The Steroid Eras Destruction Of Major League Baseball
They were trailblazers in their day! Photograph courtesy of Vincent Laforet/Getty Images Major League Baseball has been irrevocably altered as a result of the drug era. What was once referred to be America’s favorite pastime is now referred to as America’s doormat. Major League Baseball (MLB) has moved on from the “steroid era,” and the organization is presently promoting their product as being better than it has ever been before. There is an issue with this theory since baseball is now experiencing a stretch of its lowest-ever ratings for both the All-Star Game and the World Series, which is problematic.
Despite the fact that the greatest hitters in Major League Baseball continue to hit for high averages, the bar has fallen substantially from the days when Barry Bonds blasted 73 home runs in a single season to today.
The “steroid era” has definitely altered Major League Baseball, as well as the capacity of its spectators to appreciate the game they once cherished with such fervor.
The aggressive renaissance that occurred at the close of the twentieth century attracted a large number of supporters.
- Even while it is hard to determine with certainty how many fans were gained and lost during the tug of war known as The Steroid Era, television ratings provide a good indication of how significant the period was to the game’s overall popularity.
- As time has passed, the term has come to symbolize something of a prophecy of what would happen after the “long ball” was no longer available.
- MLB had been infected with a virus that it had infected itself and was now in its bloodstream.
- MLB writer Bill Chastain recently penned an essay in which he discussed the persistent shortage of spectators at big league baseball stadiums.
- “Despite having just completed a season in which the team appeared in its first World Series in 2008, Tampa Bay saw an average attendance increase of less than 800 fans per game at Tropicana Field last season,” he wrote.
- MLB and its media have began to focus on what they think will be the sport’s future with the elimination of home-run races that drew record-breaking television audiences.
- Even baseball purists have advocated for the adoption of instant replay, similar to what the National Football League and the National Hockey League now employ.
The 2010 season has been labeled “the year of the pitcher” by the media and even some players, which is very accurate.
Only two no-hitters were thrown through the whole season last year, and only twenty perfect games have been thrown in over a century and a half of professional baseball history.
Instead, it is the pitchers who have returned with supremacy.
Stephen Strasburg is a rookie pitcher who has received as much attention as celebrities like as Lady Gaga, Eminem, and Taylor Swift have received.
It didn’t help things that the top pitcher was diagnosed with an arm issue that necessitated Tommy John surgery and would keep him out for the remainder of the 2011 season.
The Elias Sports Bureau reports that as of Thursday, “there have been 56 games in which the final score was 1-0, putting baseball on pace for 62 such games this season, which would be the most since 1976, when there were 72 games with one run scored,” according to an article in USA Today.
That’s a decrease of 16 percent from the 8.9/15 for the same game last season, which the AL won 4-3.
“Ratings reflect the proportion of all households that have televisions, while shares represent the percentage of all households that have televisions that are in use at any one moment” (Yahoo, 2010).
MLB has worked extremely hard to market the pitcher in a way that allows fans to appreciate the skilled beauty that lies behind the art of pitching, as well as the mental fortitude required to perform at that level of talent and ability.
Pitchers are permitted to pitch once every five days, for a total of around 30 games each year.
Because of their popularity with the general public, Sammy Sosa and Mark McGwire are two of the most well-known players in Major League Baseball.
Most people were unaware that both McGwire and Sosa were using anabolic steroids at the time of the game; nonetheless, many have questioned whether it would have made a difference in the outcome.
A lot of people don’t realize that the year 1998 was not only about McGwire and Sosa, but about all of Major League Baseball’s greatest hitters.
Sosa and McGwire laid the groundwork for the best season in MLB history, which included record-breaking television ratings and stadium attendance.
In 2009, just one player reached the milestone of 40 home runs.
Clemens was largely recognized as the most dominant pitcher of his generation, although his reputation was limited at best as a result of the aforementioned prolific offense.
The News-Sentinel in Illinois was one of the first news organizations to report on the incident in 2007.
