What Is A Pop Up In Baseball

How Baseball Players Can Hit Fewer Pop-ups and More Line Drives

In recent years, there has been a sea change in the way baseball players hit the ball. People are now waking up to the fact that hitting the ball on the ground is not the most effective strategy if one wishes to be successful at the plate in baseball. Hitters are beginning to realize that attempting to drive the ball into the air can result in significantly greater success and help them earn opportunities to play at the next level. Getting the ball too high in the air – at an excessively high launch angle – yields in very little success and may lead to a highly disappointed batter, especially as more coaches urge for hitters to drive the ball in the air and avoid hitting ground balls.

In this post, we will cover how to prevent encountering faulty pop-ups that result in outs from the game.

Pop up vs. Fly Ball

A ground ball is defined as a ball hit with a launch angle of less than 10 degrees, a line drive is defined as a ball struck with a launch angle of 10-25 degrees, and anything greater than 25 degrees is defined as a flyball. However, there is a significant difference between a ball launched at a 30-degree angle and one launched at a 60-degree inclination. The driven fly balls that batters are searching for are typically between 25 and 35 degrees in inclination, depending on the hitter. For the majority of batters, anything above 35 degrees will result in an out.

What Causes a Pop-Up?

Any time the ball is sent into the air, the hitter makes contact with the lower part of the baseball. Driving the baseball in the air (at 25-35 degrees) results in a hit that is somewhat below the centerline of the ball. Whenever a ball is skied to the infield or shallow outfield, the batter hits the ball much below the middle of the ball. Generally speaking, the lower the bat makes contact with the baseball, the greater the launch angle is.

Ground Ball

The most common scenario in which you will witness a batter pop the ball up will be followed by a coach saying, “Don’t uppercut.” In reality, the vast majority of the players with whom I work believe that pop-ups are caused by the bat rising up too far through the zone, which is just not the case in my experience. Because of this, players must resist dropping their back shoulder, maintain control of the ball, and keep the ball out of the air as much as possible. However, doing so frequently results in the condition becoming worse.

The downward angle or plane of every pitch in baseball as it goes toward home plate is called the plane of the pitch.

The longer they are able to keep the ball on plane, the bigger the window they have for making hard contact with it.

Do you still not believe me? Take a look at the video below to see a professional batter hitting the bat. The bat begins to descend below the baseball and then rises in an upward plane to return to the ball.

Example of Good Upward Plane in a Swing

This would be considered upper-cutting by the majority of coaches. Successful hitters, on the other hand, square up the ball by hitting it in the middle of the plate, resulting in line drives and driven flyballs as a result of their efforts. This is something that most young batters strive to avoid since they are so indoctrinated with the concept of staying on top of the ball or attempting to generate a flat swing. In fact, taking a downhill or level approach to the ball shortens the amount of time that the bat and the ball are in contact with each other.

Example of a Pop-Up

You’ll see in the video below that the hitter’s swing plane does not correspond to the plane of the baseball, resulting in the ball being popped up. His swing plane is far too flat.

Fix Your Swing and Hit More Balls Hard By Using ASlightUppercut

In the realm of baseball, the phrase “uppercut” is associated with a negative meaning. High-level hitters, on the other hand, almost always strike the ball with a small uppercut, and doing so is a critical component of achieving success at the bat. As previously said, successful hitters will have the bat dip below the ball in order to be on plane with the pitch as soon as possible. It is from here that they will work the bat on an upward trajectory in order to meet the ball. Working the bat level or down, rather than up or down, is so entrenched in most young hitters that they are actually improving their chances of hitting weak pop-ups by allowing the bat to work level or down, increasing the likelihood of clipping the bottomof the ball.

Hitting Drills to Improve Your SwingDrive The Ball

This exercise is excellent for strengthening a swing path that is somewhat uphill. Using a lower swing path on the ball, you will strike the second tee on your follow through. A correct upward swing path will allow the barrel to just barely pass the second tee when applied properly. Whenever your ball lands on the second tee, you can be sure you didn’t have a good swing plane.

Two-Tee Bat Path Drill

This workout will assist you in comprehending what a minor uppercut looks like in action. Placing two golf tees in front of you will allow you to line the center of the second baseball (which will be further away from you) with top of the first ball. When done correctly, you should be able to strike both targets squarely. When a result, if you have inadequate upward plane, the second ball will be popped up and mishit as you swing beneath it on an insufficiently steep swing plane.

Final Thoughts on Swing Plane

It is feasible for a batter to hit any portion of the baseball with whatever sort of bat path he or she chooses. However, the majority of the time that balls are popped up, it is because the bat is not traveling up and through the hitting zone quickly enough. When hitting with the bat on an upward route in the hitting zone, even though most coaches advise against it, it generally results in more line drives and significantly fewer weak pop-ups.

