## On-base plus slugging – Wikipedia

A player’s on-base plus slugging (OPS) % is derived as the sum of his on-base percentage and slugging percentage, and it is a sabermetric baseball statistic. The ability of a player to get on base as well as hit for power, two crucial offensive qualities, are both illustrated in this illustration. Among Major League Baseball, a batter with an OPS of.800 or greater is considered to be in the highest tier of hitters. Typically, the league leader in OPS will have a score that is close to, and occasionally even above, 1.000.

## Equation

Where OBP represents on-base percentage and SLG represents slugging average, we have the following equation. These averages have been established. – the numerator “H + BB +HBP” essentially means “number of trips to first base at the very least” – the denominator “AB + BB + SF +HBP” basically means “total plate appearances,” but does not include sacrifice bunts. A hitter is not granted a “AB” despite the fact that he steps to the plate (BB or HBP) or puts the ball into play and is ruled out, but the action allows a run to score (as in the SF scenario) even though he has made a trip to the plate.

andwhere:

- H stands for hits
- BB stands for bases on balls
- HBP stands for times hit by pitch
- AB stands for at bats
- SF stands for sacrifice fly
- TB stands for total bases.

OPS may be expressed as follows in a single equation:

## History

The Hidden Game of Baseball, written by John Thorn and Pete Palmer in 1984, was the first book to make on-base plus slugging popular. The New York Times then began publishing the names of the top performers in this statistic in its weekly “By the Numbers” box, a feature that ran for four years and was widely adopted. Peter Gammons, a baseball journalist, popularized and evangelized the statistic, which was then picked up by other writers and announcers. Its popularity grew over time, and by 2004, it was featured on baseball cards produced by Topps Baseball Cards.

Examples include Thorn’sTotal Baseballencyclopedia and theStrat-O-Matic Computer Baseballgame, both of which contained manufacturing information in their early editions.

The availability of its components, OBP and SLG, as well as the fact that team OPS corresponds highly with the number of runs scored, contributed to the rise in popularity of OPS.

## An OPS scale

Bill James, in his essay titled “The 96 Families of Hitters,” classifies hitters into seven separate groups based on their offensive power:

Category | Classification | OPS range |
---|---|---|

A | Great | .9000 and higher |

B | Very good | .8334 to.8999 |

C | Above average | .7667 to.8333 |

D | Average | .7000 to.7666 |

E | Below average | .6334 to.6999 |

F | Poor | .5667 to.6333 |

G | Very poor | .5666 and lower |

This basically converts the ordinal scale into a seven-point ordinal scale for OPS. It is possible to provide a subjective reference for OPS numbers by substituting quality labels for the A–G categories, such as excellent (A), very good (B), good (C), average (D), fair (E), bad (F), and very poor (G).

## Leaders

With at least 3,000 plate appearances through August 5, 2020, the top 10 Major League Baseball players in terms of lifetime OPS were as follows:

- Babe Ruth has a 1.1636 rating
- Ted Williams has a 1.1155 rating
- Lou Gehrig has a 1.0798 rating
- Barry Bonds has a 1.0512 rating
- Jimmie Foxx has a 1.0376 rating
- Hank Greenberg has a 1.0169 rating
- Rogers Hornsby has a 1.0103 rating
- Mike Trout has a 1.0009 rating
- Manny Ramirez has a 0.9823 rating
- Mark McGwire has a 0.9823

The top four hitters were all left-handed, which was a rarity.

Jimmie Foxx has the best career on-base percentage (OPS) of any right-handed batter in baseball history. The following are the best 10 single-season performances in Major League Baseball (all by left-handed hitters):

- 1.4217 for Barry Bonds in 2004
- 1.3807 for Barry Bonds in 2002
- 1.3791 for Babe Ruth in 1920
- 1.3785 for Barry Bonds in 2001
- Babe Ruth in 1921
- Babe Ruth in 1923
- 1.2875 for Ted Williams in 1941
- 1.2778 for Barry Bonds in 2003
- Babe Ruth in 1927
- Ted Williams in 1957
- 1.2582 for Babe Ruth in 1927
- 1.2566 for Ted

During the 1925 season, Rogers Hornsby batted 1.2449, which ranked him 13th on the all-time list of single-season marks for right-handed hitters. For right-handed pitchers since 1935, Mark McGwire’s 1.2224 OPS in 1998 ranks 16th all-time and is the greatest single-season mark for a right-hander.

## Adjusted OPS (OPS+)

OPS+, or modified OPS, is a metric that is closely connected to OPS. OPS+ is an adjusted OPS that takes into account the park and league in which the player played, but does not take into account fielding position. The league average is defined as having an OPS+ of 100 points. An OPS+ of 150 or above is exceptional, and a score of 125 or higher is very good, but an OPS+ of 75 or below is mediocre. OPS+ may be calculated using the following equation:where *lgOBP is the league’s park adjusted OBP (excluding pitchers hitting) and *lgSLG is the league’s park adjusted SLG (excluding pitchers hitting).

Due to the additive nature of the two components of OPS+, for example a player with an OBP and SLG that are both 50 percent over average in both categories will have an OPS+ of 200 (twice the league average OPS+), while having an OPS that is only 50 percent above the league average.

