## MLB Baseball Abbreviations Legend

MLB Abbreviations and Symbols

Heading | Explanation | Position | Explanation |

W / L | Wins / Losses | C | Catcher |

ATS | Record Against The Spread | 1B | First Base |

Slug | Slugging Percentage | 2B | Second Base |

Ho | Home record | 3B | Third Base |

Aw | Away Record | SS | Short Stop |

O/U | Over/Under Record | LF | Left Field |

AF | Average Runs For | CF | Center Field |

AA | Average Runs Against | RF | Right Field |

BA | Batting Average | DH | Designated Hitter |

SLG | Slugging Percentage | SP | Starting Pitcher |

HR | Home Runs For | RP | Relief Pitcher |

ERA | Earned Run Average | ||

OBP | On Base Percentage | ||

Home-Away | Home Score – Away Score | ||

H Starter | Home Starter in that particular game | ||

A Starter | Away Starter in that particular game | ||

LOB:R | Left On Base to Runs ratio | ||

OPS | Slugging Percentage + On Base Percentage | ||

AVG | Batting Average for that game | ||

Starter | Team’s Starter for that game | ||

IP | Innings the starter pitched | ||

Opp Starter | Innings the starter pitched | ||

H | Hits Allowed by the starter | ||

R | Runs Allowed by the starter | ||

ER | Earned Runs Allowed by the starter | ||

SO | Strikeouts by the starter | ||

BB | Base on Balls allowed by the starter | ||

PIT | Total Pitches by the starter | ||

P/IP | Pitches divided by the number of Innings Pitched | ||

G/F | Number of Ground Ball outs divided by the Fly Ball outs | ||

OBA | Opposition Batting Average | ||

WHIP | Walks and Hits per Inning Pitched | ||

GB:FB | Ground Ball to Fly Ball Ratio | ||

SB | Stolen Bases | ||

CS | Caught Stealing | ||

SB% | Stolen Base Percentage | ||

QS% | Quality Start Percentage | ||

TWL | Team Win – Team Loss | ||

W/L% | Winning Percentage | ||

vs. R | vs. Right-handed Pitchers | ||

vs. L | vs. Left-handed Pitchers | ||

Start | Starters | ||

Rel | Relievers | ||

R/9 | Runs per nine innings | ||

K | Strikeouts | ||

Doub | Doubles | ||

Trip | Triples | ||

$ | Units Won or Lost | ||

Line | Line for the game | ||

$ Won | Units Won | ||

$ Loss | Units Lost |

## What is an opp average in baseball? – idswater.com

Alternatively, it may be stated as the cumulative batting average of the league’s batters against a certain pitcher. A hit-by-pitch average is determined as follows: Hits Allowed divided by (Batters Faced less Walks less Hit Batsmen less Sacrifice Hits less Sacrifice Flies less Catcher’s Interference less Hit Batsmen)

## What is a good pitching average?

A pitcher’s earned run average (ERA) between 2.00 and 3.00 is regarded exceptional and is only reached by the greatest pitchers in the league. An ERA of between 3.00 and 4.00 indicates above-average performance. An earned run average (ERA) of between 4.00 and 5.00 is considered ordinary; the vast majority of pitchers have an ERA in this range.

## What is the average batting average for a pitcher?

Having an ERA between 2.00 and 3.00 is also regarded exceptional, and can only be reached by the top pitchers in the league. It is considered above average to have an ERA between 3.00 and 4.00. Having an earned run average (ERA) between 4.00 and 5.00 is considered ordinary; the vast majority of pitchers have an ERA within this range.

## What’s more important era or whip?

While the earned run average (ERA) indicates how many runs a pitcher allows, the earned run impact factor (WHIP) gauges how successful a pitcher is against batters. WHIP, like ERA, is a measure of pitcher performance that takes into account all mistakes and unearned runs.

## What are the abbreviations for pitchers in baseball?

HeadingExplanation IP In the first three innings, the starter pitched Opp StarterThe number of innings in which the starter pitched HHits are permitted by the starter. RRuns The starter has granted permission for this.

## How are batting average and OBP calculated in baseball?

Baseball batting average (BA) is computed by dividing the number of hits by the number of “official” at bats a batter has had in a given season. a player’s on base % is calculated by dividing the number of times they reach base safely via a hit, walk, or hit by pitch by the number of at bats, plus walks, the player has had in the game.

## How is a pitcher’s era calculated in baseball?

The earned run average (ERA) of a pitcher is derived by dividing the number of earned runs allowed (ER) by the number of innings pitched (IP) multiplied by nine (the traditional inning length of a game). As previously stated, unearned runs are not included in this calculation, which results in a more true representation of a pitcher’s success.