Jim Sheppard

In East Hanover, New Jersey, Jim Sheppard is the proprietor of Elite Diamond Performance, which specializes in teaching high-level batters.

In addition, he serves as an Associate Scout for the Cincinnati Reds baseball team.

Latest posts by Jim Sheppard(see all)

An expertly executed pop-up is frequently an easy exit – but DON’T take that for granted! A poorly executed pop fly not only causes embarrassment for the players, but it may also result in errors, runs for the other side, and even potentially hazardous accidents. So here you have it.

***Pop fly priorities broken down for the whole field***

  1. In baseball, the centerfielder has priority over the left and right fielders
  2. The outfielders have priority over the infielders
  3. And the shortstop has precedence over everyone else on the field. Middle infielders (SS and 2nd base) have priority over corner infielders (1st base and 3rd base)
  4. Corner infielders have priority over the pitcher and catcher
  5. And middle infielders have priority over the pitcher and catcher.

Who should be the one to catch a pop fly? Positions are represented by numbers in the image. Pitcher, to begin with (P) Caught in the act of catching (C) 3. First Base (also known as 1st Base) (1B) 4. Second Base (also known as second baseman) (2B) 5. Third Base (also known as Third Base) (3B) 6. Infielder/shortstop (SS) 7th Baseman (Left Field) (LF) 8. The Center of the Field (CF) The ninth field is the right field (RF) Another point to consider: Because a player’s range varies depending on his unique athletic talents and pre-pitch stance, your covering zone may be larger or smaller than that depicted in the image above.


Doug Bernier of the New York Yankees yells out the other fielders before making the grab. Image courtesy of Ed Wolfstein. “I’ve figured it out.” The player who makes the catch should cry “I got it, I got it, I got it,” and the person(s) he is calling off should say nothing, so that there is no confusion as to who should grab the ball after the catch. Make a fist and wave your hands. If you are an infielder and you are going back on the baseball and you are calling the baseball, you should wave your hands in the air so that the outfielder can see that you are calling the baseball.

Dealing with potential collisions:

If there is a possibility of a collision between an infielder and an outfielder while fielding a fly ball, the outfielder will slide feet first and the infielder will remain on his or her feet. This is done in order to avoid a head-on collision. A glancing hit is preferable than a big collision in most cases.

–Example 1: Colliding the Dangerous Way

Johnny Damon of the Boston Red Sox was knocked out cold after colliding with second baseman Damian Jackson in the first inning.

–Example 2: Trip to the Hospital Avoided

In the following case, a serious injury was prevented due to the implementation of a sound priority protocol. Jacob Ellsbury, the Red Sox’s left fielder, and Adrian Beltre, the team’s third baseman, both sprinted hard for a pop fly. A head-on collision was averted when Ellsbury slid immediately before the collision, adhering to correct pop-fly priority policy for outfielders. If Johnny Damon’s experience is any indicator, his swift response certainly spared him from suffering a concussion and having to visit the hospital.

– In this post about baseball pop fly priorities and how to prevent injury, I hope you have inspired you to play more intelligently, safely, and successfully.

If you have any questions or would want to provide feedback, please do so in the comments box below. Play with gusto! – DougMore information Baseball Instruction and Advice from the Pros

  • How to Throw a Baseball, Part 1: Four Seam Grip
  • Baseball Mental Preparation
  • Knowing the Field as Pregame Preparation
  • How to Throw a Baseball, Part 2: Four Seam Grip
  • How to Throw a Baseball, Part 3: Four Seam Grip
  • How to Throw a Baseball, Part 4: Four Seam Grip First and foremost, the rhythm of the baseball swing is important. There are seven things that every good hitter does. A project to help complement the hundreds of pages of free baseball training available on this site, batting tee drills are being developed.

About Author

Doug Bernier, the founder of Pro Baseball Insider.com, made his Major League debut with the Colorado Rockies in 2008 and has since played for five different organizations (the Colorado Rockies, the New York Yankees, the Pittsburgh Pirates, the Minnesota Twins, and the Texas Rangers) over the course of his 16-year professional baseball career. He has experience at every infield position in the Major Leagues and has played every position on the field professionally, with the exception of catcher.

Doug departed from professional baseball after 16 years and went on to work as a Major League scout for the Colorado Rockies for two years after his retirement.

The Pop-up Priority

Ethan Guevin contributed to this article. The Situation: There is no one on base and two outs in the sixth inning of the game. Since the second inning, when both sides scored two runs apiece, there has been a pause in the game’s momentum. Both sides appear to be going through the motions a little bit, as the game is still matched at two goals apiece. The Script for the Play: During a 2-2 count, the hitter swings and misses a curveball, which lands in the infield grass. The pop-up is around medium in height and is coming down approximately 5 feet behind the mound in the direction of the 6-hole in the outfield.