### Leaders in OPS+

Through the completion of the 2019 season, the following players ranked in the top twenty in their respective career OPS+ rankings (minimum 3,000 plate appearances):

- Babe Ruth has 206 hits
- Ted Williams has 190
- Barry Bonds has 182
- Lou Gehrig has 179
- Mike Trout has 176
- Rogers Hornsby has 175
- Mickey Mantle has 172
- Dan Brouthers has 170
- Joe Jackson has 170
- Ty Cobb has 168
- Pete Browning has 163
- Jim Foxx has 163
- Mark McGwire has 163
- Dave Orr has 162
- Stan Musial has 159
- Hank Greenberg

These are the only players on this list who are exclusively right-handed batters: Browning, Hornsby, Foxx, Trout, McGwire, Allen, Mays, and Thomas are the only players on this list who are exclusively right-handed batters. Mantle is the only player in the group who can transition from one position to another. The following were the best single-season performances:

- Barry Bonds has 268 hits in 2002
- Barry Bonds has 263 hits in 2004
- Barry Bonds has 259 hits in 2001
- Fred Dunlap has 258 hits in 1884 *
- Babe Ruth has 256 hits in 1920
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1921
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1923
- Ted Williams has 235 hits in 1941
- Ted Williams has 233 hits in 1957
- Ross Barnes has 231 hits in 1876 **
- Barry Bonds has 231 hits in 2003

* – Fred Dunlap’s remarkable 1884 season took place in the Union Association, which some baseball experts believe is not a legitimate major league in the traditional sense. It is possible that Ross Barnes was helped by a rule that declared a bunt fair if it rolled in fair territory for the first time. When this regulation was lifted, he did not perform nearly as well as he had previously, but injuries may have played a major role in this, since his fielding numbers also fell. If Dunlap’s and Barnes’ seasons were to be removed from the list, two more Ruth seasons (1926 and 1927) would be added to the list.

Barnes, the lone right-handed hitter on the list, would also be eliminated as a result of this.

## Criticism

Despite the fact that it is a straightforward computation, OPS is a contentious statistic. On-base percentage and slugging percentage are both taken into consideration when calculating OPS. On-base %, on the other hand, is a greater predictor of run production. Linear weights are used to construct statistics such as thewOBA, which capitalizes on this distinction.

Furthermore, the components of OPS are not always equal (for example, league-average slugging percentages are frequently 75–100 points higher than league-average on-base percentages). The overall OPS for all of Major League Baseball in 2019 was.758, which serves as a point of comparison.

## See also

- For further information, visit the Wayback Machine
- John Thorn and Pete Palmer, “The Hidden Game of Baseball,” on pages 69-70
- Alan Schwarz, “The Numbers Game,” on pages 165-233
- Mr. James and Mr. Bill The 96 Hitter Families have been identified. The Bill James Gold Mine, 2009, p.24
- “Career LeadersRecords for OPS”.Baseball-Reference.com. RetrievedJuly 26,2019
- “Single-Season Records for OPS”.Baseball-Reference.com. RetrievedJuly 26,2019
- “Career LeadersRecords for Adjusted OPS+”.Baseball-Reference.com. RetrievedJuly 26,2019
- “Single- Michael Lewis is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom (203). Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game
- “2019 Major League Baseball Standard Batting”.Baseball-Reference.com

## References

- John Thorn and Pete Palmer are co-authors of this work (1984). Baseball’s “Secret Game” is a little known fact. Schwarz, Alan
- Doubleday & Company, ISBN 0-385-18283-X
- Doubleday & Company, ISBN 0-385-18283-X (2004). The Game of Numbers. Books published by Thomas Dunne Books (ISBN 0-312-32222-4)

## What Does OPS Mean in Baseball – What is a Good OPS?

Baseball may just be the perfect sport for math nerds, according to some experts. The OPS package, for example, incorporates formulae from various statistics, which makes it really fascinating to use. However, despite the fact that it appears to be a convoluted method, the outcome is clear: calculating OPS, or on-base plus slugging, may be a rapid way to determine a player’s true contribution to his club. OPS (on-base percentage) is a unique baseball statistic that is explained in detail in this article.

## How is OPS Calculated?

OPS is one of those statistics that must be interpreted in conjunction with other data in order to make sense. To compute On-base plus slugging, we’ll need two statistics: first, the number of times a player has reached base.

- Percentage of time spent on base (OBP). It is a cold, hard statistic that measures how many times a player gets on base by any method in comparison to the total number of at-bats they have had throughout their career. It makes no difference how a player gets on base in the OBP game. Were they tainted with something? Walked? Did they make contact? It everything contributes to their overall batting average (OBP)
- Slugging average (SLG). Unlike other stats, this one is a system that measures the quality of a player’s strikes. The batting average of a baseball player, for example, does not tell you how often they hit the ball
- It just tells you how often they scored a hit. SLG includes the quality of those hits into the calculation by including the amount of bases reached as a component of the equation. An individual player might theoretically have a slugging average of 4.000, which would result in an optimum ratio of home runs to at-bats. That is to say, if a player only has one at-bat and hits a home run, his slugging average will be 4.000 points higher than normal. An SLG of 1.000 indicates that a single was hit in a single at-bat, and so on.

Keep in mind that there are some uncommon instances (such as sacrifice flies) that do not count toward at-bats and, as a result, have no meaningful influence on either of these statistics. The terms OBP and SLG are certainly familiar to you; OBP is a rate measure, and SLG is a rate and quality metric. When you combine the two metrics, on-base plus slugging, you get a more complete picture of a player’s ability to smash the ball hard. What is the formula for calculating it? Simply add the two numbers together.

## What is a Good OPS in Baseball?

For fans of Major League Baseball, it might be difficult to make sense of how OPS works on sometimes. What does it have to say about the look of the plates? What is the overall quality of the ballpark in which they are playing during the season? What is the total number of bases they have amassed? To obtain a real understanding of what a good OPS is, it’s helpful to first establish a standard of comparison. Here are a few of the top OPS in Major League Baseball history:

- With an OPS of 1.1636, Babe Ruth is the all-time leader
- Mike Trout is among the all-time OPS greats who are still active, with a career average of around 1.0000
- Barry Bonds ranks 4th on the list as of 2020, with an OPS of approximately 1.05
- Lou Gehrig ranks third with an OPS of 1.07
- And Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox is the only other player outside of Babe Ruth who has an OPS of 1.1 or higher over his This is among players who have accumulated at least 3,000 at-bats.