## What’s the difference between Po and UZR in baseball?

The term “putout” refers to the act of recording an out by a fielder, such as standing on the base for a forceout, tagging a runner, fielding an unassisted hit ball, or catching a third strike. PO = Putout UZR = Ultimate Zone Rating – A player’s overall defensive performance is evaluated by attempting to determine how many runs a defender saves in a certain period of time. Heading ExplanationIP In the first three innings, the starter pitched Opp Starter is a term used to describe a person who initiates an operation.

RRuns are permitted by the starter.

a player’s on base % is calculated by dividing the number of times they reach base safely via a hit, walk, or hit by pitch by the number of at bats, plus walks, the player has had in the game.

## How is the batting average of a pitcher determined?

Pitchers may be evaluated based on their batting average, which can be calculated. A measure of opponents’ batting average (sometimes referred to as “batting average against”) is calculated by dividing the number of hits against a certain pitcher’s at-bats by the total number of at-bats against him. The term “putout” refers to the act of recording an out by a fielder, such as standing on the base for a forceout, tagging a runner, fielding an unassisted hit ball, or catching a third strike. PO = Putout UZR = Ultimate Zone Rating – A player’s overall defensive performance is evaluated by attempting to determine how many runs a defender saves in a certain period of time.

## Baseball Abbreviations

Tony Gwynn had another outstanding season in 1997, with 592 at-bats and 220 strikeouts, and an avg of.372, which was the best in the National League. Which of these abbreviations do all of these letters stand for? The Baseball Almanac is glad to give a standard collection of acronyms that are seen and used in print on a regular basis in the sport of baseball.

## Baseball Stats

Baseball Abbreviations 101Offensive Abbreviations for Statistics | |

ABBBAVGCS2BGIDP GRSLHBPHHRRHRIBBISO LOB OBPOPSRRBISFSHSSLGSB%SBRSBSOTB3B | At BatsBases on Balls (Walks)Batting AverageCaught StealingDoublesGround into Double Plays Grand SlamsHit by PitchHitsHome Run RatioHome RunsIntentionalBasesonBalls(Walks)Isolated Power Left on Base On-Base PercentageOn-Base Plus SluggingRunsRuns Batted InSacrifice FliesSacrifice Hits (Bunts)SinglesSlugging PercentageStolen Base PercentageStolen Base RunsStolen BasesStrikeoutsTotal BasesTriples |

Pitching Abbreviations for Statistics | |

AOBB BFPBKCBOCGCGLERERAGFGOGOAOGPGSHHBPHRIBBIPIRAIPSLMB9OBAPARRPFRWS/SHOSOSVSVOTBWWP | Fly Outs (Air)Walks (Bases on Balls) Batters Facing PitcherBalksCombined ShutoutComplete GamesComplete Game LossesEarned RunsEarned Run AverageGames FinishedGround OutsGround Outs / Fly Outs RatioGames PlayedGames StartedHitsHit BattersHome RunsIntentional WalksInnings PitchedInherited Runs AllowedInnings Per StartLossesBaserunners Per 9 InningsOpponents’ Batting AveragePlate AppearancesRunsRelief FailuresRelief WinsShutoutsStrikeoutsSavesSave OpportunitiesTotal BasesWinsWild Pitches |

Defensive Abbreviations for Statistics | |

ACSDPEGPOFAPBPKPOSBTCTP | AssistsCaught StealingDouble PlaysErrorsGames PlayedOutfield AssistsPassed BallsPickoffsPutoutsStolen Bases Total ChancesTriple Plays |

Miscellaneous Abbreviations for Statistics | |

ML SER | Major League Service |

Baseball Stats Abbreviations 101 |

The “common” set has several variations (DO Doubles, TR Triples, etc.), but these are the ones that are regarded “official” and are the ones that are used here at Baseball Almanac, among other places. Did you know that the National Association (a non-official league that gave rise to the National Leagueofficial )’s statistics were destroyed in a fire in the early 1900’s? Major League Baseball organized a Special Baseball Records Committee in the 1960s to examine the irregular records that had been kept previous to the 1920 season.

## Save Opportunity (SVO)

Every time a relief pitcher either records a save or blows a save, he or she has created a save opportunity. In order to be eligible for a save opportunity, a pitcher must be the final pitcher for his team (and not the winning pitcher) and do one of the following actions:

- If you enter the game with a three-run advantage or less, you must throw at least one inning. Enter the game with the tying run in the on-deck circle – or a run that is closer to scoring than the other team. At the very least, throw three innings.

Save possibilities are critical in determining if a save is made, whether a save is blown, and whether a hold is made. To achieve any of those three outcomes, a pitcher must first have a save opportunity available to him or her. The majority of save opportunities are often given to closers during the course of a season, since their primary responsibility is to keep games tight at the conclusion of the season. An uncredited save opportunity is awarded to a setup man who earns a hold, because he neither completed nor squandered the saved opportunity.