  • The third baseman and shortstop are both concentrating on the ball.
  • Shortstop understands how simple a play it would be for the third baseman and begins to draw up, believing that he would almost certainly grab the ball as he approaches the ball.
  • As a result, the batter ends up at second base in scoring position despite the fact that the ball could have been easily caught by them.
  • We see this type of issue occur at all levels of baseball, and it is quite frustrating.
  • Always desire the ball, and always believe that you will be required to make a play to keep possession.
  1. Whenever the ball is raised, presume that it is your play until you are called off by someone with a higher priority or the play indicates that it is impossible for you to complete the move (for example: if you are a SS and there is a deep fly ball to RF). If this is the case, you should have some other task or be in another location throughout the performance. Recognize your team’s pop-up priority system, but more importantly, comprehend how it operates
  2. And
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Fielders benefit from the pop-up priority system, which is designed to assist them in circumstances where two or more players are capable of making a play on the ball and have equivalent chances of catching it. The following is the system used by the majority of teams:

  • Outfielders have precedence over infielders, while centerfielders have precedence over corner outfielders in the field of play. The shortstop is given precedence over all other infielders. The second baseman takes precedence over the first baseman. Pitchers and catchers are given precedence over all other infielders. The catcher takes precedence over the pitcher.

Understanding the priority system, on the other hand, is not sufficient. For example, in the scenario described above, the third baseman feels that because the SS has precedence over him, he will be the one to make the catch. In actuality, the SS has a more difficult time making the play, thus the third baseman should call the ball early and make the straightforward play. What matters is that if it is a simple play for you to make and you are confident in your ability to make the catch, call it immediately regardless of which priority system is in effect.

If two players ask for the ball at the same time, the pop-up priority system will select who gets to make the first play on the ball.

If you do this, you may guarantee that your team does not have numerous players who are allowing the ball to fall in between them.

Pop-Up and Fly Ball Priority

We’ve all been in that situation. A pop-up is hit on the infield, and it is called by a number of players. Alternatively, no one calls it. The ball is dropped in the center of them, and they all look at each other with blank expressions. This occurs frequently, particularly among younger and lower-level players. However, it will occur at larger levels and in later age groups as well. Why? Because of a lack of communication and a fundamental grasp of the significance of pop-up and fly ball situations.

However, even if this occurs, the ball should be caught since the fielders will give way to a single player in this situation.

Priority Chart

To make this easier to understand, below is an example of pop-up and fly ball priority. You’ll see that there are two players with priority numbers of “2” (corner outfielders) and “5” (corner infielders) respectively. This isn’t a clerical error. They are treated on an equal basis. When two players are battling for a ball because they are on opposing ends of the field, this should be an uncommon and extreme occurrence. In the outfield, it is likely that the center fielder will take over. An infielder in the center of the field would do the same thing.

Priority Hierarchy

The following is a breakdown of the order of importance. OUTFIELDERS: The center fielder has precedence over everyone else, regardless of whether the ball is a fly ball into the outfield or a pop-up in the middle of the field between the bases. If the center fielder asks for it, everyone else must defer and go backwards to make room. The corner outfielders, on the other hand, have a high level of importance. A corner outfielder’s call takes precedence over the call of any other infielder if a pop-up is caught by him.

  • MIDDLE INFIELDERS: The shortstop is known as the “quarterback” or “quarterback of the infield.” If an outfielder doesn’t call for it, the shortstop is in charge of anything he wants to do on the field.
  • We want the second baseman to get the ball over the first baseman or pitcher, if at all feasible, if there is a pop-up on the right side of the field, as shown in the diagram.
  • Pop-ups in foul area or between the plate and the mound, in particular, should be considered.
  • A pop-up is normally handled by the pitcher or catcher, who must make the most difficult play possible.
  • The pitcher frequently has to battle with a mound, which makes navigating to a ball while gazing in the air a difficult task.

A poor pop-up will fall much too often because a pitcher fails to call for it and the middle and corner infielders are unable to get to the ball before it hits the ground. In this situation, the pitcher must be prepared to take the reins of the game.


It is entirely up to you how you ask for a ball, but it is better if you are consistent. While most children are raised on the phrase “I GOT IT!” I prefer something more straightforward, such as “BALL!” “BALL! BALL! BALL!” you might say over and over again to emphasize the point.


A shortstop or center fielder who calls for a ball too soon is putting himself and his team in serious jeopardy. They are given the utmost priority in their particular fields of expertise. The question is what happens if they rapidly discover they are unable to reach the ball and thus regret their decision? The Spiders have instituted a “HELP!” signal that may be heard by anybody. A shortstop originally believes he can snag a pop-up and exclaims, “BALL! BALL! BALL!” as the pitch is delivered.