Of course, this only provides us only one end of the range to work with. What about the overall average of the league? A look at the data for Major League Baseball reveals that the league average in on-base plus slugging is often between 0.700 and 0.800.

## What is the Highest OPS in Baseball History?

Already, we’ve shown you the player who has the greatest careerOPS, Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees, in our previous post. His 1.1636 OPS over that many at-bats may never be surpassed, putting him in the running for the title of greatest hitter of all time. However, this is merely one method of looking at the stats. Season-to-season comparisons of metrics such as on-base percentage (OPS) are important because they reveal exactly how spectacularly certain players have reached the pinnacle of their careers.

- Babe Ruth, 1920: 1.3791
- Barry Bonds, 2001: 1.3785
- Babe Ruth, 1921: 1.3586
- Babe Ruth, 1923: 1.3089
- Babe Ruth, 2004: 1.4217
- Babe Ruth, 2002: 1.3807
- Bab

Eventually, Ted Williams enters the picture, having posted the 7th-best offensive season in baseball history. When Rogers Hornsby appears on the list, it is at the thirteenth position that a fourth player is included.

## What about High OPS Seasons in Recent Years?

- Juan Soto of the Washington Nationals had the best OPS in 2020, batting 1.1846 with a 1.1846 on-base percentage. That was good enough for the 25th greatest OPS season in baseball history
- In 2019, Christian Yelich of the Milwaukee Brewers hit 1.1001, which was strong enough for a season in the top 100 of all-time OPS rankings

## Are there Better Stats than OPS?

A hitter’s talent can be evaluated by adding up his or her slugging % or slugging average with his or her on-base percentage, which some may argue is a rudimentary method of doing so. However, it is possible that there is more to it than you realize. After all, on-base percentage (OBP) includes at-bats, walks, sacrifice flies, and the number of times a batter is hit by a pitch. Overall, the OPS statistic takes a variety of factors into consideration, including at-bats and total bases. Hits, walks, HBP, and even sacrifice fly are all accounted for in the overall calculation.

Optimal team performance (OPS) is popular because when calculated for an entire team, it has a strong correlation with how many runs the team has scored. This is why many people consider it to be an effective tool to evaluate a batter’s offensive output on a consistent basis.

## What about OPS+?

The OPS+ statistic, which takes this statistic and “normalizes” it across the league, is also available. A player’s OPS+ takes into account external factors such as the ballpark in which he or she was hitting. It is calculated such that an OPS of 100 represents the league average, which provides people with an immediate understanding of how a player’s offensive productivity compares to the rest of the team. As a result, the statistics of a Cubs player may differ from those of a Dodgers player, who in turn may differ from the statistics of a Cardinals player or a White Sox player.

When a player is free agent, OPS+ is important because he or she may benefit from primarily playing in a smaller ballpark where it is easier to hit home runs, which can increase his or her value.

## Conclusion

The on-base average and slugging percentage, when combined, can provide useful information on a player’s offensive performance in the big leagues. However, like with any other sabermetrics in baseball, it’s not always simple to quantify everything without actually seeing it firsthand in action.

## Similar Posts

In baseball, what exactly is a putout? What is Batter’s Eye? What Does the Abbreviation QAB Mean in Baseball? Baseball GM (General Manager of Baseball) What is the definition of a hold in baseball? Bases are being stolen in baseball. In baseball, what exactly is a quality start? In baseball, there is a magic number. What is the role of a baseball manager? Baseball with a Can of Corn What Is the Meaning of Batting Average? What is a Knuckleball and how does it work? Coach on the Baseball Bench What is a No-Hitter, exactly?

Baseball Doubleheader in the horizon Baseball is a hit-and-run sport.

What is a Spitball Pitch, and how does it work?

## What Is OPS in Baseball? Well, It Measures…

There are several approaches of evaluating baseball players, as well as numerous schools of thought on the most effective method of doing so. The earned run average (ERA) of a pitcher is widely considered to be the most reliable conventional statistic for determining his or her performance. Ops, on the other hand, has become a common measure for evaluating hitters in order to quantify their overall effectiveness. As a result, what exactly is OPS in baseball? On-base plus slugging (also known as OPS) is a statistic that attempts to assess a hitter’s overall effectiveness by combining two figures that reflect how well he is at reaching base and hitting for power: on-base percentage and slugging percentage.

In the meanwhile, let’s get down to business and answer the burning question.

## What Is a Batter’s OPS?

In addition to On-Base, On-Base Plus The slugging percentage of a player is the sum of the player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. The on-base percentage (OPS) of a player demonstrates his or her ability to reach base and hit for power. On-base Plus is a slang term for Slugging percentage, often known as On-base percentage (OBP), is a combination of a batter’s On-base percentage (OBP) and Slugging percentage (SP) (SLG). The stat was created to analyze a batter’s ability to reach base and hit for power, which are the two key tasks that are regarded to be the most significant for hitters in baseball at the time of its creation.

You may calculate an OPS by adding these two values together, and voilà, the league OPS for 2019 was.758.

These prices, on the other hand, will alter over time as more and more people join the club.

Because a batter’s OPS tends to hold up better over time than counting figures, it may be used to evaluate batters even when comparing two players who have a significant difference in playing time.

## How Do You Calculate OPS?

As we previously discussed, On-Base Plus is a type of military base. Slugging percentage, often known as on-base percentage and slugging percentage, is the sum of a player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. Put another way, you can compute an OPS by simply putting the two numbers together. The on-base percentage (OPS) of a hitter cannot be calculated, however, without these data. Because the complete OPS calculation is lengthy and difficult to compute on its own, it is preferable to calculate OBP and SLG separately and then combine them.