##### Origin

Save was a phrase used by general managers in the 1950s that had no specified restrictions attached to it. In simple terms, it refers to a pitcher who enters the game with a lead and finishes the game with a win – regardless of the score. In the early 1960s, the writer Jerome Holtzman was the first to specify concrete criteria for saving money. However, it wasn’t until 1969 that saves became an official statistic.

## What Does Opp Mean In Baseball Stats? 9 Responses For (2022), «Sport-Topics FAQ»

- Answers 20 questions with mrbeast in video form FAQ. People who want to know “What does opp imply in baseball stats?” will find the answer here. « People frequently inquire about the following topics: Nba 2k21 is the video game that was used as an answer. 9 further responses
- This is your response
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Answering 20 questions with mrbeastFAQ in a video It is possible that you are seeking for a solution to the query «What does opp imply in baseball statistics? The following questions are frequently asked:

### ❓ What does baseball stats mean?

Statistical information on baseball players and teams is critical in measuring the advancement of a player or team. Due to the regular interruptions in the flow of a baseball game and the fact that players often behave individually rather than in groups, the sport lends itself to simple record-keeping and statistical analysis. Since the formation of the National League and the American League, which are now both part of Major League Baseball, statistics have been recorded on professional baseball players.

- What does the letter s indicate in baseball statistics
- What does war imply in terms of baseball statistics
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### ❓ Baseball stats what does bb mean?

BB are the letters that are used to represent a stroll in a scorebook. Walks are a statistic that may be used to evaluate two of the most crucial talents in baseball: a pitcher’s control and a hitter’s eye for the strike zone (meaning his ability to tell whether a pitch is a strike or a ball and swing – or not swing – accordingly).

- What do baseball statistics signify in real life
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### ❓ Baseball stats what does po mean?

What does the term “po” signify in softball statistics? Definition. Whenever a fielder physically records the act of making an out — whether it is by standing on the base for a forceout, tagging or throwing out a runner, collecting a hit ball, or taking a third strike – the fielder is awarded the putout.

- What does wcgb mean in baseball statistics
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- And more.

otheranswers: Mmm v bmr9 video answer: Aliza Legros responded to this question on Monday, June 7, 2021 at 4:36 p.m. More information about matchups and statistics MLB Standings, News, and Matchups Teams’ Individual and Collective Statistics Draft of the Standings Abbreviations Used in Major League Baseball Explanation of the Legend Heading Explanation of the Position W / L is an abbreviation for wins and losses. C The catcher’s record against the spread as a first baseman is 1B Slug. Isabelle Schultz responded to this question on Wednesday, June 9, 2021 at 4:50 a.m.

- Slugging is an acronym that stands for “on-base percentage plus slugging,” and it refers to an equation that is the product of two other separate statistics.
- Paolo Eichmann responded to your question on Wednesday, June 9, 2021 at 11:32 p.m.
- It is used to evaluate a player’s offensive and defensive performance.
- In Major League Baseball, a player with an OPS of.800 or more is considered to be in the elite echelon.
- OPS is calculated by combining on-base percentage and slugging percentage to provide a single figure that combines the two.
- The OPS against statistic may also be used to evaluate pitchers; when used in this context, it is referred to as the OPS against statistic.
- Opp Starter Innings the starter pitched for the opposition H Hits are permitted by the starter.

ER Earned Runs Permitted by the starting pitcher SO The starter’s strikeout totals BB The number of balls permitted by the starting PIT is based on the number of balls allowed by the beginning PIT.

What Does On-Base Percentage (OPS) Mean in Baseball?

For example, the OPS package contains formulae from.

The abbreviations for baseball statistics are shown in alphabetical order.

Did you know that the National Association (a non-official league that gave rise to the National Leagueofficial )’s statistics were destroyed in a fire in the early 1900’s?

An at-bat in which the hitter receives four pitches that are outside of the strike zone is referred to as a base on balls (or walk).

ER = Earned run – The total number of earned runs is represented by the letter ER.

You’ll find a collection of regularly used baseball acronyms listed here, which you’ll encounter on stats screens and in boxscores.

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The following are 29 questions that are linked to «What does opp signify in baseball stats?» and you will almost certainly find the solution in one of them! What does the number 14u indicate in baseball statistics? In baseball, what does the number 14U mean? Fourteen-year-old (14u) baseball is a transitional level of play that moves players from the “child” levels to the “young adult” level. An individual player may now play on a diamond that is adapted to his or her size and aptitude rather than being forced to play on one with double the playing space in a single season.

