## A complete beginner’s guide to baseball stats: Batting statistics, and what they mean

Baseball is a game of statistics. Statistical information can be found in many sports, but there is something unique about baseball that makes it the ideal sport for statisticians of all stripes. Indeed, the study of baseball statistics has been given a distinct name: sabermetrics, which stands for sabermetric analysis of baseball statistics. With all of the wacky terms like DRS and wRC+ being thrown around in baseball articles, it can be difficult for baseball writers to remember that there are those who don’t obsess over the minutiae of the game, but simply enjoy it for what it is: a game.

As a result, in order to make things easier for people who are unfamiliar with baseball statistics, we’ll take a deep dive into what each of the major baseball data means.

Consider this to be an introductory course on baseball statistical analysis.

Without further ado, let us go through the fundamentals of a box score.

We have left off the pitching statistics, which will be covered in greater detail in the following section.

#### At Bats (AB)

This one is very self-explanatory, however it can be a little difficult to understand. It is depicted as AB in a box score. At Bats are the number of times a player comes to the plate and either hits, strikes out, reaches on an error, or is fielded out of the field by the other team. Walking, sacrificing one’s own base, and being hit by pitch are all examples of what does not qualify as an at bat. Thus, while Jose Iglesias appears to have fewer at bats than the other members of the lineup, he actually has more since he has walked more than the other members of the lineup.

Because it includes both of the categories above, plate appearances are a more literal representation of how many times a player has really appeared at the plate on a given occasion.

#### Run (R) and Runs Batted In (RBI)

When a hitter reaches home plate, either via their own efforts (a home run) or through the efforts of another batter, they are awarded an Arun(R). It is possible to score a run as a consequence of a batter’s efforts, which is denoted by the term “run batted in.” Confused? It’s not an issue. We can see in the box score above that Jeimer Candelario has scored a run, but he does not have an RBI. While he did cross home plate and score a run, it did not happen as a consequence of his own at-bat. RBIs have been recorded by bothNicholas Castellanos andNiko Goodrum.

Let’s see what happens.

I’m not sure how I figured it out without searching.

Based on the batting order and the restricted amount of runs and RBIs scored throughout the game, it was easy to come to the conclusion stated above.

In games where there are more runs and RBIs, this is obviously much more difficult, but it is an excellent method to get a sense of the difference between the two statistics.

#### Hits (H)

During an at bat, a hit (H) is defined as when the hitter reaches at least first base. Thus becomes a little more complicated since a hitter can reach first base on an error or a fielder’s choice, and this does not count as a hit in the final analysis. ** I’m included this disclaimer since I’m continuing to use the terminology and don’t want to cause any misunderstanding. An erroris was defined as any situation in which a fielder made a mistake that allowed the batter to advance to second base without being thrown out.

- Afielder’s choice denotes that an offensive player permitted the batter to advance to first base as a consequence of an unsuccessful attempt to put out a different runner in the field of play at the time.
- This would be deemed a fielder’s choice.
- Because a hit does not include an error or a fielder’s choice, it is possible for a hitter to reach first base without it being counted as a hit in baseball.
- A double, in which the hitter advances to second base, is denoted by the number 2B.
- An HR is a representation of a home run.

#### Base on Balls (BB)

This statistic is a slang term for the act of walking. This only applies when a hitter hits four balls in a row and is awarded first base as a result of doing so. An intentional walk (also known as IBB, or intentional base on balls) counts as a walk in the same way. An exception to this rule is when a hitter gets struck by the ball (also known as a hit by pitch or HBP) and is awarded a tripe to first base in response to the hit. Strikeouts are a type of dismissal (K) Strikeouts are rather easy; a strikeout occurs when a hitter sees or swings at three strikes, resulting in the batter’s at-bat being terminated.

If the batter is struck out looking, the batter is struck out looking, and the strikeout is signified by a K.

### Batting Stats

Batting average (also known as AVG above), on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG) are the three most important batting statistics to grasp in baseball (SLG). These are sometimes depicted as three stats side by side, separated by slashes, which has given rise to the moniker “slash line,” as in.220/.267/.314 (James McCann’s 2018 slash line), which is an abbreviation for “slash line.” If you ever read that a player “slashed” a given number, it will almost always be followed by one or more of the three statistics listed above.

On-base plus slugging (OPS) is a fourth batting statistic that is exactly what it sounds like: it is a mix of on-base percentage and slugging percentage combined. Examine the methods used to calculate each of those numbers.

#### Batting Average (AVG or BA)

This one is really straightforward. The batting average (BA) of a player is derived by dividing the total number of hits by the total number of at bats. An individual player’s season overall batting average, rather than simply a single game average, would be represented by the box score shown above. This provides a more thorough picture of how a player has performed to this point in time. It would be reasonable to assume that every third at bat resulted in a hit for a player with a.300 average.

#### On-base percentage (OBP)

This is also referred to as the “on-base average” from time to time in baseball (OBA). If you’ve seen the movieMoneyball, you might have a rudimentary concept of why this statistic is prized by certain teams and is considered more useful than batting average by others. This statistic is more comprehensive than batting average since it takes into account all of the times a batter advances to second base. Unlike in previous years, errors and fielder’s choice do not go towards this total, but it does include hits, walks, and batters who are hit by a pitch.