- In order to do so, sum up all of the hits, walks, and hit by pitches, then divide the total by the number of at-bats plus walks, sacrifice flies, and hit by pitches to get the on-base percentage.
- As a consequence, the calculation for OBP looks somewhat like this: At bats + walks + hit by pitch / (at bats + walks + hit by pitch + sacrifice flies) = On Base Percentage (OBP).
- Simply combine the two figures together to obtain the overall probability of success (OPS) for each situation.
- Using the on-base percentage calculation, the values for hits (30), walks (10), and HBPs (5) total up to 45 when multiplied together.
- The hitter’s on-base percentage is calculated by dividing 45 by 120, which equals.375.
- On the batting average side, the total bases from singles (15), doubles (10), triples (15), and home runs (20) add up to a total of a.600 slugging percentage.
- For the purposes of illustration, the entire equation is written as follows: With all of that work spread out in front of you, it’s usually better to compute the two figures individually in order to keep everything a bit more organized.

## Why Is OPS a Good Stat?

On-base Plus Slugging is one metric that has remained mostly concealed in plain sight throughout history and has just lately been recognized as being significant. In the world of so-called “advanced” metrics, on-base percentage (OPS) is one of the simplest to compute and utilize. It is comprised of the two values created by the two most significant talents for hitters: reaching base and hitting for power. Because of these two elements, on-field performance (OPS) is a simple metric for fans to locate, compute, and understand.

OPS, on the other hand, is by no means impenetrable.

According to theSporting News’ evaluation of on-base percentage (OPS), David Ortiz topped all of Major League Baseball with a 1.021 OPS in 2016, yet in 2000, same score would have matched him for 16th place in the league.

Because OPS is sensitive to changes in ballpark dimensions and league-wide adjustments, it is not the be-all and end-all metric.

This statistic is far more sophisticated, since it normalizes a player’s OPS based on league and park considerations, with 100 serving as a reference point for comparison. However, we will not go into detail about this statistic in this post.

## What Is a Good OPS in Baseball?

According to what we discussed previously, OPS standards can shift over time as leagues and ballparks evolve. But there are still broad numbers that are deemed to be excellent or harmful in some way, shape or form. At any point in time in history, an OPS of over.800 has been deemed good, with an OPS of over.900 considered very good, and an OPS of 1.000 or greater considered extraordinary. On the other hand, an OPS of less than 700 is regarded bad, and anything less than 600 is considered extremely poor.

## When Did OPS Become a Stat in Baseball?

On-base Plus is made up of several components. Slugging (both on-base percentage and slugging percentage) has been around for a very long time. Branch Rickey was a pioneer in the development of the on-base percentage statistic in the 1940s and 1950s, and he was credited with inventing the concept. A metric known as “Extra Base Power” was also established by him, and he even reasoned that the two statistics might be combined to determine an individual batter’s total performance. Apparently, Rickey was decades ahead of his time in terms of thinking.

However, it wasn’t until the rise of sabermetrics in the late 1990s and early 2000s that baseball began to take the overall OPS (as well as its components) seriously.

The on-base percentage (OPS) is not regarded an official statistic by Major League Baseball, despite the fact that it is well known and highly accepted today.

After reading this, the next time you see a batter’s OPS, you will have a better understanding of whether you should be optimistic about him or if you should be concerned.

## Highest Career OPS

Babe Ruth, who is in the Hall of Fame, holds the record for the best career On-base Plus Slugging percentage with a 1.164 OPS throughout his 22-year professional baseball career. Seven batters have concluded their careers with an OPS greater than 1.000, with Mike Trout now straddling the line between the two categories.

## Highest Single Season OPS

Barry Bonds owns the single-season record for the greatest On-Base Plus Slugging percentage (1.422) with a mind-boggling 1.422 in 2004.

He also established an MLB record with an on-base percentage of.609 and a slugging percentage of.812, both of which were the highest ever recorded.

## What Is Batting Average?

The batting average demonstrates a player’s ability to put the ball in play and advance to the next base. The batting average of a hitter is derived by dividing the total number of hits he has received by the total number of at-bats he has had. It is important in measuring a player’s performance at the bat, but it does not take into consideration walks, sacrifices, and other factors.

### Related Articles

- What is the definition of a Designated Hitter in baseball? What is the definition of MVR in baseball? A Comprehensive Guide to the Rule
- What Is the Meaning of WAR in Baseball? The Complete Guide to Getting Started
- What is the definition of WHIP in baseball
- In baseball, the term “left on base” (LOB) refers to the number of runners who have been left on base.

## On Base Plus Slugging (OPS) All Time Leaders on Baseball Almanac

When Branch Rickey and Allan Roth invented the on base percentage statistic in the 1950s, they were looking for a way to track the number of times a player reached any base. The sacrifice fly designation was not included in the initial version, but when it was formally adopted in 1984, it was included using the procedure outlined in the preceding section. Later, Slugging Average was established, and the two were merged to form On Base Plus Slugging, which stands for On Base plus Slugging. The player must have played a minimum of 1,000 career games in order to be included on this list of the one-thousand greatest on base plus slugging leaders.

- “Similar to a dog who has never been given table scraps.
- I’m pretty curious.
- I’m hoping to be able to do so this year, and I’m hoping it will be possible.
- I have set a one-year goal for myself.” The Baseball Digest published an article by Todd Helton (May 2004) Babe Ruth owns the record for most wins in the American League, and Manny Ramirez is the only current player who “appears” to be in with a chance.
- Perhaps the 1.000 OPS Club should be established by Baseball Almanac as a new “club” inside the organization.
- What do you think of the on-base plus slugging percentage?
- Bring your friends and family to join us onBaseball Fever, where we have a forum dedicated to the discussion of SABRMetric statistics.