- Balks result in all base runners being granted one base as a result of the penalty.
- What does the number 2b indicate in baseball statistics?
- When the two equations are combined, the result is: 18 = 9a, which means that a.
- Stats as they are often known.
- No sport, in my opinion, has a more intimate relationship with the statistics that document each and every play.
- In a standard fantasy baseball league, the following statistics will be utilized: For those who like to hit: Pitchers should know the following: What does the number 5f indicate in baseball statistics?
- What does the letter ab indicate in baseball statistics?

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What does the letter ak indicate in baseball statistics? While working as a baseball writer, Chadwick invented many of the characteristics that are now commonplace in baseball scoring and statistics keeping, such as the numbers used to identify defensive positions on the field of play (1 for pitcher, 2 for catcher, etc.). … What exactly does the term “average” signify in baseball statistics? The player’s OPS+ is then translated to a scale, where 100 represents the league average and the number after it indicates how much better than average the player is compared to the league average.

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What does the letter b indicate in baseball statistics? BB- Base on balls (sometimes known as a “walk”) – occasions when a batter receives four balls and proceeds to first base. Walking-to-strikeout ratio (BB/K) is defined as the number of base on balls divided by the number of strikeouts. What does the letter ba indicate in baseball statistics? Batting Average (Battering Average) What does the letter bb in baseball statistics mean? Walk (BB) is an abbreviation. Walking (also known as “base on balls”) happens when a pitcher throws four pitches that are not batted at by the batter and none of them are called strikes by the umpire.

The batter is granted first base after refraining from swinging at four pitches that are outside of his strike zone. BB are the letters that are used to represent a stroll in a scorebook.

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What does the death of a loved one imply in baseball statistics? When the bereavement list was established by baseball in 2003, it provided players with an excused absence of three to seven days for situations like family emergencies or the loss of a loved one. The player’s club may replace him on the active 25-man roster with authorization from the Commissioner’s office, however he will continue to be compensated and accrue service time while on the bench. What does the letter bf indicate in baseball statistics?

- Basic Baseball Abbreviations (Part 1).
- Double Plays are made on the ground.
- Pitch Hits are a common occurrence.
- IntentionalBasesonBalls(Walks) Isolated Power Remains on the Field What does the letter bi in baseball statistics mean?

- BK –Balk: The total amount of ‘balks’ a pitcher has accumulated over the course of a season. A balk happens when the pitcher is called for making an unlawful and deceptive move on the mound, and the umpire calls the pitcher for it. When a balk is called, all baserunners are forced to advance one base. Pitch count (BF) – Batters Faced: The total number of plate appearances the pitcher has faced during the season.

What does the letter bl indicate in baseball statistics? Fielding A – Assist: Fielders are awarded an assist if they touch the ball before a putout is recorded by one of their teammates. If a ball is fielded by one player and tossed to another (as is the case with most ground balls), this situation is most common. What does boyfriend signify in baseball statistics? Who are the batters faced in baseball statistics? What does bpa represent in baseball stats? BPA is an abbreviation for Baseball Players Association.

Baseball Player Tournament Tennessee Michigan is the most common category where abbreviations are utilized.

Abbreviations for the Base Running Stats.

After failing to advance to the next base before being tagged out, they were sent to the dugout.

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What does the term “cbo” signify in baseball statistics? Combined Shutout. Using two or more pitchers, a shutout is achieved. What does the letter cg indicate in baseball statistics? CG stands for “Complete Game.” In baseball statistics, what does the letter ched stand for? Chopped pitching is typically thrown at speeds in the mid 95-100 mph range (which is certainly faster than the average Prius). Please accept my apologies if you drive a Prius. To achieve the label of throwing ched, you must be consistently blowing it past batters, if not completely blowing it past them.

- What exactly does the term “club” signify in baseball statistics?
- a person who has been caught stealing What does the abbreviation csb indicate in baseball statistics?
- Did you know that the National Association (a non-official league that gave rise to the National Leagueofficial )’s statistics were destroyed in a fire in the early 1900’s?
- Statistics abbreviations that are used to be defensive: A CS DP E GP DP E GP DP E GP PB PK PO SB TC OFA PB PK PO SB TC TP: Provides assistance Having been apprehended stealing Double Plays are when two things happen at the same time.

Chances in total Triple Plays are when you get three points in a row. Miscellaneous Statistics abbreviations include the following: ML SER: Major League Service: Baseball Stats Abbreviations 101 SER: Major League Service

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It is an acronym that stands for “Opponent,” which may refer to either a person you are competing against in a competition or a person who is an opponent in your real life. It is frequently used in text messages, on social networking platforms, and when playing online games of any kind. During a competitive encounter of any kind, an opponent is someone who you wish to defeat. This might be an athletic competition, a card game, a board game, a quiz contest, a video game, or something else entirely.

The battling spirit, on the other hand, may escape and the players may find themselves in a position of competition outside of the arena.

