balls that were more favorable to pitchers, came to an agreement on a standard ball.
- This is followed by a layer of black rubber and finally a coating of red rubber to complete the construction.
- This is done on a spinning machine.in a room that has been regulated for humidity and temperature.
- After the layers of rubber cement have been applied to the sphere, it is sealed with a rubber sealant.
- A completed ball weighs between 5 and 5 1/4 ounces and measures not less than 9 1/4 inches in diameter and not more than 9 1/4 inches in diameter.
- Construction of a modern baseball”How It’s Made” from Discovery Channel.
Even though new technology has improved ball consistency, all 108 red stitches on Major League baseballs are still stitched by hand – materials are now stored in temperature-controlled facilities, and balls are wound under constant tension to eliminate “soft spots” and ensure a uniform surface throughout the league.
Some seasons feature a high number of home runs, while others see pitchers engaged in a pitched fight.
Granted, the hot summer months, when the balls rocket through the humid air, haven’t yet arrived, but it appears that the guys on the mound are gaining an advantage in the battle for first place.
The Evolution of the Baseball From the Dead-Ball Era Through Today
Poppy Wright, a Flickr member, contributed this image. Baseball is well-designed in every aspect, from the grounds and stadiums to the clothing and stats. Nothing better demonstrates this than the classic white and red soccer ball that symbolizes it. A wonderful combination of form and function, the modern baseball, with its pure white surface and high contrast red stitching, is virtually the ultimate Modernist item. This was not the case from the beginning. When the first batter came up to the plate, the baseball didn’t come out completely formed.
If baseball was invented by a single person, it would be difficult to attribute it to him.
The game of baseball was anything but a precise science in the 1840s and 1850s; in fact, pitchers sometimes just improvised with their pitches.
A few examples of baseball’s “lemon peel” A collection of Keyman memorabilia.
In one of the most renowned covers, a single strip of leather was wrapped around the coiled core and closed off with four separate lines of stitching, earning it the affectionate moniker “lemon peel.” Compared to today’s nine-inch balls, these were smaller – around six inches in circumference compared to today’s nine-inch balls – as well as lighter in weight, darker in color, and softer (in softness) than the balls currently utilized.
- There were also some differences in the game.
- Light, compact balls with rubber (or fish-eye) cores were considerably “livelier” than today’s balls, meaning they could be struck longer and bounce higher than the modern balls.
- When ball clubs in the New York region decided to standardize the ball’s weight and diameter at somewhere between 8 and 11 inches in the mid-1850s, it resulted in a ball that was bigger, heavier, and less lively than it had been previously.
- While the ball (and the rules) evolved during the 1850s and 1860s, there was still plenty of space for variety – more rubber in the core and a tighter winding resulted in a “live” ball, while less rubber and a loose winding resulted in a “unlive” ball.
- Home-field advantage provided a significant edge in ball selection as well as other benefits.
- On the subject of the genesis of the 2-part “figure 8” cover that we are all familiar with, there is considerable disagreement.
- If this is accurate, Drake was unsuccessful in his attempt to patent his invention, and others quickly copied his work.
- Cutler, who may have done it in 1858 and sold it to William Harwood, one of the earliest baseball makers.
It was in the 1870s that the changing size and weight of the ball was fixed to something very like to the one we know and love today, which is specified by MLB regulation 1.09, which is both officially and rather loosely enforced: a sphere created by yarn twisted around a tiny core of cork, rubber, or similar material; covered with two strips of white horsehide or cowhide that have been securely sewn together; and Its circumference must be between nine and nine and a quarter inches and its weight must be between five and five and a quarter ounces avoirdupois.
- Spalding’s baseball was advertised in this early version.
- Another Boston Red Sox pitcher by the name of A.G.
- Using balls he crafted himself, he pitched every game.
- In fact, Spalding’s firm would continue to manufacture the official baseball of the National League for the next 100 years after his passing.
- During the course of a game, balls were soft and got softer, and they were utilized until they unraveled, resulting in fewer huge smashes and lesser scoring.
- An illustration of a cork-cross-section ball’s Popular Mechanics is a magazine that publishes articles on a wide range of mechanical topics, including (1910) After being introduced into Major League Baseball in 1910, the cork-core ball became widely used.
- Baseball’s hitting averages soared nearly immediately with the introduction of the more lively cork ball.
- In 1920, Babe Ruth started something, and baseball saw an ensuing renaissance that had nothing to do with the ball, despite widespread conspiracy rumors that a new, more active “rabbit” ball was surreptitiously placed into play in order to enhance hitting.