More specifically, if he pitches in Boston, he will receive almost $150,000 each inning, $10,000 every pitch, and $1.25 per fan profanity.” While baseball fans in the late 1990s were treated to some of the finest baseball they could have ever imagined, baseball fans in the present day are subjected to the ultimate torment.
- The year 1998 is commonly regarded as the beginning of the steroid era, as well as the year in which Major League Baseball began to decline.
- Since then, Barry Bonds has been connected to the usage of steroids, and the prevailing view is that he did so for more than three years before retiring from baseball.
- Rodriguez, on the other hand, admitted to using steroids in 2008 as well.
- As Major League Baseball prepares to begin its 142nd season, it faces numerous questions about the sanctity of the game and the direction of the organization as a whole.
- People who believe that Major League Baseball need big scores and home run races like the one they watched in the late 1990s are just contributing to the extinction of an entire sport.
- MLB is doing everything it can to heal the damage done to its relationship with the United States, and they deserve all of the praise in the world for it.
- If you do this, you will get unimaginable calm and happiness.” It is now up to the fans to rekindle their interest in a sport that has been so generous to them over the years.
So, in order to ensure the long-term viability of baseball in America, the Major League Baseball organization must begin considering strategies to entice fans back to the game.
Proof That the Steroid-Era Power Surge in Major League Baseball Has Been Stopped
The end of the Steroid Era isn’t all that far away in the rearview mirror, though. Even though Major League Baseball has only been testing for performance-enhancing drugs for a decade, it was just a dozen years ago when Barry Bonds shattered the single-season home run record with 61 home runs. The fact is, though, that the Steroid Eraisin clearly seen in the rear-view mirror. The evidence is obvious merely by looking around, since there aren’t nearly as many Incredible Hulk lookalikes dressed in baseball jerseys as there used to be.
- I attempted to do so in January, but only in a cursory and superficial manner.
- Various statistics may be used to demonstrate how evident it was that there was some artificial power in the game, and how obvious it is now that it has been eliminated.
- That is a subject for which there is no conclusive answer, but ESPN has the right idea in stating that it most likely began in the late 1980s, with power figures increasing significantly in the 1990s.
- This statistic, which can be seen on FanGraphs and numerous other websites, indicates how well hitters are hitting for extra bases.
- In accordance with statistics from FanGraphs, the following is a look at the league’s ISO from 1988 through 2012, as produced by all players other than pitchers: The price of electricity surged in the early 1990s, reaching a high in 1994, and it hasn’t dropped below that level since.
- When we split down the data into averages for different time periods, the trend becomes a bit more obvious:
There is still more power in the game today than there was in the late ’80s and early ’90s, but not nearly as much as there was between 1994 and 2004, the final year before testing was implemented. Power has fallen even more in the years following the Mitchell Report was issued late in 2007, as measured by the average ISO between 2008 and 2012. It is also evident in the average number of home runs hit each game across these same time periods, indicating a general deflation of power. With the help of Baseball-Reference.com, the following statistics are provided:
- 1988-1993: 0.88
- 1994-1999: 1.06
- 2000-2004: 1.10
- 2005-2012: 1.01
- (2008-2012: 0.99)
- 1988-1993: 0.88
There is still more power now than there was in the late 1980s and early 1990s, but not as much as there was during the Steroid Era, which is to say, not much at all.
The reduction in the number of home runs can also be noticed in the leaderboards. The Steroid Era witnessed a surge in the number of 40-homer seasons, which have subsequently been relegated to the status of rare occurrences. I’ll give credit where credit is due, to Baseball-Reference.com:
*There were four players in the 36-39 age bracket on the roster when the 1994 season was cut short by a strike in mid-August. If the season had continued, they would very certainly have hit more than 40 home runs. Take a look at all of those seasons with 40 or more home runs between 1996 and 2001. There were 83 40-homer seasons during that time period, which is out of a total of 310 40-homer seasons in Major League Baseball history. That implies that between 1996 and 2001, a total of 27 percent of all 40-homer seasons occurred over that six-year period.
- We observed an increase in the number of 40-homer seasons last year, but it was not a significant increase.