According to mathematical formulas, on-base percentage is computed by subtracting the total number of hits from the total number of walks and strikeouts, then dividing the result by the total number of at bats, walks, strikeouts, and sacrifice flies.

It’s no surprise that it is regarded as more inclusive.

#### Slugging (SLG)

Accept my apologies in advance for getting a little mathematical here. Slugging is defined as the sum of all bases (including all extra base hits) divided by the number of at bats. The most straightforward approach to comprehend this is to look at the formula. Thanks to Wikipedia for this image. Who else has the impression that they’re back in high school math class? It is advantageous to use slugging as a stat rather than batting average since it gives more weight to a player’s extra base hits rather than giving equal weight to all hits, as batting average does.

It enables for a more complete picture of a player’s overall performance at the plate to be obtained.

#### On-base plus slugging (OPS)

This may be regarded an overall evaluation of a player’s productivity because it takes into account both how frequently the batter gets to base (on-base percentage) and how frequently they hit for extra bases (on-base percentage) (SLG). It is usually accepted that if you see someone hitting with an OPS of over 1.000, it means that they are having an exceptionally outstanding season at the plate. Niko Castellanos was the Tigers’ top offensive performer last season, posting an OBP of.354, an SLG of.500, and an OPS of.854.

OPS+ analyzes a player’s overall point total and adjusts it for external factors like as the parks in which the game was played (as some are more hitter friendly than others).

For example, Castellanos had an OPS+ of 130 in 2018, which indicates that he performed 30 percent higher than the league average.

Because OPS+ begins to introduce us to more sophisticated statistics, we’ll conclude our fundamental statistics course here. If you’ve ever been curious about the terms ERA, WHIP, and FIP, keep an eye out for tomorrow’s post on pitching fundamentals.

## Baseball statistics – BR Bullpen

Baseball statistics are extremely essential, probably more so than in any other sport. Because the game of baseball has a fairly ordered flow to it, it lends itself to easy record keeping and statistical analysis, which is advantageous. As a result, it is extremely simple to create comparisons between players’ on-field performances, and as a result, baseball statistics are given greater prominence than they are in most other sports.

## Development of statistics

Henry Chadwick established the tradition of maintaining records of the players’ accomplishments in the 19th century, and it has continued ever since. Based on his cricketing expertise, Chadwick established the precursors of modern-day statistics such as batting average, runs scored, and runs allowed, among other things. The statistical world of baseball has traditionally been dominated by statistics such as hitters’ batting average (the number of hits divided by the number of at bats) and pitchers’ earned run average (roughly the number of runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings).

These statistics are intended to provide a more accurate representation of a player’s overall performance and contribution to his team from year to year.

In 1969, MacMillan Publishing published the firstBaseball Encyclopedia, which was the first publication to use a computer to gather statistics for the sport.

Interestingly, this research resulted in the identification of a number of players who did not appear in the official record books.

## Use of statistics

Player statistics are studied by general managers and baseball scouts in order to make conclusions about the skills of individual players. Managers, catchers, and pitchers research the statistics of opposing teams’ batters in order to determine the best way to pitch to them and place the players on the field in order to win the game. Managers and hitters research opposing pitchers in order to find out how to hit them the most effectively. Management makes personnel choices during games, such as who to start in the lineup and which relief pitcher to bring in, on the basis of statistical data collected throughout the game.

- The most frequently mentioned batting statistics are batting average, runs batted in, and home runs.
- For pitchers, wins, earned run average, and strikeouts are the classic statistics that are most frequently referenced.
- Some sabermetric data have made their way into the mainstream of baseball.
- It is calculated by multiplying the hitter’s base percentage (the number of times he or she reached base—by any means—divided by the total number of plate appearances) by the hitter’s slugging percentage (total basesdivided by at bats).
- The batting average of a pitcher is also significant in measuring his or her degree of success.
- A pitcher’s statistics may be broken down into several categories, the most important of which are K/9IP (strikeouts per nine innings), K/BB (strikeouts per walk), HR/9, WHIP (walks plus hits per inning thrown), and OOPS (opponent on-base plus slugging).
- In the case of pitchers, these statistics, such as the Defense-Independent ERA (dERA), make an attempt to evaluate a pitcher on the basis of events that are completely influenced by the pitcher’s performance and not by the strength of the defensive players behind him or her.
- An experienced manager may be more inclined to give a given batter more opportunities to face left-handed pitchers because of the hitter’s ability to hit left-handed pitchers.

Depending on the pitcher (or vice versa), other batters may have a track record of success against that pitcher, and the manager can utilize this knowledge to construct a beneficial matchup.

## Commonly used statistics

The majority of these words are also applicable to softball. Several commonly used statistics, as well as their acronyms, are described in this section. In order to provide a fast reference, the explanations below do not fully or totally describe the statistic; for a more thorough definition, please go to the related article for each statistic.