- Reach patented the “cushion cork” center.
Interestingly, as highlighted in a fantastic piece on the history of baseball by Bleacher Report, the makeup of this new “medium ball” was revealed for the first time in The New York Times, as follows: MLB baseballs are constructed of cork with a little quantity of rubber incorporated into the core for strength and durability.
- After that, it is ready for the winding procedure, in which yarn is put to the core of the product.
- To begin, 121 yards of rough gray wool is wound around 45 yards of white wool, which is then wound around another 53 yards of fine gray wool, and lastly 150 yards of fine white cotton.
- The ball is then covered with two pieces of horsehide sewn together in the shape of a ‘8’ using crimson thread by hand.
- In the cover of each ball, there are 108 double threads that have been hand-stitched.
- Since then, with a few notable deviations, baseball has mostly remained unchanged.
Even though new technology has improved ball consistency, all 108 red stitches on Major League baseballs are still stitched by hand – materials are now stored in temperature-controlled facilities, and balls are wound under constant tension to eliminate “soft spots” and ensure a uniform surface on all Major League balls.
When it comes to baseball seasons, some are filled with long ball games, while others are filled with pitching battles.
To be sure, the hot summer months are still a ways off, and baseballs will soar through the humid air as they do so, but it appears as though the pitchers have the upper hand at the moment.
History of the Baseball Ball
Although history has it that a student at Cooperstown High School in New York State developed baseball in 1839, it is more likely that the game originated from the cricket game. It was a less-than-organized sport in its early days, and the ball underwent a number of changes in the nineteenth century before becoming the baseball used by Major League Baseball in the twenty-first century.
The core of the early baseballs may have been anything from a walnut to a rock. Any solid substance was wrapped in yarn or thread to keep it from falling apart. After that, the thread was wrapped in leather. It was up to the players to make their own or have them built for them according to their requirements. Since it was customary for the first teams to supply the balls for a game in the 1850s, the outcome of a game may be significantly influenced by the selection of a ball with attributes that fit a team’s style of play.
As baseball grew increasingly structured in the 1850s, meetings between clubs and governing organizations were held on a regular basis to determine the ideal weight, size, and construction of the baseball. It was decided to modify the rules, which was then modified again. In 1854, three New York teams made the decision to utilize balls weighing between 512 and 6 ounces for their games. Three years later, the weight was adjusted to between 6 and 614 ounces, depending on the model. After much deliberation, it was determined that India rubber would be used for the center.
After being dropped to 53.44 ounces in 1854, the official weight of a baseball was reduced to 5 12 ounces in 1861, and finally to 51.44 ounces in 1867.
Because the baseball did not alter again for the rest of the nineteenth century, this appeared to be a satisfactory solution for everyone.
Notable Ball Makers
When baseball became more popular and players stopped constructing their own bats, only a few businesses dominated baseball manufacture during the most of the 1800s. In 1858, H.P. Harwood and Sons manufactured the world’s first commercially manufactured baseball. In the 1860s, John Van Horn, who also happened to be a second baseman for the Baltic Club in New York, was the foremost manufacturer of baseballs on the continent. Albert Spalding’s firm took over in 1878 and continued to supply the National League until 1977, when the MLB moved to Rawlings as the official bat of the league.
The last significant modification to baseballs occurred in 1974, when the Major League Baseball changed the exterior covering from horsehide to cowhide, due to a scarcity of horsehide at the time. Major League Baseball is now subjecting its baseballs to extensive testing before they are used in games.
Using an air cannon, they are shot into a wall of northern white ash at a speed of 85 feet per second, and they must bounce at a speed that is no greater than 0.578 percent of their initial speed.
When pitchers began complaining in 1921 that they were unable to acquire a firm grip on fresh balls, umpires instituted the practice of rubbing the balls before to a game to remedy the situation. The Rubbing Mud created by Lena Blackburne is still in use today, however the exact recipe remains a closely guarded secret. Rawlings currently manufactures baseballs that have microchips that record the speed of the ball as it hits the bat.
How baseball is made – material, history, used, parts, dimensions, composition, machine, Raw Materials
The baseball may be traced back to the game of the same name, which is where it got its start. In the early part of the nineteenth century, the English game of “rounders” gave birth to the modern game of baseball. In 1845, Alexander Cartwright of New York drafted the first set of baseball regulations, which called for the substitution of the soft ball used in rounders with a smaller hard ball. Even though it appears to be a simple object, the baseball is in reality a very precise piece of machinery that has been the subject of much intense debate throughout its history.