- Furthermore, as noted by Jack Moore of Sports On Earth, Encarnacion’s performance is not wholly surprising, as Encarnacion began launching home runs after making “major” improvements to his swing and approach at the bat.
- A second reason why Encarnacion should not be regarded with suspicion stems from the fact that he is still relatively young.
- Babe Ruth became the first player in baseball history to hit 40 home runs in a season in 1920, when he hit 54 out of the park at the age of 25.
- That’s located in the heart of premium real estate.
- If you look at the data from 1996 to 2006, the average age scarcely changes, rising to 29.6 years.
- This relates to one of the things we know PEDs can accomplish for baseball players: improve their performance.
Old men were engaging in activities that, in most cases, they had no business engaging in during this heightened period.
Thirteen of these incidents happened between 1996 and 2006.
Between 1988 and 2012, take a look at the ISO splits between non-pitchers 34 years old or younger and non-pitchers 35 years old or older: For a while, the older males were really outperforming the younger men in terms of power, but the pendulum has now swung back in favor of the non-ancient.
Even in baseball, there’s still a lot of power to be discovered.
So far in 2013, things have remained consistent, with the league’s non-pitcher ISO being at the same level as previous year and the league averaging 1.02 home runs per game on average.
However, these figures aren’t worth getting too worked up about.
Indeed, we know what it looks like when juice spreads because of what happened in the early 1990s and what happened afterward.
It should go without saying that there are still juicers operating in the modern era of technology.
It was a lot of fun while we were all completely clueless. Let’s not go through all of that again, we should all say now that we’re not. If you want to speak baseball, feel free to contact me over Twitter.
How Much of a Role Did Steroids Play in the Steroid Era?
Mark McGwire blasted the 69th and 70th home runs of his exciting, record-breaking, and retroactively tainted season on Thursday, September 27, 1998, twenty years ago today. “Is Baseball Playing with a (Juiced) Ball, or What?” read the title of a piece written by Dave Cunningham that appeared in the Orlando Sentinel on the same day. When it comes to breaking Roger Maris’s single-season home run record in the same year, Cunningham noted, “The fact that two men—McGwire and Sosa—did so in the same year appears extraordinary only if one believes it could have been achieved with the same type of baseball Maris was hitting in 1961.” “It wasn’t the case.” Cunningham didn’t blame the ball alone; like many other writers who were perplexed by what they were witnessing that summer, he speculated about other factors that could be contributing to the problem, such as league expansion and smaller ballparks (both of which were later proven to be culprits), as well as bulked-up batters who were benefiting from weightlifting and supplement use (which was later proven to be true).
Cunningham, on the other hand, devoted the majority of his column inches to testimony about the ball, both of an observational and experiential nature (from former pitcher Vida Blue, Braves pitching coach Leo Mazzone, and Devil Rays manager Larry Rothschild) and of a statistical nature (from former pitcher David Cone and Braves pitching coach Leo Mazzone) (from Eric Walker, a consultant to several major league teams).
Cunningham had previously quoted veteran pitcher and announcer Jim Kaat, who said that Frank Torre (Joe’s brother), a longtime employee of MLB ball maker Rawlings, had informed Kaat that the new balls were “more securely wrapped.” At the height of the home run derby, players’ suspicions about the ball grew so widespread that they were referred to as “the ball” on the baseball field.
Hudek was sent in to prevent McGwire from hitting number 61.
Times, umpire Larry Poncino handed Hudek one of the specially marked balls that MLB had allocated to track Big Mac’s historic blasts, prompting Hudek to inquire, “Is this the juiced ball?” as reported by the newspaper.
“The fans want home runs, so give them home runs,” says the pitcher.
In 2005, José Canseco wrote a book about bodies rather than balls (although his ex-wife later changed the title to include both), and the BALCO investigation, congressional hearings on steroids in baseball, the Mitchell Report, and reported deep dives likeJuicing the Game andGame of Shadows cemented a stigma about steroids that wasn’t as strong at the time that McGwire and Sosa were actually launching their long drives into the seats.