### Batting statistics

- A single hit that allows the batter to safely reach first base without the assistance of a fielding mistake is designated as 1B. 2B -Double-hits in which the hitter successfully advances to second base without the assistance of a fielding mistake
- 3B -Triple-hits in which the hitter successfully advances to third base without the assistance of a fielding error
- The term “at bat” refers to a batting appearance, which does not include bases-on-balls, balls hit by pitches, sacrifices, interference, or obstruction. At bats per home run (AB/HR) is the sum of at bats divided by the number of home runs. BA – Batting average (often abbreviated AVG) – the number of hits divided by the number of at bats The term “base on balls” refers to a situation in which a batter receives four balls and advances to first base. Walking to strikeout ratio (BB/K) is the number of base on balls divided by the number of outs in a game. Extra base hits (doubles, triples, and home runs) are referred to as XBH. FC (Fielder’s Choice) refers to situations when a runner reaches base after a fielder has decided to try to force an out on another runner. Number of ground balls out divided by the number of fly ball outs is known as AO/GO (Ground Ball Fly Ball Ratio). Number of ground balls that were hit and turned into double plays (also known as GDP or GiDP)
- When a home run is hit with the bases loaded, four runs are scored and four RBIs are recorded to the batter, this is known as a Grand Slam. Batted fair ball with no errors by the defense resulted in a hit, which allowed the batter to advance to second base. HBP (hit by pitch) refers to instances in which a pitch is touched and the batter is given first base as a consequence. Home runs are defined as hits on which the hitter successfully touches all four bases without the benefit of a defensive mistake. IBB stands for “intentional base on balls.” A base on balls (see BB above) is a base on balls that is intentionally thrown by the pitcher. IW (intentional walk) is another term for this activity. Number of times a strike three is taken or swung at and missed or a bunted foul is committed is denoted by the letter K. LOB (Left on Base) refers to the number of runners who are not out and have not scored at the end of an inning. OBP (On Base Percentage) is calculated by dividing the number of times a player has reached base (H + BB + HBP) by the total number of at bats plus walks plus hit by pitch plus sacrifice flies (AB + BB + HBP + SF). On-base plus slugging (OPS) is the sum of the on-base percentage and the slugging average. PA -Plate appearance – is the total number of completed batting appearances in a season. It is possible to assess how many runs a player has contributed to his team using the RC (Runs generated) statistic. In baseball, the term “run batted in” refers to the number of runners who have scored as the result of a hitter’s action, with the exception of when the batter grounds into a double play or reaches on an error. Sacrifice fly (SF) – the number of fly ball outs that allow another runner to advance on the basepaths or score a run
- Number of sacrifice bunts that have been made to allow another runner to advance on the basepaths or score
- SH -Sacrifice hit – SLG (slugging average) is the sum of all bases divided by the number of at-bats. To calculate total average, divide total bases plus walks plus steals by the number of plate appearances plus the number of times a player is caught stealing. T – Total bases: one for each single, two for each double, three for each triple, and four for each home run
- TB = Total bases
- TOB (Times on Base) refers to the number of times a player has reached base as a consequence of hits, walks, or being hit by a pitch.

### Baserunning statistics

- If someone is caught stealing, they are tagged out for a certain amount of time. Number of bases advanced other than through batted balls, walks, or hits by pitch
- SB -Stolen base R – Runscored – times when the player returned to home base legally and safely
- R – Runscored – times when the player returned to home base illegally and safely
- R – Runsscored – times when the player returned to home base illegally and safely
- R – Run

### Pitching statistics

- BABIP (Batting Average on Balls in Play) is a batting average against a pitcher on batted balls that end a plate appearance, excluding home runs, that is calculated after a plate appearance. BB is an abbreviation for “base on balls” (also called a “walk”) times throwing four balls, allowing the batter-runner to make it to first base on four different occasions In baseball, BB/9 is defined as the number of base on balls multiplied by nine and divided by the number of innings pitched (bases on balls for every nine innings pitched). BF – total batters faced – the total number of plate appearances made by the opponent In baseball, BK stands for the number of times a pitcher executes an unlawful throwing motion or other illegal activity while in contact with the pitching rubber, resulting in baserunners moving forward. Number of times a player has entered the game in a save position and then been charged with a run that ties the game
- BS -Blown save- CERA is an acronym that stands for Component In baseball, the term “earned run average” (ERA) refers to an estimate of a pitcher’s ERA based on the separate components of his statistical line (Ks, H, 2B, 3B, HR, BB, HBP)
- CG -Complete game – the number of games in which a player was the lone pitcher for his side
- A player’s CG -Complete game – DICE (Defense-Independent Component) is an acronym that stands for Defense-Independent Component. the estimated earned run average (ERA) of a pitcher based on the components of his statistical line that are not reliant on defense (K, HR, BB, HBP)
- In baseball, earned runs are the number of runs that are not scored as a consequence of mistakes or passed balls. ERA (earned run average) is calculated as follows: earned runs multiplied by the number of innings in a game (typically nine) divided by the number of innings pitched
- G -Games thrown (also known as’Appearances ‘) – the number of times a pitcher throws a pitch in a season. The number of games pitched in which the player was the last pitcher for his club is denoted by the letter GF (Games completed). Ground ball to fly ball ratio (G/F) is the number of ground balls permitted divided by the number of fly balls allowed. A player’s number of games pitched when he was the first pitcher for his team is denoted by the letter GS. H/9 -Hits per nine innings – Hits allowed multiplied by nine divided by the number of innings pitched (also known as H/9IP -Hits allowed per nine innings pitched)
- H/9IP -Hits allowed per nine innings pitched H -Hits Allowed – total number of hits permitted
- HB -Hit batsman – refers to a hitter who has been hit by a pitch, allowing the runner to reach first base. HLD (or H) -Hold- is the number of games in which a save situation has been entered, where the save situation has been abandoned, where at least one out has been recorded, and where the lead has not been relinquished
- HR -Home runs permitted – total number of home runs permitted It is permissible to use intentional base on balls (IBB). It stands for inherited runners, which is the amount of runners on base when the pitcher comes into the game. IRA (Inherited Runs Allowed) is the maximum number of inherited runners that can score. Innings pitched is the product of the number of outs recorded while pitching multiplied by three. Innings pitched per game (IP/GS) is the average number of innings pitched each game. K – Strikeout – the number of hitters that were hit with a third strike
- AKA K/9 (Strikeouts per nine innings) is calculated by multiplying the number of strikeouts by nine and dividing the number of innings pitched (Strikeouts per nine innings pitched). A ratio of strikeouts to walks is calculated by dividing the number of strikeouts by the number of base on balls. Winning percentage of games in which pitcher was pitching when the opposition side gained an early lead, never relinquished control of the lead, and went on to win
- Opponents batting average (OBA) is calculated by dividing the number of hits allowed by the number of at-bats faced. PITCH COUNT – Number of pitches thrown (Pitch Count)
- RA (Run Average) is the product of the number of runs allowed multiplied by nine and divided by the number of innings pitched. Running against the average is a sabermetric statistic that may be used to forecast victory %. SO – Shutout – the amount of complete games thrown without allowing a single run
- A pitcher’s save is the number of games in which a pitcher enters a game with a lead held by the pitcher’s team and exits that game with no loss of the lead, is not the winning pitcher, and either (a) the lead was three runs or less when the pitcher entered the game
- (b) the potential tying run was on base or at bat
- Or (c) the pitcher pitched three or more innings. In games when a pitcher was pitching while his team gained the lead and went on to win (also known as winning percentage), W represents the number of games won. When a pitch is thrown too high, too low, or too wide of home plate for the catcher to field, a wild pitch charge is applied, enabling one or more runners to advance or score.