In actual life (IRL), an opp may be a coworker who is vying for the same promotion as you or a neighbor who appears to be too flawless to be your neighbor.

West Side Story and The Godfather are good instances of violent opportunities that you would want to avoid or eliminate as quickly as possible.

## Batting average against – Wikipedia

According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Navigate to the next page Jump to the search results In baseball statistics, batting average against (abbreviated as BAA or AVG), or opponents’ batting average (abbreviated as OBA) is a statistic that gauges a pitcher’s ability to avoid hits during official at bats (abbreviated as OBA). Alternatively, it may be stated as the cumulative batting average of the league’s batters against the pitching staff. A hit-by-pitch average is determined as follows: Hits Allowed divided by (Batters Faced less Walks less Hit Batsmen less Sacrifice Hits less Sacrifice Flies less Catcher’s Interference less Hit Batsmen) It is computed as follows:for which reason:

- The number of batters faced by the pitcher is denoted by the letter BF. The number of base on balls is represented by BB, and the number of hit batters is represented by HBP. The number of sacrifice hits is represented by the symbol SH. The number of sacrifice flies is represented by the symbol SF. CINT is the number of times the catcher interfered

## See also

- On ESPN.com, there is a glossary of terms called “Classic Fantasy Baseball Glossary – Definitions of Terms.” 2001. The original version of this article was published on August 26, 2007. Retrieved2007-07-14

Thisbaseball -related article is astub. You can help Wikipedia byexpanding it. |

“oldid=1004382377” was used to retrieve the information. Categorizations that aren’t obvious:

## On-base plus slugging – Wikipedia

A player’s on-base plus slugging (OPS) % is derived as the sum of his on-base percentage and slugging percentage, and it is a sabermetric baseball statistic. The ability of a player to get on base as well as hit for power, two crucial offensive qualities, are both illustrated in this illustration. Among Major League Baseball, a batter with an OPS of.800 or greater is considered to be in the highest tier of hitters. Typically, the league leader in OPS will have a score that is close to, and occasionally even above, 1.000.

## Equation

Where OBP represents on-base percentage and SLG represents slugging average, we have the following equation. These averages have been established. – the numerator “H + BB +HBP” essentially means “number of trips to first base at the very least” – the denominator “AB + BB + SF +HBP” basically means “total plate appearances,” but does not include sacrifice bunts. A hitter is not granted a “AB” despite the fact that he steps to the plate (BB or HBP) or puts the ball into play and is ruled out, but the action allows a run to score (as in the SF scenario) even though he has made a trip to the plate.

To compute a batter’s total number of trips to the plate, the four counts (AB + BB + SF + HBP) must be used in conjunction. andwhere:

- H stands for hits
- BB stands for bases on balls
- HBP stands for times hit by pitch
- AB stands for at bats
- SF stands for sacrifice fly
- TB stands for total bases.

OPS may be expressed as follows in a single equation:

## History

The Hidden Game of Baseball, written by John Thorn and Pete Palmer in 1984, was the first book to make on-base plus slugging popular. The New York Times then began publishing the names of the top performers in this statistic in its weekly “By the Numbers” box, a feature that ran for four years and was widely adopted. Peter Gammons, a baseball journalist, popularized and evangelized the statistic, which was then picked up by other writers and announcers. Its popularity grew over time, and by 2004, it was featured on baseball cards produced by Topps Baseball Cards.

Examples include Thorn’sTotal Baseballencyclopedia and theStrat-O-Matic Computer Baseballgame, both of which contained manufacturing information in their early editions.

The availability of its components, OBP and SLG, as well as the fact that team OPS corresponds highly with the number of runs scored, contributed to the rise in popularity of OPS.

## An OPS scale

Bill James, in his essay titled “The 96 Families of Hitters,” classifies hitters into seven separate groups based on their offensive power:

Category | Classification | OPS range |
---|---|---|

A | Great | .9000 and higher |

B | Very good | .8334 to.8999 |

C | Above average | .7667 to.8333 |

D | Average | .7000 to.7666 |

E | Below average | .6334 to.6999 |

F | Poor | .5667 to.6333 |

G | Very poor | .5666 and lower |

This basically converts the ordinal scale into a seven-point ordinal scale for OPS. It is possible to provide a subjective reference for OPS numbers by substituting quality labels for the A–G categories, such as excellent (A), very good (B), good (C), average (D), fair (E), bad (F), and very poor (G).