We don’t refer to the 1990s and early 2000s as baseball’s “steroid era” because an unknown but presumably large number of players were using steroids; rather, we refer to it as such because those steroids are perceived to have assisted those players in ushering in an era of inflated offense and rewriting the record books, among other things.
- In those essays, two things are assumed: first, that the 1998 home run race helped salvage baseball by bringing people back to ballparks after the 1994 work stoppage; and second, that the home run race was mostly fuelled by performance-enhancing drugs (steroid use).
- Let’s start with the issue about attendance.
- Putting this in context, the attendance reduction that has generated so much alarm this year amounts to just 4.2 percent of total attendance.) Baseball’s popularity, on the other hand, had already begun to regain momentum before McGwire and Sosa began racing after Ruth and Maris.
- After a spectacular record-breaking pursuit, the stock scarcely moved in 1999, with fans’ memories of the event still vivid in their minds (+0.3 percent).
- It wasn’t until 2006, deep into the testing phase, that MLB was able to restore its 1994 attendance levels (which would very certainly have dwindled had the 1994 schedule been completed) to their previous levels.
- The steroid issue is a little trickier to resolve.
- “Perhaps more than any other issue we’ve explored in this book, the effect of steroids is a subject that we should understand far better in ten years’ time than we do now,” Silver continued.
- The development of automated tracking technologies permitted new methods to baseball study in the ensuing decade.
- However, the exact mechanism through which steroids work remains a mystery.
Silver reminded readers in hisBaseball Between the Numbersessay that, even in the absence of steroid usage, “unexplained variations in performance are the rule, not the exception.” His research team also found out that pitchers made up 36 of the 76 professional athletes suspended for performance-enhancing drugs in 2005—the first year in which MLB players were subject to suspensions and the first year in which minor league violators’ names were made public—and that he tentatively concluded that “the average performance improvement from steroid use is detectable but small” among hitters.
- “To suggest that the numbers of the era have been entirely distorted by the use of steroids would appear to be a stretch given the number of other factors in play,” wrote BP’s Jay Jaffe in the 2012 sequel to BBTN, Extra Innings.
- Despite the fact that the traditional sabermetric line adhered to the scientific approach, most baseball fans found it difficult to accept the idea of deferring judgment and downplaying the relationship between performance-enhancing drugs and dingers.
- The remainder was taken care of by theavailability heuristic: Steroids were the most controversial and unforgettable trademark of the era, and as a result, they were blamed for the astronomically high percentage of home runs in baseball.
- The home run rate in Major League Baseball (measured as the proportion of balls in play that result in home runs) has more than doubled in the past three seasons, surpassing the previous high point attained in 2000.
- As the home run rate began to rise in recent years, the public discourse about its causes sounded remarkably similar to that which had prevailed two decades earlier.
- There was a difference this time, though, since technology supplied a clear answer.
- However, they were unable to determine with certainty which physical properties of the ball were reducing the drag.
- However, while this does not rule out the possibility that steroids had a large role in the preceding surge, it does suggest that drugs are not essential in order to explain the earlier spike.
- In 2000, Major Organization Baseball made public the findings of an investigation that the league had commissioned from the University of Massachusetts Lowell Baseball Research Center.
- When comparing the construction of “steroid era” balls to those from earlier periods, several independent studies have found significant differences.
According to Lloyd Smith, a professor at Washington State University who has been studying bats and balls at the university’s Sports Science Laboratory for the past 20 years, “It is likely that the ball may have played a role in the PED-era offensive, but it is hard to determine how much,” he adds.
Eric Walker, the stat-savvy source in Cunningham’s 1998 column and a pivotal figure in the Oakland Athletics’ late-’90s sabermetric maturation, established a still-active website to house his extensive research and (at times snarky) writing about why the impact of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) on player performance must be minimal, if not nonexistent.
He hasn’t been convinced by recent developments that the ball was responsible for the allegedly PED-fueled home run rate, but that’s only because any doubts he had about the ball’s central role were dispelled long ago—and time hasn’t softened his disdain for those who continue to assert that steroids were to blame.