### Fielding statistics

- It is possible to record the number of outs on a play in which a fielder touches the ball, save if such touching is for a putout, as a “Assist.” One for each double play in which the fielder recorded a putout or an assist, and one for each double play in which the fielder recorded an assist
- DP -Double plays Number of times a fielder fails to make a play that he should have made with reasonable effort, and the offense gains as a result of this failure
- To calculate fielding percentage, divide the total number of plays (chances less mistakes) by the total number of opportunities. INN -Innnings – the number of innings that a player spends in a specific position on the field When the ball is dropped and one or more runners advance, the catcher is charged with a passed ball (also known as a passed ball charge). Number of times a fielder tags, forces, or appeals a runner and the runner is subsequently thrown out
- PO – Putout Ranging factor (*9) divided by the number of innings played. When determining how much field a player can cover, this is taken into consideration. Stolen bases (also known as stolen bases) refer to the number of times a runner advances on a pitch without being caught by the catcher. TC stands for total chances, which includes assists, putouts, and mistakes. Each triple play during which the fielder recorded a putout or an assist is denoted by the letters TP (triple play).

### General statistics

- G -Games played – the total number of games in which the player participated in full or in part

## Further Reading

- Baseball, Statistics, and the Role of Chance in the Game by Jim Albert and Jay Bennett was published by Copernicus Books in New York in 2001 with the ISBN 978-0387988160
- Jim Albert and Jay Bennett’s Curve Ball is available on Amazon.com for $9.99. Jim Albert: Teaching Statistics Using Baseball, 2nd edition, Mathematical Association of America Press, Providence, RI, 2017.ISBN 978-1-93951-216-1
- Gabriel B. Costa, Michael R. Huber, and John T. Saccoman: Understanding Sabermetrics: An Introduction to the Science of Baseball Statistics, 2nd edition, Mathematical Association of America Press, Providence, RI, 2017.ISBN 978-1-93951-216-1
- Jim Albert: Teaching Statistics Using Baseball McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2008
- William Darby: Deconstructing Major League Baseball, 1991-2004: How Statistics Illuminate Individual and Team Performances, McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2008. McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2006. Steve Gardner (interviewer): “According to Gary Gillette and Lyle Spatz: “Not chiseled in stone. A guide to advanced baseball statistics like as WAR, BABIP, FIP, and more”, USA Today, July 17, 2019. Baseball’s Enduring Records and the SABR Era”, The Baseball Research Journal, SABR, Volume 40, Number 2 (Fall 2011), pp. 7-11
- Glenn Guzzo, “The New Ballgame: Understanding Baseball Statistics for the Casual Fan,” ACTA Sports, Skokie, IL, 2007
- Bill James, “Stats in Baseball,” The Baseball Research Journal, SABR, Volume 40, Number 2 (Fall 2011), pp. 7-11
- Bill James, “Stats “Kevin Reavy and Ryan Spaeder:Is Baseball a Simple Game?, in: Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns:Baseball: an Illustrated History, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, 1994, pp. 101-103
- Keith Law:Smart Baseball: The Story Behind the Old Stats That Are Ruining the Game, the New Stats That Are Running It, and the Right Way to Think About Baseball, HarperCollins, New York, NY, 2017.