- Baseball manufacturers and Major League Baseball, on the other hand, have categorically refuted any such accusations, and no evidence of covert adjustments in the ball’s design or composition has ever been shown.
- It is estimated that around 600,000 baseballs are used by all Major League clubs together during the course of a season.
- According to Major League Baseball regulations, each ball must weigh between 5 and 5.25 ounces (141.75-148.83 grams) and measure between 9 and 9.25 inches (22.86-23.49 cm) in circumference to be considered legal.
- The contemporary standard for baseball weight and size was created in 1872, when the baseball was weighed and measured for the first time.
- The baseball had a circular rubber core when it was invented at the turn of the century.
Since then, the baseball has seen just one important change: in 1974, a scarcity of horses drove the move from horsehide to cowhide coverings due to a lack of available horses.
A baseball is made up of three fundamental components: the round cushioned cork pill in its center, the wool and poly/cotton windings in its midsection, and the cowhide covering that covers the outside of the ball’s shell. The pill is composed of a sphere with a diameter of 13/16 of an inch (2.06 cm) and is constructed of a cork and rubber composite substance, according to the manufacturer. This spherical is enclosed in two layers of rubber, one of which is black on the inside and the other of which is red on the outside.
- The complete pill has a circumference of 4-1/8 inches (10.47 cm) in diameter.
- In the first winding, a four-ply gray woolen yarn is used, followed by a three-ply white woolen yarn in the second winding, a third-ply gray woolen yarn in the third, and a fourth-ply white poly/cotton finishing yarn in the fourth winding.
- When securely wrapped around the pill, it increases the circumference of the unfinished ball to 7-3/4 inches when completed (19.68 centimeters).
- Wool was chosen as the principal material for the baseball’s windings because of its inherent tenacity and “memory,” which allow it to compress when pressure is applied, then quickly return to its original shape once the pressure is removed.
- The outside wrapping of the ball was made of a poly/cotton blend to provide it greater strength and lessen the likelihood of rips when the cowhide cover is placed.
- The inside cover is composed of Number One Grade, alum-tanned full-grained cowhide.
- The cover of an official baseball must be white, and it must be sewn together with a length of waxed red thread of 88 inches (223.52 cm) in length.
The manufacturing of a baseball may be thought of as a process of layering various layers of material (rubber, fabric, and cowhide) around a rubbery spherical that is not much larger than a cherry in diameter. There are three separate techniques in which these materials are wrapped around the little sphere: the rubber is molded, the fabric is coiled, and the cowhide is sewed together. The placing of materials around the sphere is done under carefully regulated circumstances to guarantee that the sphere’s size, form, and quality are maintained consistently throughout the process.
- hade catalog, about 1891, promoting the product “baseball.” baseball is the precise emblem, the outward and apparent embodiment of the drive and push and hurry and fight of the roaring, ripping, booming nineteenth century,” observed Mark Twain (Samuel L.
- In the beginning, baseball became a popular American sport because it was more physically demanding and faster-paced than its English forebears, cricket, town-ball, and rounders, which were slower and less muscular.
- After the game’s rules were set down in the 1840s, the game and its equipment—as well as its popularity—began to change.
- Particularly during the American Civil War, the game experienced a surge in popularity.
- Spalding made international headlines in 1888-89 when he organized a tour of American baseball players who competed in exhibition games in nations all over the world.
Towards the turn of the century, Spalding was offering four boy’s-size baseballs and eight regulation-size baseballs, with prices ranging from four cents to one dollar apiece. William S. Pretzer is an American businessman and author.
- 1 It is molded to a rubberized cork sphere with a percent, of an inch (2.06 centimeters) in diameter by two black rubber shells that are approximately 5/3 of an inch (.39 centimeters) thick and 5/3 of an inch (.39 centimeters) in thickness. A pair of red rubber gaskets are used to seal the two tiny gaps that divide the two shells. The initial stage in the production of a baseball is the molding of two shells of black rubber to a cork that has been rubberized. Following the application of a thin coating of red rubber to the ball and the application of a layer of cement, wool yarn is twisted around the ball. There are three layers of yarn woven together: four-ply gray yarn, followed by three-ply white yarn, and finally three-ply gray yarn, all wound together. The ball is then wrapped in a final layer of poly/cotton finishing yarn to complete the look. The last layer is the cowhide cover, which is made up of two figure-eight pieces that are stapled to the ball and then sewn together
- This is the most expensive layer. 2 To complete the assembly process, a layer of red rubber approximately 3/32 of an inch (.24 centimeter) thick is molded to the black rubber encasement. A complete circle is formed out of the entire “pill,” which weighs around 7/8 of an ounce (24.80 grams) and has a diameter of approximately 4-18 inches in circumference (10.48 centimeters). An very thin coating of cement is placed to the surface of the pill after it has been formed. During the first winding operation, this layer helps to retain the wool yarn in position on the pill as the process continues.