When a fielder calls out, “HELP!” the priority shifts to the next fielder to make the call.

The fact that a shortstop has asked for it does not imply that the third baseman should flee.

Communicate Early, Loud, and Clear

It’s one thing to urge players to ask for a ball; it’s another another to actually do it. Being able to do it effectively is another matter completely. It’s not enough to just ask for a ball when it’s going to fall between your fingers into your glove. Using a speaking voice in such a way that only those who are extremely near to you can hear you will not suffice. It is critical that fielders call for a ball in a confident and audible manner. This is something that you must practice because the volume of the game is usually higher during a game because of the crowd and the opposition team.

It is the polar opposite of no fielders calling for a ball to have everyone yell for a ball as soon as the ball flies in the air.

Is there a way to make certain that this is done correctly in a game?

Your Turn

Having a player call for a ball is one thing; telling them to do so is quite another. Doing so effectively is quite another matter entirely. It’s not enough to simply call for a ball when it’s about to fall through your glove. Only those who are very close to you will be able to hear you speak in a normal voice will suffice. In order to be successful, fielders must be loud and confident when calling for a ball. Since fans and the opposing team always make the game more loud, it’s important that you practice this before it happens.

The polar opposite of no fielders calling for a ball is when everyone calls for it as soon as the ball flies through the air and into the stands.

This is where we need something in the middle — players should be called upon to request it when they have an excellent chance of getting it. How do we ensure that this is done correctly in a game? What are the best practices? It’s something we do every day.

Why You Keep Hitting Lazy Pop-Ups & Fly Balls

So, you’re curious as to why you keep hitting lazy pop-ups and fly balls. It’s because you’re either in the batter’s box or out of the game.

  • Getting beaten by a fastball, etc. Collapse occurs early in the process. Not being able to climb to the summit
  • I’m not zoning out
  • Don’t put your finger on the swing trigger
  • Instead, use your other hand.

Continue reading if you want to have a thorough understanding of why you keep hitting sluggish pop-ups and flying balls.

Getting Beat By The Fastball

Here are two pointers on how to properly hit a fastball.

  1. In order to use count leverage effectively, you must arrive on time, which means the foot must be on time. A post-stride that is either in rhythm with the pitcher or comes in early.

Steve Springer says something that is one of my favorite phrases regarding hitting the fastball, and it is as follows:

.”If I tell you a fastball is coming, and you still can’t put a good swing on it.go play soccer”.

Is he kidding, or is he serious? Yes, but it’s only partially true in this case. The ability to hit a fastball is essential for any good batter to be successful in baseball. The majority of the time, when you hit weak fly balls and get beat by the fastball, it’s because you’re making contact with the bottom half of the ball rather than the top half. The pitcher lifts the ball high in the zone, and you were unable to get on the plane of his pitch since you did not initiate a load and separation prior to firing the hips.

Put your foot down as soon as possible.

Believe it or not.

Early Collapsing

Eventually, the swing will come crashing down. What we don’t want is for the economy to collapse too soon. The “launch angle” is not to blame in this case, but I’ve seen far too many batters attempt to increase lift and flight on the ball by integrating a “launch angle.” Hitting is similar to golf. If you don’t want to slice or hook, don’t do any of those things. You’re looking for a straight backspin drive on your drive. In order to shift away from their approach, the hitter must either attempt to get lift or, worse worse, direct the ball to a different field.

Consider the following approach to resolving the issue: For as long as feasible, the rear shoulder must remain a fraction of an inch higher than the lead shoulder.

A fall of the rear shoulder should never occur if the hips do not activate.

(Extra-tall on the backside)

Not Getting On Top Of The Pitch

Previously, I talked briefly about the three basic swing styles, but the idea of it is this: The bat head must be on the plane of the pitch as soon as possible and for as long as possible. It is possible for one of three things to happen when a pitch is pitched high in the zone and the bat head does not start on the plane of the pitch.

  1. You’re going to be late. Swing and miss
  2. You’ll make decent contact with top-spin
  3. You’ll make poor contact with a lethargic pop-fly
  4. Swing and miss

If we want to make forceful contact with the ball, we must get the bat-head on the plane of the pitch as soon as possible and keep it there for as long as we can.

Not Zoning Up

Whenever we’re up against a fly ball pitcher, we have to zone in. We have to anticipate and be prepared for their approach since they are “shifting the zones” for us as batters. The majority of fly ball pitchers have above-average velocity. The first step, if we are aware that they are attempting to create pop-flies, is to place an imagined table on the plate that is as tall as our hip or waist.