Some or all of the information in this article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, which you can read more about here. “Baseball statistics” is taken from the Wikipedia page “Baseball statistics.”

## MLB advanced stats glossary: A guide to baseball stats that go beyond RBI, batting average, ERA

Having at least a passing acquaintance with advanced statistics, which are measurements that go beyond the traditional fare of RBI, batting average, earned run average, fielding % and the like, is part of being a baseball fan these days. Because certain advanced baseball statistics may be unfamiliar to you, or you may simply want to brush up on your knowledge, we’ve put together the following dictionary of advanced baseball statistics. It is by no means a complete list, but it does cover all of the non-traditional statistics that you are likely to encounter the majority of the time (including within these very pages).

### Batting Average on Balls in Play (BABIP)

Fair-hit balls that don’t leave the park are considered to be in play, and the batting average on balls in play (BABIP) is the batting average on balls that are in play and potentially fieldable. BABIP is typically around.290 for a pitcher, but it may go as high as 1.300. While some pitchers have some ability to manage BABIP to a limited extent, it is more common at the Major League Baseball level when a pitcher’s BABIP is significantly different from that. 290-.300 range, it’s likely that luck – good or bad – is playing a role (in addition to the quality of the defense behind him).

Batters’ BABIP is a little more “sticky” and representative of genuine talent, although broad swings that are out of sync with a hitter’s proven ability and or league averages might suggest the presence of either good or bad luck at the plate.

### Defensive Efficiency Rating (DER)

The proportion of balls in play (i.e., fair hit balls that do not fly over the fence) that are converted into outs by a team’s defense is known as the defensive efficiency ratio (DER). The main idea of team defense, after all, is to keep the other side from scoring a goal. DER, as contrast to the profoundly faulty fielding percentage, takes into consideration range and the ability of the entire team to perform the regular play. The Oakland Athletics were the best team in the Major Leagues in 2018, with a DER of.717, which means they turned 71.7 percent of balls in play into outs.

### Defensive Runs Saved (DRS)

The defensive component of bWAR is known as DRS. It counts the amount of runs saved over the MLB average at a certain player’s position, as well as the “degree of difficulty” of the saves. For example, the less probable it is that a play will be performed by the typical fielder, the more credit a player receives for making the play successfully.

It is based on the plus-minus method found in the Fielding Bible, which you can learn more about here if you click here. According to Fielding Bible, the following factors are included while calculating DRS, which analyzes all stages of defense:

- All non-catchers save runs
- Catchers save earned runs
- Catchers steal bases
- Pitchers save stolen bases
- Outfielders save arm runs
- Bunt runs saved (corner infielders, catchers, pitchers)
- Double play runs saved (middle infielders and corner infielders)
- Good plays/misplays save runs (all fielders)
- Plus/minus runs saved (all non-catchers)
- Plus/minus runs saved (all non-

There is no such thing as a flawless defensive measure, but advanced defensive metrics are far, far superior than fielding %, which does not take into consideration a fielder’s range.

### ERA+

This is a pitcher’s earned run average that has been modified to account for the home stadium and league environment. It is calibrated so that a mark of 100 represents league average performance, and the higher the mark, the better the performance from the pitcher’s perspective. An ERA+ of 110 indicates that a pitcher’s park- and league-adjusted ERA was 10 percent better than the league mean over the course of the season. The same goes for an ERA+ of 90, which indicates that the pitcher’s adjusted ERA was 10 percent worse than the league norm after accounting for park and league adjustments.

Taking the league offensive environment and Tropicana Field into consideration, his 1.89 earned run average was an incredible 119 percent better than the league average.

### Fielding-Independent Pitching (FIP)

FIP is scaled to appear similar to ERA, but it differs in that it only considers outcomes that have nothing to do with fielding, such as strikeouts, walks, and home runs allowed, rather than all outcomes. As a result, it is a more accurate indicator of raw pitching ability than the earned run average. Jacob deGrom was the best pitcher in Major League Baseball in 2018, posting an ERA of 1.70 and a FIP of 1.98. So, while he may have been a touch fortunate to have that ERA, he was virtually as dominant at the FIP level as he was at the ERA level.

### Game Score

It is a fast and dirty Bill James statistic that assesses the dominance or lack thereof of a pitcher in a given start. It is also known as the Game Score metric. A Game Score of 50 is considered normal, 90 or more is considered exceptional, and anything less than 20 is considered a catastrophic start. The following is the formula for calculating it.

- Start with 50 points and increase it by one point for each out that is recorded. Each inning finished beyond the fourth is worth two more points. For each strikeout, add one point to your total. For each hit that is permitted, deduct two points. For each run that is permitted, whether earned or unearned, subtract four points. Make a one-point deduction for each stroll

Kerry Wood’s remarkable 20-strikeout effort against the Astros in 1998 earned him a Game Score of 105, which remains one of the all-time best scores in baseball history.

### Isolated Power (ISO)

ISO, which is often referred to as “Isolated Slugging,” is a measure of a hitter’s raw power that is used in baseball. It’s simply the batting average deducted from the slugging percentage in a game of baseball. Essentially, it is the average number of additional bases a batter gets on a per-at-bat basis. ISO values below.100 suggest a batter with very little power, but ISO values of.250 or more indicate a real hitter with plenty of power.