- 3 The pill is wrapped in wool yarn that has been kept under regulated fabric temperature and humidity settings for several months. Using automated winding machines, this is accomplished by maintaining a continuous level of extremely high tension in order to avoid “soft patches” and provide a uniform surface. The ball is weighed and measured by computer after each stage in the winding process to ensure that the official size criteria have been satisfied. When a baseball is dissected, the wool yarn is twisted so tightly that it seems to be threaded through the baseball. 121 yards (110.6 meters) of four-ply gray yarn is used for the first layer
- 45 yards (41.13 meters) of three-ply white yarn is used for the second layer
- And 53 yards (48.44 meters) of three-ply gray are used for the third layer. For protection and to keep the wool yarn in place, a layer of 150 yards (137.1 meters) of fine poly/cotton finishing yarn is wrapped around the ball and secured in place. It is next necessary to cut away any surplus fabric from the wrapped ball and prepare it for the attachment of the exterior cowhide covering by dipping it in an adhesive solution.
- Figure-8 motifs are carved into the cowhide covering in step 5. Each design covers half of the total wrapped ball surface area. Cowhide covers are moistened before to being sewn to the wound ball in order to improve its pliability and flexibility. Additionally, the insides of the covers are coated with the same glue that was used to seal the wound ball
- 6 Using 88 inches (223.52 cm) of waxed red thread, the two figure-8 covers are stapled to the wrapped ball, and then they are hand-stitched together. The stitching technique consists of 108 stitches, with the start and end stitches being totally hidden. Hand-sewing a baseball takes an average of 13 to 14 minutes
- 7 minutes is necessary to hand-sew a baseball. After the covers have been sewn together, the staples are removed and the ball is examined for any flaws or defects. After that, the ball is placed in a rolling machine for 15 seconds in order to level any elevated stitches on the surface. After that, the baseballs are measured, weighed, and evaluated based on their look. Acceptable baseballs are branded with the manufacturer’s trademark and the league identifier
- Otherwise, they are deemed unacceptable.
In accordance with Major League Baseball’s officially sanctioned testing standards, a statistically representative sample of each shipment of baseballs is examined in order to determine the Co-Efficient of Restitution (COR). Essentially, the COR is a measure of a baseball’s ability to bounce back from adversity. An air cannon fired at an eight-foot-high (2.43-meter) distance fires a baseball at a wooden wall at a velocity of 85 feet per second (25.90 meters per second), and the speed with which the baseball bounces off of the wall is measured.
Another requirement is that a baseball must maintain its round shape after being struck 200 times by a 65-pound (29.51-kilogram) force.
It seems expected that the size of baseballs, as well as the raw materials required to create them, will stay unaltered in the near future. In addition, a finished baseball weighs between 5 and 5.25 ounces and measures between 9 and 9.25 inches in circumference, thanks to the 88 lengths of waxed red thread connecting the two cowhide covering pieces together. There will be few, if any, modifications to the process through which baseballs are created, according to industry experts. Although attempts to automate the process of stitching cowhide coverings on baseballs have been done in the past, none of these attempts have proven successful.
Also certain is that the debate regarding juiced-up balls will continue for the foreseeable future, as long as baseball is played and fans continue to seek an explanation for changes in the number of home runs hit by their favorite teams and individual players.
Where To Learn More
Cleary, David Powers, and others. Brands that are synonymous with America. Fairchild Applications was founded in 1981. Danzig, Allison, and Joe Reichler are three of the most famous musicians in the world. Baseball’s Origins and Development. Prentice Hall Publishing Company, 1959. Mr. James and Mr. Bill In this section, you can find the Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract. Villard Books published the book in 1986. Harold Seymour is a fictional character created by author Harold Seymour. Baseball is known as “The People’s Game.” Oxford University Press published this book in 1990.
The Entire Baseball Catalogue is available.
Souther Living magazine published an article titled “Batter Up for a Baseball Factory Tour” in November 1989 on page 34. —SuzyFucini