## Leaders

With at least 3,000 plate appearances through August 5, 2020, the top 10 Major League Baseball players in terms of lifetime OPS were as follows:

- Babe Ruth has a 1.1636 rating
- Ted Williams has a 1.1155 rating
- Lou Gehrig has a 1.0798 rating
- Barry Bonds has a 1.0512 rating
- Jimmie Foxx has a 1.0376 rating
- Hank Greenberg has a 1.0169 rating
- Rogers Hornsby has a 1.0103 rating
- Mike Trout has a 1.0009 rating
- Manny Ramirez has a 0.9823 rating
- Mark McGwire has a 0.9823

The top four hitters were all left-handed, which was a rarity. Jimmie Foxx has the best career on-base percentage (OPS) of any right-handed batter in baseball history. The following are the best 10 single-season performances in Major League Baseball (all by left-handed hitters):

- 1.4217 for Barry Bonds in 2004
- 1.3807 for Barry Bonds in 2002
- 1.3791 for Babe Ruth in 1920
- 1.3785 for Barry Bonds in 2001
- Babe Ruth in 1921
- Babe Ruth in 1923
- 1.2875 for Ted Williams in 1941
- 1.2778 for Barry Bonds in 2003
- Babe Ruth in 1927
- Ted Williams in 1957
- 1.2582 for Babe Ruth in 1927
- 1.2566 for Ted

During the 1925 season, Rogers Hornsby batted 1.2449, which ranked him 13th on the all-time list of single-season marks for right-handed hitters. For right-handed pitchers since 1935, Mark McGwire’s 1.2224 OPS in 1998 ranks 16th all-time and is the greatest single-season mark for a right-hander.

## Adjusted OPS (OPS+)

OPS+, or modified OPS, is a metric that is closely connected to OPS. OPS+ is an adjusted OPS that takes into account the park and league in which the player played, but does not take into account fielding position. The league average is defined as having an OPS+ of 100 points. An OPS+ of 150 or above is exceptional, and a score of 125 or higher is very good, but an OPS+ of 75 or below is mediocre. OPS+ may be calculated using the following equation:where *lgOBP is the league’s park adjusted OBP (excluding pitchers hitting) and *lgSLG is the league’s park adjusted SLG (excluding pitchers hitting).

Due to the additive nature of the two components of OPS+, for example a player with an OBP and SLG that are both 50 percent over average in both categories will have an OPS+ of 200 (twice the league average OPS+), while having an OPS that is only 50 percent above the league average.

As an approximate (but not accurate) estimate, a player with an OPS+ of 150 generates 50 percent more runs in a given series of plate appearances than a player with an OPS+ of 100 throughout the course of a similar set of plate appearances (though see clarification above, under “History”).

### Leaders in OPS+

Through the completion of the 2019 season, the following players ranked in the top twenty in their respective career OPS+ rankings (minimum 3,000 plate appearances):

- Babe Ruth has 206 hits
- Ted Williams has 190
- Barry Bonds has 182
- Lou Gehrig has 179
- Mike Trout has 176
- Rogers Hornsby has 175
- Mickey Mantle has 172
- Dan Brouthers has 170
- Joe Jackson has 170
- Ty Cobb has 168
- Pete Browning has 163
- Jim Foxx has 163
- Mark McGwire has 163
- Dave Orr has 162
- Stan Musial has 159
- Hank Greenberg

These are the only players on this list who are exclusively right-handed batters: Browning, Hornsby, Foxx, Trout, McGwire, Allen, Mays, and Thomas are the only players on this list who are exclusively right-handed batters. Mantle is the only player in the group who can transition from one position to another. The following were the best single-season performances:

- Barry Bonds has 268 hits in 2002
- Barry Bonds has 263 hits in 2004
- Barry Bonds has 259 hits in 2001
- Fred Dunlap has 258 hits in 1884 *
- Babe Ruth has 256 hits in 1920
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1921
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1923
- Ted Williams has 235 hits in 1941
- Ted Williams has 233 hits in 1957
- Ross Barnes has 231 hits in 1876 **
- Barry Bonds has 231 hits in 2003

* – Fred Dunlap’s remarkable 1884 season took place in the Union Association, which some baseball experts believe is not a legitimate major league in the traditional sense. It is possible that Ross Barnes was helped by a rule that declared a bunt fair if it rolled in fair territory for the first time. When this regulation was lifted, he did not perform nearly as well as he had previously, but injuries may have played a major role in this, since his fielding numbers also fell. If Dunlap’s and Barnes’ seasons were to be removed from the list, two more Ruth seasons (1926 and 1927) would be added to the list.

Barnes, the lone right-handed hitter on the list, would also be eliminated as a result of this.

## Criticism

Despite the fact that it is a straightforward computation, OPS is a contentious statistic. On-base percentage and slugging percentage are both taken into consideration when calculating OPS. On-base %, on the other hand, is a greater predictor of run production. Linear weights are used to construct statistics such as thewOBA, which capitalizes on this distinction. Furthermore, the components of OPS are not always equal (for example, league-average slugging percentages are frequently 75–100 points higher than league-average on-base percentages).