### On-Base Plus Slugging (OPS)

The on-base percentage (OPS) is the sum of his slugging percentage and his on-base percentage. Consequently, the resultant number provides a useful snapshot of output on a rate-of-production basis (i.e., not reflective of playing time). “OPS allowed” is a phrase that you’ll see from time to time for pitchers, but it’s more commonly seen for hitters. Even though it isn’t ideal, in that the on-base percentage is the more significant component, the on-base percentage formula regards both OBP and SLG as equally valuable components.

However, it is an effective shorthand. In the presence of proper playing, any batter with an OPS of 1.000 or higher is considered to be an excellent hitter. In 2018, the league’s average on-base percentage (OPS) was.728.

### OPS+

OPS+ (on-base percentage plus slugging percentage – see above) is OPS (on-base percentage plus slugging percentage – see above) that has been modified to match league and stadium factors. OPS+ is calculated in the same way as ERA+ (see above), with 100 representing the league average. Similar to this, an OPS+ of 110 indicates that the batter’s OPS was 10 percent better than the league mean after accounting for the hitter’s park and league. With an OPS+ of 90, it signifies that the hitter’s adjusted park and league OPS was ten percent poorer than the league norm for that particular season.

That implies his adjusted OPS was 99 percent greater than the league average when adjusted for park and league.

### Strikeout Percentage (K%) and Walk Percentage (BB%)

This is the number of strikeouts and walks a pitcher (or a hitter) has issued as a proportion of the total number of batters faced/total plate appearances. In comparison to the more commonly used K/9 and BB/9, the K percent and BB percent measure how many batters a pitcher faces in a given inning (i.e., a pitcher who strikes out all three batters he faces in an inning is doing better than one who “strikes out the side” while allowing three runs in the same inning, and K/9 does not account for such things).

### Ultimate Zone Rating (UZR)

When it comes to players other than catchers, this is the defensive metric that is utilized in FanGraphs’ version of Wins Above Replacement (see below). UZR splits the field into defensive zones and also compensates for the speed of a hit ball, which is important in baseball. It is expressed in runs and compares fielders to the average MLB fielder at their individual positions in the league. Because a comprehensive discussion of UZR is beyond the scope of this exercise, please refer to this extensive explanation by Mitchel Lichtman, the program’s designer.

### Weighted On-Base Average (wOBA)

Every probable offensive event that occurs when a batter is at the plate is assigned an appropriate value by the WOBA system. Those accurate assessments of singles, doubles, home runs, walks, and other such events separate wOBA from more traditional measurements such as the average, on-base percentage, and slugging percentage. Also, for the sake of simplicity, wOBA is scaled to appear like OBP, which implies that a wOBA of.400 indicates excellent performance and a wOBA of.290 indicates inferior performance.

More information about wOBA may be found at FanGraphs.

### Weighted On-Base Average, Expected (xwOBA)

This statistic develops out of the wOBA (see immediately above) and is an estimate of what a batter’s expected batting average should be, based on factors such as exit velocity off the bat and launch angle. xwOBA aims to remove the effects of luck – whether good or poor – and defensive performance from wOBA in order to determine a hitter’s baseline talent. A hitter’s performance in the short term may be estimated using this method, and it is relatively beneficial in this regard. Essentially, if a hitter’s xwOBA is much lower than his wOBA, he will almost certainly experience a relapse at some time in his career.

On the other hand, if a hitter’s xwOBA is significantly greater than his wOBA, it is likely that he will have better days in the near future. More information about xwOBA may be found here.

### Weighted Runs Created+ (wRC+)

This one monitors all stages of performance at the plate and modifies them to account for differences in ballpark and league conditions. The greater the wRC+, the more effective the batter was. The value of wRC+ is adjusted so that a score of 100 corresponds to a league-average hitter. In that way, wRC+ is similar to OPS+ (see above), but it is an upgrade above OPS+ since it takes into consideration baserunning, double plays, and other such factors as well.

### Wins Above Replacement (WAR)

When it comes to baseball, Wins Above Replacement (WAR) is a comprehensive statistic that aims to assess a position player’s or pitcher’s overall value. It is taken into consideration for position players when it comes to hitting, base-running, and fielding stats. WAR is evaluated in theoretical runs and is compared to a “replacement level” baseline to determine effectiveness. A replacement-level player is any player type who is readily accessible and inexpensively to major-league clubs when they are in a bind.

- These players, by definition, are not excellent; they are, in a practical sense, the bare minimum that an MLB team can do when it comes to filling a job on short notice.
- It is sometimes abbreviated as “fWAR” since it is based on FanGraphs’ version of WAR, which takes as major inputs those aspects of the game over which the pitcher (and catchers, to a certain extent) has the greatest influence.
- bWAR, on the other hand, is mostly driven by a pitcher’s runs allowed, with adjustments made for the strength of the defense surrounding him.
- It is as a result that the two techniques differ very significantly when it comes to particular pitchers, as shown in the chart below.
- Pitcher value is a difficult concept to grasp, and these two independent measurements do an excellent job of capturing and presenting the many-faceted phenomenon that is pitching.
- Then bWAR is the best option for you.
- Then fWAR is here to assist you.

Those who claim, maybe somewhat simplistically, that WAR should be ignored since even its defenders cannot agree on how to calculate it are actually wishing that pitching itself weren’t quite so convoluted and nuanced in its complexity and nuanced in its subtlety Without a doubt, though, WAR does have some shortcomings, particularly when it comes to position players.