Basically, whatever above the table will be hit with a controlled, forceful swing, and anything below the table will be spat on (not swinging). Anticipate and seek for anything up in the zone to get you in the mood. When you receive a solid pitch to hit, make the pitcher pay for his or her mistakes.

Finger On The Swing Trigger

I’ve talked about this so many times that I’ve lost track of how many times I’ve said it, but it’s worth saying a million times if that’s what it takes to get you to understand this really important hitting idea. Hitters must be ready to strike at any time. This indicates the following for the batter:

  • The batter must keep their finger on the swing trigger
  • He or she must believe that the next pitch is going to be the finest pitch they will see all day. On a strike, you must be thinking “Yes, yes, yes GO,” and on a ball, you must be thinking “Yes, yes, yes, NO.”
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When you go into a fastball high in the zone with the expectation that the following pitch will be a strike, you have a greater chance of connecting. Selectively aggressive, yet always ready to draw the trigger when the situation calls for it.

The Why You Keep Hitting Lazy Pop-UpsFly Balls Checklist

If you’re getting sluggish pop-ups, it’s most likely because of one or more of the factors listed above. As you progress through the levels of expert pitching, you’ll come against pitchers that are proficient at pitching to contact while also inducing fly balls. It’s often because they have strong velocity and are adept at changing zones that this is the case. As a result, their throwing sequence will consist of an off-speed pitch down in the zone and a four-seam fastball up in the zone. Finally, keep an eye on the pitches that your teammates are receiving.

If this is the case, make the necessary adjustments and then assist your friends in doing so as well.

On the baseball field, it is also how you will distinguish yourself.

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Gravity has the same effect on everything, all of the time, which means that every ball and bat is influenced in the same manner. The difference between throwing a ball slowly and throwing a ball strongly is that a slow ball has more of a “hump” in it, whereas a hard ball appears like a line. Because of this, it is reasonable to assume that the bat’s head is also impacted in the same way. As a result of gravity pulling down on your young hitter’s’slow’ swing, he or she will commonly miss hitting the middle of the baseball in the future.

Their turn move is less powerful than a hitter who possesses either superior mechanics or more physical power.

On the other hand, while I was working with another hitter the other day, we were continuously talking about “lifting the ball off the tee,” which means that the tee doesn’t require weights or would topple over.

It was like magic.

Line drive is a type of transmission. Line drive is a type of transmission. Line drive is a type of transmission. His father was completely taken aback. Afterwards, we discussed all of the drills his little league coach was having him perform in order to “remove” pop-ups from his game (hint.they are featured above). The idea of swinging up at the baseball in order to reduce pop-ups may seem illogical, but consider the implications. Our discussion of the “cutting” movement of a downward swing has already shown that this action causes the ball to backspin up off the bat.

Teddy Ballgame wasn’t attempting to hit grounders; instead, he was attempting to loft doubles and home runs.

Make a mental note of the various shots that tennis professionals use.

Take a look at the video below.

When the ball hits the ground, the backspin neutralizes the forward velocity of the ball. It’s important to note how the’short swing’ is described, as well as how it “cuts below the ball to generate a little amount of backspin.”

Is Popup Rate a Skill?

When I wrote about Mike Soroka earlier this week, I remarked that he’s one of the finest players in baseball when it comes to generating popups. Infielders have caught over 20 percent of the fly balls that opponents have hit against him, which is one of the highest percentages in baseball. For the Braves, it’s evident that this is an important ability to have, since one-fifth of Soroka’s fly balls get thrown out automatically. However, there is a follow-up issue that begs to be answered in the context of this discussion.

  1. Is it possible for pitchers in general to exert some control on the number of popups they generate?
  2. FanGraphs offers a convenient section in our batted ball statistics called IFFB percent that appears to provide a straightforward solution to your question.
  3. The proportion of fly balls that do not leave the infield is referred to as the IFFB percent, not the percentage of total balls in play.
  4. Here is a look at Soroka’s batted ball rates during the current season: Batted Ball Rates from Mike Soroka for the year 2019.
2.97 22.0 58.4 19.7 17.6 2.9

Soroka allows 19.7 percent of fly balls, with 17.6 percent of those being infield fly balls, according to his stats. In other words, popups have accounted for around 3.5 percent of all balls put into play against Soroka this season. That, in my opinion, helps to put what we’re talking about into context. With a whopping 7.4 percent popup rate per hit ball this season, Lucas Giolito has the highest percentage of popups per batted ball in the major leagues among eligible starts (in a lovely bit of symmetry, teammate and other half of theAdam Eatontrade packageReynaldo Lopezis second).