## See also

- For further information, visit the Wayback Machine
- John Thorn and Pete Palmer, “The Hidden Game of Baseball,” on pages 69-70
- Alan Schwarz, “The Numbers Game,” on pages 165-233
- Mr. James and Mr. Bill The 96 Hitter Families have been identified. The Bill James Gold Mine, 2009, p.24
- “Career LeadersRecords for OPS”.Baseball-Reference.com. RetrievedJuly 26,2019
- “Single-Season Records for OPS”.Baseball-Reference.com. RetrievedJuly 26,2019
- “Career LeadersRecords for Adjusted OPS+”.Baseball-Reference.com. RetrievedJuly 26,2019
- “Single- Michael Lewis is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom (203). Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game
- “2019 Major League Baseball Standard Batting”.Baseball-Reference.com

## References

- John Thorn and Pete Palmer are co-authors of this work (1984). Baseball’s “Secret Game” is a little known fact. Schwarz, Alan
- Doubleday & Company, ISBN 0-385-18283-X
- Doubleday & Company, ISBN 0-385-18283-X (2004). The Game of Numbers. Books published by Thomas Dunne Books (ISBN 0-312-32222-4)

## STATS Hosted Solution

Definitions of Baseball Terms % Inherited Scored A Relief Pitching statistic indicating the percentage of runners on base at the time a relief pitcher enters a game that he allows to score. 1st Batter OBP The On-Base Percentage allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces in a game. Active Career Batting Leaders Minimum of 1,000 At Bats required for Batting Average, On-Base Percentage, Slugging Percentage, At Bats Per HR, At Bats Per GDP, At Bats Per RBI, and K/BB Ratio.One hundred (100) Stolen Base Attempts required for Stolen Base Success %.

Two hundred fifty (250) Games Started required for Complete Game Frequency.

Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category’s minimum requirements. BA ScPos Allowed Batting Average Allowed with Runners in Scoring Position. Baserunners per Nine Innings These are the hits, walks and hit batsmen allowed per nine innings. Bases Loaded This category shows a player’s batting average in bases loaded situation. Batting Average Hits divided by At Bats. Bequeathed Runners Any runner(s) on base when a pitcher leaves a game are considered bequeathed to the departing hurler; the opposite of inherited runners (see below). Blown Saves This is charged any time a pitcher comes into a game where a save situation is in place and he loses the lead. Catcher’s ERA The Earned Run Average of a club’s pitchers with a particular catcher behind the plate.

To figure this for a catcher, multiply the Earned Runs Allowed by the pitchers while he was catching times nine and divide that by his number of Innings Caught. Cheap Wins/Tough Losses/Top Game Scores First determine the starting pitcher’s Game Score as follows:

- Start with a number of 50
- The starting pitcher gets one point for every strikeout he records
- After the fourth inning, add 2 points for each additional inning the pitcher goes on to complete. For each strikeout, add one point to your total. For each hit that is permitted, deduct two points. For each earned run that is permitted, subtract 4 points. Add 2 points to account for an unearned run. For each stroll, deduct one point from your total.

If the starting pitcher scores over 50 and loses, it’s a Tough Loss. If he wins with a game score under 50, it’s a Cheap Win. Cleanup Slugging% The Slugging Percentage of a player when batting fourth in the batting order. Clutch This category shows a player’s batting average in the late innings of close games: the seventh inning or later with the batting team ahead by one, tied, or has the tying run on base, at bat or on deck. Complete Game Frequency Complete Games divided by Games Started. Defensive Batting Average A composite statistic incorporating various defensive statistics to arrive at a number akin to batting average.

The formula uses standard deviations to establish a spread from best to worst. Earned Run Average (Earned Runs times 9) divided by Innings Pitched. Fast-A Otherwise known as “Advanced A,” these A-level minor leagues are the California League, Carolina League and Florida Stat League. Favorite Toy The Favorite Toy is a method that is used to estimate a player’s chance of getting to a specific goal in the following example, we’ll say 3,000 hits.Four things are considered:

- Needed Hits – the number of hits required to get the desired result. (Of course, this could also be “Need Home Runs” or “Need Doubles” – whatever you choose to call it.)
- Years Remaining in the Contract. The formula 24-.6 is used to estimate the number of years that will be required to achieve the target (age). As a result of this approach, players under the age of 20 have 12.0 seasons left on their contract. Players under the age of 25 have nine seasons left on their contract, players under 30 have 6.0 seasons left on their contract, and players over 35 have just three season left on their contract. Any athlete who is currently actively participating in competitive sports is presumed to have at least 1.5 seasons left, regardless of his or her age. Hit Level has been established. For 1996, the established hit level would be calculated by multiplying 1993 hits by two times 1994 hits by three times 1995 hits by six, and then dividing the result by six. In order to be eligible, a player must have an established performance level that is more than three-fourths of his or her most recent performance level—for example, a player who had 200 hits in 1995 cannot have an established hit level lower than 150 hits. Hits that are expected to be made in the future. This is calculated by multiplying the second number (the number of ears left) by the third number (the established hit level)