- Each of these measures is among the most effective we have for determining defensive value, although they are far from flawless.
- This is especially true if the defensive performances do not reflect the player’s reputation and past experience.
- A player with a 3.3 WAR isn’t inherently superior to a guy with, say, a 2.9 WAR in every situation.
- In large measure, this is due to the fact that WAR does an excellent job of expressing offensive value as well as the duality of pitching.
- It is erroneous, nearly as stupid as those who repudiate WAR in its whole.
- In the league, a WAR of around 2.0 is considered ordinary, while a WAR of, say, 8.0 or greater is considered MVP-caliber performance.

WARs that are negative are not only feasible, but also prevalent. A player’s WAR, rather than other metrics such as pitching wins or game-winning RBIs, is what experts are referring to when they claim he was a “worthwins” player in their analysis.

### Win Probability Added (WPA)

What effect did a player’s performance have on the outcome of a particular game? This is, in general, the issue that WPA is attempting to address through its work. Essentially, win probability analysis (WPA) examines a team’s probability of winning a particular game – also known as “win expectation” – and measures how a certain player influences that probability. Did you know that an RBI double in the first inning of a 12-3 victory? The hitter’s WPA will increase, but not by a significant amount.

It is likely that his WPA for the game will be significantly reduced as a result of his performance, which was the epitome of a clutch scenario.

You’ll discover that they often correspond to our preconceived assumptions about who the finest manufacturers are in the industry.

As more and more sophisticated statistics become widely utilized by baseball fans and commentators, we invite you to revisit this page from time to time.

## How to Read Baseball Statistics

Documentation Download Documentation Download Documentation Baseball fans and analysts rely heavily on statistics to determine the worth of individual players. Even if conventional statistics continue to have a significant impact, new methods of statistical analysis have demonstrated tremendous success in reviewing records and projecting player performance. Fans may evaluate players for fantasy leagues or simply have a better knowledge and enjoyment for the game by learning how to interpret baseball statistics.

- 1Look through a regular box score. Box scores are statistical representations of how players fared in individual games and may be found in the Sports section of a newspaper or on a sports website. Box scores are a type of statistical representation of how players performed in specific games. 4 offensive statistics and 6 pitching categories are given in a tabular style in the standard box scores list
- 2 Take a look at the team’s starting lineup. The offensive, or hitting, portion of the box score contains a complete listing of the starting lineup. Players are listed in batting order, with the positions they played throughout the game following their names on the team sheet of paper. Replacement players’ names are indented within the box score and listed under the person they are replacing in the standings. The four offensive categories indicated in the offensive table are as follows:

- AB stands for at-bats
- R stands for runs scored
- H stands for base hits
- RBI stands for runs batted in.

Advertisement number three Examine the additional in-depth fielding and hitting stats included beneath the offensive chart. Individual accomplishments are highlighted in this section of the report. A player called Smith may smash his sixth home run of the season, and the box score would read, HR: Smith (6th) (6). Other statistics categories that would be included in this portion of the box score would include:

- E: errors, LOB: left on base (team statistic), and DP: double plays (team statistic)
- 2B: doubles, 3B: triples, and HR: home runs (with season total)
- SB stands for stolen bases, SF stands for sacrifice flies, and S stands for sacrifices.

- 1 Look at the pitching statistics. The pitchers are listed in the order in which they appeared throughout the game. Winning, losing, or saving a game is shown after a pitcher’s name in the event that he or she earned a choice in the game. When the sign appears, it is accompanied by either his current win-loss record or the total amount of saves he has amassed to far. The pitching table has six categories, which are as follows:

- It is possible to have a decimal value of either.1 or.2, which represents a portion of an innings, when you pitch an inning. For example, a starting pitcher may go six innings and only allow one hitter to reach base in the seventh inning. His innings pitched would be 6.1
- H would represent hits allowed
- R would represent runs allowed
- ER would represent earned runs allowed
- BB would represent walks allowed
- K would represent strikeouts.

2 Gather in-depth pitching data from many sources. A collection of extra pitching statistics may be found beneath the pitching table. They can include the following:

- The terms wild pitches (WP) and balks (BK) are interchangeable, as are HBP (hit by pitch) and passed balls (catcher’s statistics).

3 Examine the season’s statistical data. Besides the categories given in box scores, season statistics include a variety of other useful information. The following are some of the most notable:

- For a player’s on-base percentage (OBP), put together his totals of hits and walks as well as runs scored by being hit by pitches. Divide that total by the sum of his at-bats, walks, runs scored by being hit by pitches and sacrifice flies. (H+BB+HBP/AB+BB+HBP+SF)
- Slg.: To get a player’s slugging percentage, divide his total bases by his at-bats. Total bases are the aggregate of a player’s home runs multiplied by four, triples multiplied by three, doubles multiplied by two, and singles multiplied by one. In order to compute Avg., divide the number of hits by the number of at-bats. This results in the player’s batting average, which is calculated as follows: ERA (earned-run average): The earned-run average, or ERA, of a pitcher is a measure of his overall efficiency across nine innings. To calculate an earned run average (ERA), divide the pitcher’s earned runs by the number of innings pitched and multiply the quotient by 9

4 Conduct more research into statistical applications. In recent decades, a number of different statistical analysis tools for baseball have been developed.