## How to Calculate OPS in Baseball

Baseball statistics have long been a significant aspect of the game. When talking about baseball and its many leagues, terms such as batting average, runs batted in, hits, runs, and more have become standard. However, as baseball has progressed throughout the years, the statistics have gotten very intricate. It might be difficult to keep up with the new-age language, which includes statistics such as on-base percentage (OBP), slugging percentage (SLG), and wins above replacement (WAR), among others.

Initially glanced at, it appears to be a difficult figure to compute and comprehend, however it can be simply broken down into a series of steps.

## 1. Understanding and Calculating On Base Percentage

On Base Percentage (also known as On Base Percentage or OBP) is a crucial statistic in baseball and the first important statistic required to comprehend On Base Percentage (also known as OPS). Quite literally, the On Base Percentage tracks how many times an individual player gets on base. In order to compute this, you tally up a player’s hits, walks, and times hit by a pitch, and then divide the total by the number of plate appearances the player has made (at bats plus walks plus hit by pitch plus sacrifice flies).

## 2. Understanding and Calculating Slugging Percentage

The slugging percentage, abbreviated as SLG, is the other important statistic in the calculation of the OPS. Although similar to calculating on-base percentage (OBP), SLG is used to assess the overall quality of hits made by a player rather than amount of base hits made. It does this by giving a numerical value to each base (single = 1, double = 2, etc.) and assessing the type of hit a player receives when he smacks the ball. The formula for calculating SLG is Singles + Doubles x 2 + Triples x 3, + Home Runs x 4 divided by the number of at bats.

## 3. Calculating and Understanding OPS

So, now that we’ve learned how to compute OBP and SLG, it’s important to remember that OPS is basically On Base Percentage plus Slugging, which makes it much simpler to calculate. To compute on-base percentage and slugging % for a player, multiply their on-base percentage by their slugging percentage. For example, a player with an OBP of.280 and an SLG of.500 will have an OPS of.780 if he also has an OBP of.280 and an SLG of.500. This statistic practically reflects the best of both worlds between the two statistics because it evaluates both the amount of time a player spends on base and the quality of their hits.

## On-base plus slugging

On-base plus slugging (sometimes known as on-base percentage and slugging percentage) is a baseball statistic that is computed as the sum of a player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. This method is excellent for determining a player’s offensive worth since it considers both the ability to get on base and the ability to hit for power, which are two crucial hitting talents, and it is simple to use. In Major League Baseball, a player with an OPS of.900 or more is considered to be in the highest tier of offensive skill.

## Formula

Where OBP represents on-base percentage and SLG represents slugging percentage, we have the following fundamental formula: These percentages are defined as follows and in which locations:

- The letters H, BB, and HBP stand for hits, bases on balls, and times hit by pitch respectively. The letters AB stand for at bats, SF stands for sacrifice fly, and TB stands for total bases.

Because the denominators of OBP and SLG are different, it is feasible to rewrite the calculation for OPS using a common denominator in order to simplify the expression.

Mathematics says that this statement is the same as the simple sum of OBP and SLG, which is as follows:

## Interpretation of OPS

It should be emphasized that, in contrast to many other statistics, a player’s OPS does not have a straightforward intrinsic meaning, despite the fact that it is valuable as a comparing measure. One flaw with OPS is that it gives equal weight to both on-base average and slugging percentage, despite the fact that on-base average is more closely associated with run production. This flaw is exacerbated by the fact that the component portions of OPS are not normally close to equal in terms of numerical value (league-average slugging percentages are usually 75-100 points higher than league-average on-base percentages, while league-leading slugging percentages are often 200-300 points higher than league-leading on-base percentages).

Inconsistencies between published OPSes and the sum of on-base average and slugging percentage are due to rounding mistakes in the calculations.

## History

The Hidden Game of Baseball, written by John Thorn and Pete Palmer in 1984, was the first book to make the concept of on-base plus slugging prominent. The New York Times then began publishing the names of the top performers in this statistic in its weekly “By the Numbers” box, a feature that ran for four years and garnered widespread attention. The statistics were popularized by baseball journalist Peter Gammons, who utilized them and spread the word about them to other writers and announcers.

## Leaders

The Major League Baseballplayers with a lifetime on-base percentage greater than 1.000 are as follows (through 2005, current players are shown in bold):

- Babe Ruth has a 1.1636 rating
- Ted Williams has a 1.1155 rating
- Lou Gehrig has a 1.0798 rating
- Barry Bonds has a 1.0533 rating
- Albert Pujols has a 1.0490 rating
- Todd Helton has a 1.0404 rating
- Hank Greenberg has a 1.0169 rating
- Rogers Hornsby has a 1.0103 rating
- Manny Ramirez has a 1.0076 rating
- Babe Ruth has a 1.16

Albert Pujols has the best career on-base percentage (OPS) of any right-handed batter in baseball history. The following are the best 10 single-season performances in Major League Baseball (all by left-handed hitters):

- 1.4217 for Barry Bonds in 2004
- 1.3807 for Barry Bonds in 2002
- 1.3791 for Babe Ruth in 1920
- 1.3785 for Barry Bonds in 2001
- Babe Ruth in 1921
- Babe Ruth in 1923
- 1.2874 for Ted Williams in 1941
- 1.2778 for Barry Bonds in 2003
- Babe Ruth in 1927
- Ted Williams in 1957
- 1.2582 for Babe Ruth in 1927
- 1.2566 for Ted

Rogers Hornsby set the record for the greatest single-season batting average for a right-handed batter in 1925 with a 1.2449 mark (13th on the all-time list). Since 1925, Mark McGwire has had the greatest single-season OPS for a right-hander, with a 1.2224 mark in 1998.