  1. There is a difference in the number of popups that gamers accept, but it is not significant.
  2. The first thing I like to do when researching a new topic is check for previous study on the same issue.
  3. To make matters worse, there’s an outstanding piece on FanGraphs discussing whether popups are a skill, authored by none other than David Appelman himself, regarding whether or not they are.
  4. That makes basic logic – the more fly balls a pitcher receives, the greater the likelihood that he or she will receive some infield fly balls.
  5. In the years 2016 to 2018, below are the groundball and popup rates for every pitcher in Major League Baseball who threw 100 innings during those years: Okay, so that link appears to be quite similar to what Appelman discovered in 2010 (see below).
  6. That being said, we may proceed to answering various permutations of the question at our leisure.
  7. There’s no denying that pitchers’ ability to control the fly ball and groundball rates is something that they maintain from year to year.

What about pop-up windows, on the other hand?

To begin, we may examine variations in the number of popups players receive each ball in play over the course of a year.

Clayton Kershaw, for example, appears three times in the rankings: in 2015-2016, 2016-2017, and 2017-2018.

In light of the fact that groundball rates are stable from season to season and significantly connected with popup rates, we’d anticipate year one popup rate to predict year two popup rate rather well; fortunately, this appears to be the case.

20 r-squared; in other words, the variance in a pitcher’s popup rate can be explained by the fluctuation in the previous year’s popup rate by a factor of two.

Knowing how many popups a pitcher has allowed in the past might be helpful when determining the number of popups he or she will allow going forward.

To get to the more difficult question, consider this: if a pitcher has an unusually high IFFB percent (popups as a proportion of fly balls) in year one, what does it tell us about his or her performance in year two?.

The experimental design for this is a modification on the one that we just looked at previously.

Before we go into the answers, let’s speak about what to expect during the process.

If a pitcher has a very high groundball rate in year one, it is likely that this will continue into year two, resulting in fewer fly balls and less possibilities for popups.

Groundball rate has little or no impact on the IFFB percent because fly balls are used as the denominator, which indicates that it has little or no effect.

In this case, the r-squared is only.025 — substantially less than the popup rate and so little that it is almost irrelevant.

When it comes to pitchers, the top ten percent had an IFFB rate of 16.7 percent in their first season, which dropped to 10.7 percent in their second season.

There is a positive association, which makes sense — it’s just that it’s really minor and overshadowed to a significant amount by background noise.

Take into consideration the following fact: For the first time in his career, James Shields allowed more fly balls than any other pitcher in 2018, with 231.

The whole disparity between the poorest 10% of the population and the top 10% of the population is 2.4 percent, or around five popups every year.

Yes, without a doubt!

For the purpose of comparison, a 0.5 percent increase in strikeout rate would have resulted in the same number of outs for Shields that a 2.4 percent increase in infield fly ball rate would have resulted in.

Does it appear that pitchers who receive more popups allow fewer home runs per fly ball?

Does the IFFB percent of groundball pitchers in general differ from the IFFB percent of fly ball pitchers?

Can the IFFB percent tell you anything about preventing a second year’s run?

Overall, though, the evidence appears to be rather consistent.

If your favorite pitcher is receiving a slew of popups, you should be overjoyed!

However, don’t depend on that ability to transfer over to the next level.

A pitcher’s ability to control popups as a proportion of all fly balls appears to be roughly the inverse of his ability to control line drives: both are extremely useful (popups to the pitcher, line drives to the hitter), yet both are more or less uncontrolled.

The Physics of the Pop-Up

It’s late in the game, and your team is beginning to show signs of life for the first time. With two outs, the tying runners are in scoring position, and that cocky young rookie is stepping up to the bat to try to tie the game. For the first time in weeks, the home crowd is giddy with excitement as the game approaches. The great heat emanates from the pitcher’s mound, and the foolish rookie can’t keep his hands off the intensity of the situation. He swings his arm and pops it into the air. During the time it takes for the ball to softly settle in the shortstop’s mitt, the building’s atmosphere is depleted.

  • Galileo’s Law of Falling Bodies, which states that “all things near the surface of the Earth move downward with the same acceleration of 9.8 m/s 2,” may be familiar to you from high school.
  • Perhaps you were simply “in high school” instead of “in high school,” or perhaps you were simply unwell on that particular day.
  • As your crazy-haired physics instructor explained to you, the outcome is that the ball will be caught by the shortstop at the same speed at which it left the bat.
  • Mr.
  • A pop-up is not going to contact your glove at the same speed as a line drive, and you’ve caught half a million of them already.
  • The crucial concept to grasp is that Galileo’s Law is only applicable if air resistance is extremely low, which is not the situation for a baseball traveling at game speed.
  • When the pop-up is rising, as shown in Figure A, the air drag is downward, causing the ball to slow down as it passes through it.

In Figure B, you can see that the ball has reached its maximum height and has begun to tumble downhill.

Crazyhair had projected.