In Walker’s words, “the crux, the evidence that appears blindingly obvious but that so many people simply gloss over like a police inspector in a Sherlock Holmes story, is the suddenness of the change: a large step jump from one stable, self-consistent era to another such over the course of one season.” It is impossible to come up with any other explanation except a change in the baseball.” That the seasons with the largest year-over-year increases in home run rate on contact are 1977 (when MLB switched ball manufacturers, from Spalding to Rawlings); 1969 (when the mound was lowered and the strike zones shrunk); 2016 (the first full season with the reduced-drag ball); and 1993 (followed by 2015) is certainly suggestive of something (the season in which the reduced-drag ball made its first appearance).
But, before we declare the case closed, we should point out that there are some significant inconsistencies in the statistics from the steroid era.
The years in which McGwire hit 70 and 65 home runs in back-to-back seasons occurred when he was 34-35 years old; Barry Bonds was 37 years old when he hit number 73.
When we take a step back and look at the entire live-ball era, the steroid era becomes apparent once more: Since World War II, when large numbers of young players enlisted, there has been no time when hitters 35 and older and 25 and younger have accounted for such high and low percentages of leaguewide batter WAR, respectively.
- In addition, there is another way in which the steroid era appears to be suspicious: The outliers finished significantly higher than the average major leaguers.
- The period of time during which the most widely spread offensive figures were recorded corresponded nearly perfectly with what we now refer to as the steroid era, which raised some eyebrows.
- The distribution of home runs today is significantly more even than it was during the steroid era.
- But instead, a growing number of batters are putting up mid-tier totals, and no one is getting close to 60 or even 70 points (or this year, perhaps, even 50).
“The math, physics, and biology that was done on site show that steroids could not have had any nontrivial effect,” he says, adding that “there have always been and will always be occasional men who have an annus mirabilis; it is only if a few of those fall in an otherwise-controversial period that anyone believes them to be anything other than a fluke.” McGwire, who asserted this spring that he could have hit 70 even if he hadn’t used steroids, would almost certainly concur.
We’ll never be able to determine exactly how the ball behaved two decades ago, or who was taking what at what time, because we’ll never have the data.
The move from the dead ball period to the 1930s – 1940s and right up to today has tended to occur in tandem with significant changes in the ball — some of which are still only suspected, but many of which are well-documented — and substantial changes in the offense.
In theory, both of these statements are correct: that the ball was responsible for the majority of the increase in home run rate in the 1990s, and that unfettered access to performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) provided a select group of hitters who used and abused them to perform feats of power that had never been seen before or since.
If we blame performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) for retroactively ruining an era, we’re probably giving them too much credit for making it fun to begin with.
Baseball Writers Reject Barry Bonds, Other ‘Steroid-Era’ MLB Stars From Hall Of Fame For Final Time
Following the tenth and final rejection of their nominations by the Baseball Writers’ Association of America on Tuesday, seven-time National League MVP Barry Bonds and other “steroid-era” Major League Baseball stars were denied induction into the Baseball Hall of Fame by the organization’s members. The alleged use of performance-enhancing drugs during their playing careers was cited as a reason for their denial of induction. Photograph by Kirby.Lee/Getty Images showing the San Francisco Giants’ Barry Bonds in action during a game in Los Angeles, California, in 2002.
Bonds, the all-time home run leader in the Major League Baseball (MLB), garnered votes from 66 percent of the Baseball Writers’ Association of America (BBWAA), which fell short of the 75 percent threshold required to be inducted into the prestigious Baseball Hall of Fame. Baseball’s “steroid era,” during which 89 players were suspected of taking banned performance-enhancing substances while the league was not testing for them, is most remembered for Bonds, who was voted the best-known player of the era.
Alex Rodriguez, a fellow first-year candidate and former New York Yankees infielder, was voted out with 34.3 percent, making him the only new outfielder.
Sammy Sosa, another steroid-era star who reportedly tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in 2003, was similarly denied admittance into the Hall of Fame in his tenth and final year of eligibility through the BBWAA balloting process.
This move clearly made him less popular among the reporters who vote on the inductions.