## Adjusted OPS (OPS+)

OPS+, or Adjusted OPS, is a metric that is closely connected to OPS. OPS+ is an adjusted OPS that takes into account the park and league in which the player played, but does not take into account fielding position. The league average is defined as having an OPS+ of 100 points. An OPS+ of 150 or greater is considered exceptional, indicating that the player’s overall OPS was 50 percent better than the national average after adjusting for park.

### Leaders in OPS+

According to lifetime leaders in OPS+ (minimum 3000 plate appearances, current players in bold), the following players were the best through 2005:

- Babe Ruth has 207 hits
- Ted Williams has 190
- Barry Bonds has 184
- Lou Gehrig has 179
- Rogers Hornsby has 175
- Mickey Mantle has 172
- Dan Brouthers has 170
- Joe Jackson has 170
- Ty Cobb has 167
- And the list goes on.

The following were the best single-season performances:

- Barry Bonds has 275 hits in 2002
- Barry Bonds has 262 hits in 2001
- Barry Bonds has 260 hits in 2004
- Babe Ruth has 256 hits in 1920
- Fred Dunlap has 250 hits in 1884
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1921
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1923
- Ted Williams has 235 hits in 1941
- Ted Williams has 233 hits in 1957
- Ross Barnes has 231 hits in 1876
- Barry Bonds has 231 hits in 2003
- Barry Bonds

## See also

- Sabermetrics, on-base percentage, slugging percentage, and other metrics

## Notes

- John Thorn and Pete Palmer are co-authors of this work (1984). Baseball’s “Secret Game” is a little known fact. ISBN 0-385-18283-X
- Alan Schwarz, Doubleday & Company, ISBN 0-385-18283-X (2004). The Game of Numbers. Thomas Dunne Books (ISBN 0-312-32222-4)
- Thomas Dunne Books (ISBN 0-312-32222-4)

## What is OPS in Baseball? (Detailed Explanation)

We rely on the generosity of our readers. If you make a purchase after clicking on one of our affiliate links, we may receive a commission. In addition, we get commissions from eligible Amazon sales because we are an Amazon affiliate. More and more new statistical categories have been introduced into Major League Baseball in recent years as a result of an effort to better assess nearly every aspect of baseball, from the velocity of a ball flying off a bat to the speed at which thrown balls spin, and much more.

In baseball, what is the OPS (on-base percentage)?

The overall batting average of a batter is calculated by multiplying his or her ability to reach base successfully by another statistic that represents the strength of the batter’s swing.

OBP and SLG are the abbreviations for on-base and slugging percentages, respectively. OBP and SLG are the acronyms for on-base percentages. When you add them all together, you get OPS.

## How Do You Calculate OPS?

The mathematical formula is straightforward: OBP (on-base percentage) plus SLG (slugging average) equals OPS. A player’s at-bat value is calculated using this method, which is simple to understand. What I mean is, on average, how much is produced by each at bat? Over the years, the popularity and impact of the OPS category has expanded very moderately in both popularity and influence. It’s essentially a byproduct of a surge in interest in on-base percentage that began in the 1990s with sabermetrics and the publication of the book “Moneyball,” as well as a broader focus by statisticians on what factors most influence the production of runs.

not just all singles, but doubles, triples, and home runs).

## An Overview of Baseball’s OPS

Baseball statistics are more popular than statistics for almost every other sport, with the exception of football. Beginning with the introduction of the box score in the late 1880s, newspapers attempted to express all the action of a baseball game in a small printed “box,” with the names of players followed by their exploits in single games. It was a failure, and the box score was scrapped. With the introduction of the new box scores, a limited number of categories were created to track the hitting (and pitching) accomplishments of the players.

The “batting average” of a batter may be calculated by dividing the number of at bats by the number of hits.

However, by the mid-20th century, baseball experts believed they could gain even more insight from the stats.

An summary of the situation:

### On-Base Percentage: How Good Batters are at Avoiding Outs

On-base percentage (OBP) dates back to the 1940s, when Brooklyn Dodgers executive Branch Rickey, with the assistance of statistician Allan Roth, developed the concept over a period of several years. Essentially, it is a fundamental indicator of a batter’s ability to reach at least first base when compared to the total amount of at bats he has accumulated. “Getting on base” refers to reaching first base by any methods possible, including base hits, base on balls, and being hit by a pitch. As an example, if a hitter batted 10 times and reached at least first base on each of those ten occasions, his OBP would be 1.000.

For old-time baseball fans who are particularly familiar with batting average, the on-base percentage statistic should be greater than the batting average category, in general (but typically not by a lot).

Obp became increasingly valuable in the 1990s, as new evidence from what is now known as sabermetrics revealed that getting on base is more significant for scoring runs (and hence winning games) than simply having a high batting average during the season.

Though on-base percentage (OBP) was not officially recognized by the Major League Baseball until 1984, it does not imply that clubs did not do the calculations for many years prior to that date.

### Slugging Percentage: How Many Bases Per Hit

Over the years, one underappreciated baseball statistic has been “total bases,” which refers to how many total bases a batter has gained as a result of his or her hits. A single base hit earns a hitter one base to count, while a home run earns a batter four bases to count in total. The theory is that the more power and, consequently, extra-base hits a batter generates, the more effective he will be in terms of driving in runs to help his team win a game. A batter’s slugging percentage is the number of bases he or she gets on each at bat.

As an example, if a player hits a home run (worth four bases) but does not hit anything else in his first ten at-bats, his SLG is.400.

Slugging percentages can approach 1.000, and league leaders frequently achieve this level of performance.

### OBP vs. SLG in Baseball

When compared to on-base percentage (OBP), the distinction is that SLG only includes base hits, whereas OBP counts base hits as well as walks and hit-by-pitches. Because different types of base hits are weighted differently, the SLG % will almost always be greater than the batting average (AVG) percentage. Essentially, extra-base hits increase the SLG rather than the AVG, which is concerned with how frequently a hitter successfully reaches base regardless of hit type. Calculating a slugging percentage has been around at least since the 1880s, when it was referred to as “total base average,” which is exactly what it is when you think about it.