What about the path taken by the ball as it travels through the air?

This is also incorrect.

Here’s a pop-quiz, or even a “pop-up” quiz, to test your knowledge.

(a)in the direction of the backstop(b)in the direction of the outfield (c)none of the options above(d)everyone of the options above Did you choose answer a, by the way?

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To get a pop-up outcome, the bottom half of the ball will come into contact with the top half of the bat in the middle of the pitch.

Given that the ball’s center remains in motion while it moves toward the catcher, it is obvious that the ball must spin.

In Figure E, we can see the ball exiting the bat with the spin it acquired as a result of the impact with the bat.

The Magnus force is the force imparted on the ball as it spins in the air, and it is measured in Newtonian units.

The backspin on a fastball provides an upward Magnus force, which causes the ball to drop less than it would if the ball were not spinning.

Quiz in the form of a pop-up window Regarding picture E, which direction will the Magus force push a pop-up that is traveling upward?

As a result, the Magnus force will be directed downward.

Quiz in the form of a pop-up window Question 3: In what direction will the Magus force push a pop-up that is traveling downwards?

Rotate your iPad to the right this time, and the ball will seem to be a fastball with backspin.

Because the ball is traveling uphill, it will decelerate and go backward toward the backstop.

Baseball physicist Alan Nathan was the first to recognize that if a ball’s spin was sufficiently high, it may be possible to do a loop-de-loop, which he dubbed a “paradoxical pop-up.” He was also the first to describe the phenomenon.

Alan Nathan’sTrajectory Calculator was used to create the data for this report.

The ball rises in the same manner in which it falls.

Sorry, Mr.

When the air drag (red) is taken into account, the ball’s horizontal trajectory is changed to one in which the ball rises approximately 100 feet horizontally but falls around 75 feet.

The addition of air drag and Magnus force (blue) results in a pop-up that looks rather realistic when it hits the infield.

Using a spin rate of 2000 rpm, the first three trajectories were all completed.

For a spin rate of 4000 rpm, which is probably impossible, we witness a paradoxical pop-up (violet) that performs a loop-de-loop. You’ll be well-prepared for your next pop-up quiz now that you’ve completed your preparation.

Batted ball – Wikipedia

Abatted ball is a pitch that has been touched by the batter’s hit in the sports of baseball and softball. Hit balls can be classified as fair balls or foul balls depending on where they fall after being batted. If a hit ball is a fair ball, fielders will make an attempt to knock the batter out of the game. Unless the batter already has two strikes, a foul ball is considered a strike unless the hitter has already gathered two strikes in which case the number of strikes does not rise (with the exception of a foulbuntorfoul tip).

Fly balls, line drives, and ground balls are the three most prevalent types of trajectory-based classifications in baseball.


During a baseball game, a straight line is drawn from each front corner of home plate past either first base or third base (the left line past third base and the right line past first base) all the way to the far end of the outfield (formally known as the foul line). Generally speaking, fair balls are ones that land between or on the foul lines, and fielders can attempt to make a play on them; however, foul balls are those that land outside the foul lines. A foul ball counts as a strike unless the hitter already has two strikes assessed against them at the time the foul ball occurs (with the sole exception of foul bunts, which are described below).

Foul tip

According to baseball rules, an afoul tip is a sort of hit ball that happens when the batter makes contact with the pitch, but not enough to alter the trajectory of the ball (see below). In addition, the catcher must catch the ball without dropping it after it has been caught. A foul tip, if caught in accordance with the rules, is deemed to be the same as a conventional strike, and so a foul tip with two strikes already in the count results in a strikeout if the rules are followed.

By trajectory

A fly ball is defined as a batted ball that is struck in an arcing motion. A fly ball is captured before it touches the ground by fielders who attempt to grab it as it falls. If the ball is caught before it hits the ground, an out is recorded. Fielders who attempt to catch some fly balls are subject to a special rule known as the infield fly rule. As long as there are baserunners on first and second base (or if all three bases are occupied), the batter is out regardless of whether or not the fly ball is caught by the fielder.

To prohibit fielders from purposefully dropping the ball in order to produce a force play and the possibility to earn many outs on the same play, this rule was put in place. In addition, if the batted ball is a foul ball, the infield fly rule will apply.

Line drive

In baseball, a line drive is a batted ball that is launched into the air and travels in a reasonably straight path (“on a line”). Line drives are frequently hit harder than fly balls or ground balls, and their flatter trajectory makes them more difficult to catch. As a result, batters have a higher batting average on line drives than on fly balls or ground balls. Line drives are equally risky because of these similar inclinations. In 2007, first base coachMike Coolbaughwas murdered when a line drive struck him in the head during a minor league game in which he worked.