Bonds and Clemens were two of the key figures in the Mitchell Report, a 2007 congressional investigation into performance-enhancing drugs led by former Sen. George Mitchell (D-Maine) that drew information from more than 700 sources, including 60 former players. Bonds and Clemens were both named in the Mitchell Report. According to the study, 89 players were found to have used illicit performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs). Clemens’ trainer, Brian McNamee, stated in the investigation that the pitcher urged him to inject him with steroids in 1998, according to the report.
However, an inquiry by the Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative discovered that Bonds had tested positive and had been aware of the result prior to the test.
In 2012, Clemens was cleared on charges of perjury, making false statements, and impeding the legislative process.
Bud Selig, the former Major Game Baseball commissioner who presided over the league from 1992 to 2015, including throughout its “steroid era,” told radio host Dan Patrick in 2019 that he does not believe Bonds is the legitimate home run king because of his usage of performance-enhancing drugs. Selig feels the distinction should be held by Hank Aaron, who finished second in the voting with 755 hits throughout his 22-year MLB career from 1954 to 1976, according to Selig. When it comes to Henry Aaron, even though Bonds owns the record, and I’ve previously stated that “records are records,” I believe you understand how I feel about him.
If steroid users be inducted into the Hall of Fame with “an asterisk beside their names,” Aarons claimed he would be cool with it in 2009.
ESPN reporter and BBWAA member Jeff Passan argued for Bonds’ candidacy on Tuesday ahead of the vote reveal, stating that “today is nothing less than an abject failure,” adding that “Bonds’ rejection, in particular, epitomizes how, all these decades later, baseball is still bungling the PED issue, valuing a lazy, ahistorical moral referendum over the preservation of history.” Bonds was not voted in, according to Passan’s assumption.
Passan drew attention to the alleged hypocrisy of the BBWAA, which has voted in other players who have been suspected of PED usage, as well as racists, domestic abusers, and a player who is being investigated for sexual assault.
Bonds has won seven MVP honors in his career, which is one more than the combined total of the other two National League runners-up, Albert Pujols and Hall-of-Famer Stan Musial, who each have three.
.609. That represents Bonds’ on-base percentage from the 2004 season, which was the greatest single-season rate in the history of the league. Bonds also have the second-highest interest rate, which was.582 in 2002. Josh Gibson, a Hall of Famer, had the third-highest total, with.560 in 1943.
Why this year’s Hall of Fame vote has dredged up baseball’s ‘steroid era’ again
.609. On-base percentage (OBP) from Bonds’s 2004 season, which was the greatest single-season rate in Major League Baseball history. At.582 percent in 2002, bonds are also the second-highest-yielding asset. Hall of Famer Josh Gibson had the third-highest total, with.560 in 1943, and he did it in 1943.
Steroids – BR Bullpen
In baseball, steroids are a vast class of bioactive compounds that have been the subject of scandals due to their use (and suspected use) by a number of players throughout the years. While some sources suggest that steroids have been taken by big leaguers since the 1960s, until the beginning of the twenty-first century, steroids received relatively little coverage in the media. Steroids are made up of a fused 4-ring, 17-carbon structure that is formed from the cholesterol molecule. A wide range of biological tasks are performed by steroids as a group, including androgenic (masculinizing), estrogenic (feminizing), and anti-inflammatory qualities.
They are prohibited in the majority of sports since they are unlawful performance-enhancing substances.
During the BALCOcontroversy in the early 2000s, players like as Barry Bonds, Jason Giambi, and Gary Sheffield were called into question, bringing the problem into the public’s consciousness.
The steroids used by Bonds and Sheffield were “the cream” and “the clear,” according to prosecutors, who said that the chemicals they acknowledged to taking were “the cream” and “the clear,” which were steroids intended by BALCO to be undetected by conventional testing.
Rafael Palmeiro was the most well-known player to be suspended, and he had previously sworn in testimony before Congress that he had never used steroids.
Cansecoin acknowledged to using steroids and alleged that teammates Mark McGwire, Rafael Palmeiro, and Ivan Rodriguez were also steroid users.