Sabermetrics has transformed the process of judging baseball talent in a way that few other methods have. While many of Sabermetrics’ concepts have received general acceptance among fans and analysts, the two listed below stand out as particularly important and revolutionary.

- OPS: On Base + Slugging (On Base + Slugging). When Bill James developed Sabermetrics, he sought a straightforward, defining statistic that could be used to assess a player’s ability to generate runs. OPS numbers on hundreds of players were compiled over many years and the efficacy of the statistic in estimating a player’s value to his club was again demonstrated. The OPS for the Major Leagues is 0.728, which is below the league average. A superstar has an OPS of 0.900
- A good player has an OPS of 0.800. Analysis of the pitching performance: Sabermetrics developed ground-breaking approaches for analyzing pitchers by employing a number of complicated algorithms and formulas. In addition to having names that are as strange as their formulae, BABIP, dERA, and DIPS are metrics that assess pitching performance while eliminating the influences of luck and defense and factoring in the influence of the stadium.

This statistic indicates how many times a pitcher is allowed to reach base during an inning. A large number of statisticians feel that it is a more accurate formula for evaluating a pitcher’s performance than the earned run average (ERA).

- Count all walks and hits the pitcher has given up throughout his outing
- 2 Subtract the sum of the aforementioned figures from the total number of innings pitched. As an illustration:

- Over seven innings, Kershaw walks none and allows one hit, for a 1.07 ERA and a 0.143 WHIP. If the hit had been a home run, his earned run average would have been 1.28. However, if it was only a hit, his ERA would be 0.00, which does not completely explain what happened. Consider the following scenario: he spreads three walks and four hits, but he does not generate any runs. His earned run average (ERA) remains at zero, but his whip has increased to one. Depending on your perspective, either he gets out of trouble or he’s been fortunate enough to avoid giving up runs.

Create a new question

- Question What does the abbreviation IBB stand for in pitchers’ statistics? This abbreviation refers to a “intentional base on balls” or an intentional walk
- Question What do the acronyms “A” and “PO” stand for when it comes to fielding statistics? The letters “A” and “PO” stand for “assist” and “putout,” respectively. A putout is the act of retiring (or “putting out”) a hitter or a base runner from the game. In baseball, there are several different methods to get out of a jam, the most popular of which include catching a fly ball, getting out from behind first and second bases while trying to tag the baserunner, getting out from behind third base while trying to strike out. Question: When does a player receive an assist? Answer: When a player tosses a ball to aid in making a putout (with the exception of a pitcher who does not receive an assist when he strikes out a batter)
- So, what does BSA/ATT represent in terms of baseball statistics? This is not a well recognized baseball term, but it most likely refers to “base-stealing average per attempt,” which is what it means. “Stolen base percentage” is a term that refers to the degree of success a specific player (or team) has in attempting to steal bases (that is, the number of successful thefts divided by the total number of attempted steals). What is the proper way to interpret batting averages? Having a batting average of “.256” is referred to as having a “two-fifty-six” batting average. The average of “.000” is referred to as “zero.” A hitter who gets a hit in every at-bat has an average of “1.000” or “one-thousand,” which is the highest possible score.
- sQuestion What do the minuscule letters “a,” “b,” “e,” and other letters that appear before a player’s name in box scores mean, and why do they appear? Those are footnotes, and their significance is described at the end of the box score. Question What does the letter “h” imply after the name of a relief pitcher? Depending on your perspective, it’s either a typo or a footnote that’s clarified towards the bottom of the box score. Question Is there a book that describes how to comprehend the specifics of a baseball game, particularly the Cubs team’s performance? Yes, there are many such books (not all of which are about the Cubs), among them “Little League’s Official How-To-Play Baseball Book” by Peter Kreutzer and Ted Kerley, and “Baseball For Dummies” by Joe Morgan and Richard Lally
- Question: Is it possible to get a copy of “Little League’s Official How-To-Play Baseball Book”? What are the implications of the following batting statistics: 288/.339/.562? A season’s worth of hits might total up to 288 total hits throughout the season. . The numbers 339 and.562 appear to reflect batting average and slugging percentage, respectively (number of total bases divided by the number of at-bats)
- Question What are the 3 numerals following a batters name? Those stats generally indicate his batting average, on base percentage, and slugging percentage
- Question What is WAR and how is it calculated? “Wins above replacement” is a measure of how important a given player is to his team. It is a rather subjective measurement of the amount of times a player’s very successful actions result in a direct victory

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## About This Article

Summary of the ArticleX Baseball statistics may be used to analyze how well players are performing and to anticipate how they will perform in subsequent games, among other things. Take a look at the four categories displayed at the top of a box score to get an idea of where to begin. At-bats are represented by the letter “Ab,” runs scored by the letter “R,” base hits by the letter “H,” and runs batted in by the letter “RBI.” Each row belongs to a single player, who is mentioned at the bottom of the box score to the left of the scoreboard.

The same is true for pitchers, who have numbers that include things like “H” for hits allowed, “R” for runs allowed, and a “K” for strikeouts among their many other things.

Continue reading to find out how to apply a statistical technique to calculate season averages.

The writers of this page have together authored a page that has been read 148,275 times.