Ground ball

It is a batted ball that has been hit with a low enough trajectory that it touches the ground within a short distance after being struck and then rolls or bounces on the ground. The outcome of a ground ball is depending on which bases are occupied by runners. In some cases, a ground ball can result in a double play, which is frequently accomplished by a force out. A ground ball is distinguished from line drives and fly balls that strike the ground and bounce back; the difference is that ground balls are struck towards the ground, whereas fly balls and line drives are struck away from the ground and only strike the ground as a final result.


Abuntis a form of batted ball that is distinct from the others. Bunts are distinguished from other sorts of batted balls in that they occur when thrown balls are “deliberately contacted with the bat,” rather than being swung at with the bat. In contrast to other types of batted balls, for which a third strike is not assessed when a foul ball is hit with two strikes in the count, when a two-strike bunt falls foul, resulting in a strikeout, a third strike is awarded to the hitter, resulting in a strikeout.

See also

  • The bouncing ball, the baseball glossary, and the ground ball/fly ball ratio are all terms that are used in baseball. A skier (cricket) is a fly that looks similar to a pop fly.


Any move during a game might be unpredictable, therefore you must be prepared to deal with any situation that arises. The ball could be snapped by a batter and launch into the air, forcing you to catch it from behind the batter. Because your mask prevents upward visibility and your glove is meant to catch flat, this can be a difficult condition to navigate. So, what can you do to prepare yourself to deal with pop-ups? Let’s have a look at this.


When a pop-up is in the air in your neighborhood, it is critical that you work behind the baseball and with your back to the pitcher’s mound to prevent injury. Maintain a low center of gravity while catching the ball above your eyes as the baseball’s revolution propels it back toward the pitcher’s mound.


This is critical for any pop-up window. Putting your mask down immediately and then tripping over it as you track the ball is not a good idea. As the ball begins to float in the air, remove your mask and grip it in your naked hand. Determine where the ball is going to fall and then toss your mask in the opposite direction of where the ball is likely to land. It is preferable to throw the mask to your right if the ball is moving toward you from your left, and vice versa. The most essential thing to remember when there is a runner on base is that you should always try to catch the ball with two hands so that you can instantly shift the ball to your bare hand and look up to make the next play.

To be successful against a pop-up, you must first learn how to use the correct method. Putting this procedure into practice will help you prepare so that you’re prepared to deal with any situation that may arise behind home plate.

Backyard Tip: Reaction Pop-Up Drill

Tracking down and collecting a fly ball are difficult abilities to master for younger players on the field. Practicing the response pop-up drill on the field is a simple and enjoyable technique to improve your hand-eye coordination and spatial awareness when playing sports. All you will need for this practice is your child’s fielding glove and a ball to complete the task at your disposal. Baseballs, softballs, and tennis balls are all excellent choices. You should also remind your Little Leaguers® to put on the helmet and cleats that they regularly wear to practice or play.

Ready Position

The player adopts a “outfield ready-position” fielding stance while facing away from you from a distance of approximately 10 feet. The knees are slightly bent, the feet are shoulder-width apart, and the glove and bare hands are separated.

Controlled Spin

The phrase “ready position” will be spoken out when you are behind the player. After the player has assumed the ready position posture, you command him to “go!” At the same moment, the players spin around in a natural, controlled manner and hurl the ball high into the air to score a touchdown.

Fielding Position and the Catch

The player is required to go into position under the ball and ask for the ball to be caught, for example, by yelling “Mine, Mine, Mine” until the ball is caught. In order to grab the ball in their gloved hand as it drops, the player needs extend both of their arms at the same time. As soon as the player makes an attempt to catch the ball, teach him or her to catch the ball in the pocket of the glove. The glove must be above and slightly in front of the player’s head in order for them to see the ball enter their glove.

This practice should be repeated numerous times, with the height and direction of the ball changing each time.

While this practice should be performed away from any trees or other structures, it is not required.

What causes high foul pop-ups?

All of the advise was sound. As many of you are aware, I am not nearly as intelligent as some of the more seasoned hitting teachers in this room. However, during the course of my career, I have frequently pondered the elements that controlled the flight of the ball (fly ball vs. ground ball). For a long time, I felt that the swing route was the most important factor (and I still believe that plays a small role). However, now that I am a member of the one million fungo club (lol), I am persuaded that the location of the ball’s contact with the bat barrel is the most important factor.

As a result, I’ve tried to hit numerous stronger grounders (downward cuts?) to my infielders, but they’ve all ended up going over their heads and being caught as line drives.

And I don’t think that’s incorrect.

It doesn’t matter the route the swing takes.

Knuckling line drives are used when the ball strikes the centerline directly, which explains why they are used on rare occasions (my opinion).

This method still allows me to hit some hard grounders! I hope this has been of some assistance. THop

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