It is hard to tell with certainty what proportion of big league players have really taken steroids or other performance-enhancing chemicals in their careers.
According to Jose Canseco, 85 percent of big leaguers were also utilizing performance-enhancing drugs.
Although the MLB’s survey testing revealed a utilization rate of 5-7 percent, such figures are unlikely to be accurate in practice.
The Mitchell Report, which was issued in December 2007, was an attempt by Major League Baseball to gain a better understanding of the scope of the problem and how distribution networks functioned.
While the focus of steroid investigations and conjecture has been on superstar sluggers, the players who have been detected by MLB’s testing policies have included pitchers and position players, as well as stars and minor leaguers, among others.
In any event, the implementation of comprehensive testing appears to have had the desired effect of driving steroid use to the periphery of the sport.
If history is any indication, these players who came out against steroid usage will be recognized in the future, just as Christy Mathewson was recognized for speaking out against the sleazy tactics of his period.
People who believe that more players are not being caught taking steroids believe that this is because the more intelligent players have switched to utilizing human growth hormone, for which MLB has long lacked an adequate test.
There was another wave of steroid cases early in 2015, when four pitchers – Arodys Vizcaino, David Rollins, Ervin Santana, and Jenrry Mejia – were suspended for 80 games in the course of two weeks after testing positive for the performance-enhancing drug testosterone.
Considering the product’s lengthy history of misuse, it was a relatively straightforward product to detect, leading some to question why someone would put themselves in such danger by taking a chemical that was virtually likely to be detected in a drug test.
However, in this case, other explanations for the increase in home runs were offered, such as the widespread adoption of theLaunch angleapproach to hitting and changes to thebaseball.
Baseball has a lengthy history of drug usage among its players. Ball Four, a book written by Jim Bouton, describes the widespread usage of amphetamines in the 1960s.
- Dr. Howard Bryant’s book, “Juicing the Game,” was published by Viking Press in New York in 2005
- Jose Canseco’s book “Juiced,” was published by Viking Press in New York in 2005
- And Howard Bryant’s book “Juicing the Game,” was published by Viking Press in 2005. Will Carroll: The Juice: The Real Story of Baseball’s Drug Problem, Ivan R. Dee, Publisher, Chicago, IL, 2005
- William Morrow: The Juice: The Real Story of Baseball’s Drug Problem, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, NY, 2005
- William Morrow: The Juice: The Real Story of Baseball’s Drug Problem, Ivan Blood Sport: Alex Rodriguez, Biogenesis, and the Quest to End Baseball’s Steroid Era, by Tim Elfrink and Gus Garcia-Roberts, is a book written by Tim Elfrink and Gus Garcia-Roberts. Alan M. Nathan: “Taylor Hooton, Rob Garibaldi, and the Fight Against Teenage Steroid Abuse,” Penguin Books, New York, NY, 2014.ISBN 978-0525954637
- Mark Fainaru-Wada and Lance Williams: “Game of Shadows: Barry Bonds, BALCO, and the Steroid Scandal that Rocked Professional Sports,” Gotham Books, New York, NY, 2006
- William C. Kashatus “Possible Effect of Steroids on Home Run Production”, in The Baseball Research Journal, SABR, Volume 38, Number 1 (Summer 2009), pp. 36-38
- Bob Nightengale: “Decades later, we’re wondering about steroids in baseball – again,” USA Today, July 8, 2019
- Jorge L. Ortiz: “Why the positive steroid tests?” USA Today, July 8, 2019. MLB is interested in finding out “, USA Today, April 12, 2015
- Kirk Radomski and David Fisher:Bases Loaded: The Inside Story of the Steroid Era in Baseball by the Central Figure in the Mitchell Report, Hudson Street Press, New York, NY, 2009.ISBN 1594630569
- List of Major League Baseball players who have been implicated in the usage of performance-enhancing substances
- List of minor league players who have been implicated in the usage of performance-enhancing substances
- MLB’s Joint Drug Prevention and Treatment Program was established in 2005.