Once you have obtained the projected remaining hits, the probability of achieving the objective is calculated as (projected remaining hits) divided by (require hits), minus.5. If your “require hits” and your “projected remaining hits” are the same, you have a 50 percent probability of achieving your target using this technique of calculation. If your anticipated remaining hits are 20 percent greater than your required hits, you have a 70 percent probability of achieving your target in time. There are two specific rules, as well as a note:

- The probability of a player continuing to develop toward a goal cannot be more than.97 per year. For example, a player cannot calculate that they have a 148 percent probability of completing their goal because this is against the rules.)
- The possibility of a player continuing to develop toward the objective cannot be more than.75 each season if his offensive winning percentage is below.500 throughout the season. If a below-average batter is two years away from attaining a goal, his likelihood of accomplishing that objective cannot be proved to be better than nine-sixteenths of a percent, or three-fourths times three-fourths, no of his age.
- Rather of using actual figures from a complete season of play, we utilized predicted metrics for 1994 and 1995.

- During the seventh inning or later, the batting side is either up by one run, tied, or has a possible tying run on base, at the plate, or on deck
- The game is over

Note: this situation is very similar to the characteristics of a Save Situation. Leadoff On Base% The On-Base Percentage of a player when batting first in the batting order. No Decision (ND) The result when a starter is credited with neither a win nor a loss. OBP+SLUG (OPS) On-base percentage plus slugging percentage. Offensive Winning Percentage (OWP) The Winning Percentage a team of nine Fred McGriffs (or anybody) would compile against average pitching and defense.

The formula: (Runs Created per 27 outs) divided by the League average of runs scored per game.

“Hold Percentage” is computed by dividing extra bases taken (by baserunners) by the number of opportunities.

Note: such plays are often referred to as pickoffs, but appear in official records as Caught Stealings.

Pickoff (fielding play 1-3 being the most common) is not an official statistic. Percentage of Pitches Taken This tells you how often a player lets a pitch go by without swinging. Percentage of Swings Put In Play This tells you how often a player hits the ball into fair territory, or is retired on a foul-ball out, when he swings. Pickoffs (Pk) The number of times a runner was picked off base by a pitcher. Pivot Percentage The number of double plays turned by a second baseman as the pivot man, divided by the number of opportunities. PkOf Throw/Runner The number of pickoff throws made by a pitcher divided by the number of runners on first base. Plate Appearances At Bats plus Total Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Hits plus Sacrifice Flies plus Times Reached on Defensive Interference. Power/Speed Number A way to look at power and speed in one number.

A player must score high in both areas to earn a high Power/Speed Number.The formula: (HR x SB x 2) divided by (HR + SB). Quality Start Any start in which a pitcher works six or more innings while allowing three or fewer earned runs. Quick Hooks and Slow Hooks A Quick Hook is the removal of a pitcher who has pitched less than 6 innings and given up 3 runs or less.

A Slow Hook occurs when a pitcher pitches more than 9 innings, or allows 7 or more runs, or whose combined innings pitched and runs allowed totals 13 or more. Range Factor The number of Chances (Putouts plus Assists) times nine divided by the number of Defensive Innings Played.

The average for a Regular Player at each position in 1997:

- 5.00 points for second base, 2.67 points for third base, 4.56 points for shortstop, and 1.99 points for left field, 2.55 points for center field, and 2.06 points for right field.

- He enters the game with a lead of no more than three runs and has the opportunity to pitch for at least one inning, or he enters the game with the potential tying run on base, at bat, or on deck, regardless of the count, or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save
- Or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save

Behind in count for hitters includes 0-1, 0-2, 1-2 and 2-2.

Therefore, a game at 5:30 in Yankee Stadium is a day game while one in Shea Stadium at the same time is a night game.

Turf is artificial turf. Groundball/Flyball Ratio A hitter’s stats against pitchers that induce mostly grounders or flies, respectively.

If it is greater than 1.50, he is a Groundball hitter.

Same cutoffs apply for classifying pitchers.

- For a batter to be considered a “Hits Best Against” candidate, there must be at least 10 plate appearances between him and the pitcher
- And for a pitcher to be considered a “Pitches Best Against” candidate, the batter must have a.300 batting average against the pitcher, and the pitcher must limit the batting average of the batter to under.250.

Thus, not all hitters will have five pitchers that qualify and not all pitchers will have five batters who qualify. Scoring Position At least one runner must be at either second or third base. Vs. 1st Batr (Relief) Describes what happened to the first batter a reliever faces.