In the Major Leagues, what is considered a good slugging percentage?

Assuming that the batter’s batting average is around.300, greater SLG values in the range of.400 and.500 indicate that the hitter is slugging well in the field.

## Is OPS a Good Stat? Why, and Why Not?

In baseball, the on-base percentage (OPS) is valued because it indicates whether a batter is hitting with power or not. Having a lot of “pop” in the lineup is preferred by baseball managers because it results in more runs (RBIs) than non-power hitting. Fans also appreciate power, to paraphrase a well-known television commercial. It is possible to calculate how frequently a hitter safely reaches first base as well as how many times his hits result in his gaining further bases using the OPS formula.

The term for this is slugging, mashing, or driving the ball in baseball jargon.

Sluggers hit long or extremely hard balls that wreak havoc in the outfield and allow base runners to run amok around the bases in the middle of the game.

They “create” the runs that are required to win baseball games.

To put it another way: Tony Gwynn was a tremendous batter, and Dave Winfield was a fantastic slugger, and they were both greats. Sluggers are similar to batters in terms of power. Overall, the on-base percentage (OPS) is a reliable method of determining how powerful a batter is in baseball.

## What is a Good OPS in Baseball?

Anything in the vicinity of a 1.000 OPS is considered excellent. Anything with a score of more than 1.000 is extraordinary. League leaders frequently have winning percentages in excess of 1.000 at the end of the season. This is true for the current season as well. By the middle of June in 2021, three players had an OPS of or better than 1,000: Vladimir Guerrero Jr. (tops the list with 1.089), Jesse Winker, and Nick Castellanos. Ronald Acuna Jr. (.989), Kris Bryant (.959), and Shohei Ohtani (.951), all of whom are stars in the Major League Baseball, were among those who came close to the “very good” threshold.

## Can OPS Judge Pitchers, Too?

The answer is yes, but it is employed less frequently than in the case of hitters. It’s referred to as “slugging-percentage against,” and it simply measures how many total bases pitchers allow for each hit. The same is true for “average against,” and so on. Teams are interested in learning which pitchers are most prone to yielding a high number of base hits (avg against), as well as who of those pitchers is allowing the most extra-base hits (SPA). Anything and everything you can think of that may be used to evaluate a baseball player’s performance is being counted and evaluated right now.

## Final Words on Baseball’s OPS Statistical Category

There is no one way to assess how well a hitter contributes to the production of runs that enable the team to win a baseball game. Most of the time, it is necessary to take into account more than one measuring instrument, which is essentially what the OPS is. The on-base percentage (OPS) measures how frequently a hitter gets to second base safely, so avoiding outs, while also displaying how many extra-base hits he slugs out. It assesses a hitter’s ability to get on base as well as hit with power, with the latter implying a higher likelihood of producing more runs.

### Question:Which batter recorded the highest OPS, both for a season, and lifetime?

Answer:For this career record, only hitters with at least 3,000 at-bats are considered. The all-time leader is Babe Ruth, with a lifetime 1.1636 OPS. For single seasons, the top 10 OPS numbers came from either Ruth, Barry Bonds or Ted Williams, with Bonds’ 1.4217 in 2004 as the all-time season high. Bonds also claims No. 2 with 1.3807 in 2002, while Ruth posted 1.3791 in 1920.

### Q.:Who was the best MLB player for total bases?

A.:Hank Aaron, who has amassed a total of 6,856 total bases over his career. Babe Ruth set the record for most hits in a season with 457 in 1921. To everyone’s surprise, the very next season, Rogers Hornsby broke the National League record for total bases, which remains today, with 450 total bases! Many old-timers believe that total bases is an extremely essential statistic to use in evaluating hitters. (In addition, total bases have a significant role in a batter’s OPS.) Take a look at these more resources: What is the record for the highest-scoring Major League Baseball game in history?

Which batting average is considered to be the best in high school baseball? What is the meaning of L10 in baseball? (Click Here for the Answer) An Overview of the MLB Draft’s Rounds and Number of Picks

## OPS and OPS+

In baseball, On-base Plus Slugging (OPS) is exactly what it sounds like: it is the product of a player’s on-base percentage and their slugging % added together. Many sabermetricians dislike OPS because it regards OBP as being on par with SLG in terms of importance, despite the fact that OBP is nearly twice as essential as SLG in terms of influence on run scoring (x1.8 to be exact). In spite of this, OPS has importance as a measure since it is recognized and utilized more extensively than other, more accurate statistics, while simultaneously being a pretty accurate depiction of offensive output and effectiveness.

- On-base Plus Slugging Plus (OPS+), which has not gained as much widespread acceptance as OPS but is a more informative metric than OPS, can be found on baseball cards and broadcasts.
- A 100 OPS+ is considered league average, and each point over or below 100 OPS+ represents one percentage point above or below league average, respectively.
- Given that OPS+ takes into account league and park effects, it is conceivable to utilize OPS+ to compare players who have played on various clubs throughout time.
- If you have a strong desire to succeed, we propose that you replace OPS withwOBA and OPS+ withwRC+.
- On-base plus slugging:OPS = OBP + SLGI On-base plus slugging You can find detailed instructions on how to compute OBP and SLG separately here if you want a more technical understanding: In this equation, OBP = (H + BB + HBP) divided by (AB + BB + HBP + SF).
- Why OPS is important: A player’s ability to get on base and hit for extra bases is captured better by the OPS than other metrics like as batting average or RBI, which are used to measure other aspects of the player’s performance.
- With a few small exceptions, if you order batters by OPS, you are generally categorizing them based on their productivity to date, unless otherwise specified.

OBP is about twice as useful as SLG, which means that OPS overrates power hitters while underrating people with high OBP.

OPS has the advantage of being fairly simple to calculate in a pinch and being more well recognized, but there is really no reason to prefer OPS over wOBA if you have the option to choose between the two.

If you don’t have access to wOBA or wRC+, it’s a reasonable estimate if that’s all you have.

In 2015, A.900 OPS is a significant improvement over the previous year of 2000.

As a general rule, OPS requires a large sample size in order to be representative of genuine skill.

Always be certain that you understand the context and sample size involved while utilizing OPS.

Check out the FanGraphs leaderboards to discover what the league-average OPS has been for every year since 1901 up to the present. The average OPS+ for the league is always 100.

Rating | OPS |
---|---|

Excellent | 1.000 |

Great | 0.900 |

Above Average | 0.800 |

Average | 0.710 |

Below Average | 0.670 |

Poor | 0.600 |

Awful | 0.570 |

Keep in mind that, when evaluating a player’s offensive, OPS is a better number to utilize than batting average; nevertheless, OPS should always be used in conjunction with other statistics as well, such as slugging percentage and on-base percentage. It’s an excellent starting point for getting people to think about things other than typical statistics. If you have the option, utilize Weighted On-Base Average (wOBA) instead of On-Base Percentage (OPS). OPS treats both OBP and SLG equally, however wOBA takes into consideration the fact that OBP is really more useful than SLG.

Listed below are some further reading resources: FanGraphs provides a visual comparison of OPS and wOBA.

## Stats for Baseball Fans: The Single Metric for Offense is OPS.

I’ve decided that the tale of how I discovered the Cubs can be its own blog entry; it’s loaded with romance, a move from Atlanta, the Atlanta Braves, a new job, and living within walking distance of Wrigley Field. Someday, I’ll get around to writing that book. BUT… Using statistics to be the most educated fan I can be is the topic of today’s blog post. I will demonstrate that there is just one statistic that you should pay attention to in order to identify who the greatest offensive player on your team is.

When they step up to the plate, raise your voices in applause.

## Numbers, Numbers, everywhere…

You’ve probably gone to a Major League Baseball field and seen that the scoreboard is a jumble of numbers. Average, on-base percentage, slugging percentage, and on-base percentage (OPS) are all numbers that are frequently recorded on baseball cards, in newspapers, and by television experts. Do they have any significance? It turns out that they do. Each tries to quantify some component of hitting that appears to be significant on the surface level. A player’s power may be measured using SLG, while his on-base percentage (OBP) can be measured using OBP to determine how good a player is at getting on base.

As a fan who is simply trying to enjoy the game, they might be perplexing to navigate.

I want my sports to be straightforward because it enhances the flavor of the beer, Cracker Jack, and hot dog.

This is especially true when you have a power bat on your squad like Mike Trout or everyone’s favorite player — Javy Baez of the Chicago Cubs — on the field.

The reaction of the audience tells the whole story. While this is admirable, I’m wondering how I can cut through the clutter and concentrate just on guys that pound the ball and simply score runs for their side. This is when we look to statistics for guidance.

## The Problem with Understanding Baseball Stats: Players are Human.

There is a significant challenge in analyzing individual player performances in order to determine the significance of a statistic. Unfortunately, athletes get sick, have children, take a few days off, get sent down to the lower leagues, play out of their wits, or simply have a poor day on and off the diamond. In other words, players are made of flesh and blood. When it came to getting rid of bothersome human traits from our database*, we used a simple method to eliminate player noise. Instead of focusing on individual individuals, we will examine entire teams.

Because it is less human and more standardized, team level data is the most effective tool for determining the significance of a particular baseball statistic.

- Additional information may be found at the Chadwick Baseball-Databank (see this page for more information).

The transition from individual player analysis to team analysis normalizes our data, making this undertaking much easier for a statistician to complete.

## Offense = Runs.

Baseball, according to Dictionary.com, is defined as follows:(Baseball is) a game of ball between two nine-player teams played usually for nine innings on a field that has as its focal point a diamond-shaped infield with a home plate and three other bases, 90 feet (27 meters) apart, forming a circuit that must be completed by a base runner in order to score, the central offensive action entailing hitting a pitched ball with a wooden or metal bat and running of the In the world of baseball, we worry about runs because they are the single most essential goal of an offensive player – to drive in runners or transform themselves into a run by reaching home plate.

This analysis necessitates the execution of the objective function (y).

A player’s ability to generate runs (r) as well as bat in runs (rbi) will, according to our hypothesis, indicate whether or not he or she is an excellent offensive player.

## spoilerOPS is Most Correlated with Runs./spoiler

We began this investigation by computing certain data that can be found projected on scoreboards across Major League Baseball stadiums. Batter’s average (AVG), on-base percentage (OBP), on-base percentage plus slugging percentage (OPS), and other standard hitting metrics are examples of measures that might be considered (AB, H, 2B, 3B, HR, etc.) It was necessary to develop several of these measures from scratch, and their definitions are provided below: Hits+ doubles + (triples*2) + (home runs*3) / total at bats = SLG AVG = average number of hits / total number of at bats Average runs batted in = (hits plus walks plus hit by pitch) / (at bats plus walks plus hit by pitch + sacrifice flies) OPS is equal to the sum of OBP and SLGE.

Earlier, I indicated that we standardized our data by using team seasonal totals rather than individual player totals rather than individual player totals. I went one step farther by eliminating several outlier seasons from the equation. The following are the specifics of my team’s outlier removal:

- Teams that were removed before to 1970: Prior to the 1970 season, a number of important indicators were not monitored (including sacrifice flies, hit by pitch and others.)
- Teams’ seasons in which the total number of games played was less than 156 were removed: Seasons that were cut short due to strikes or other scheduling irregularities would be removed from the schedule. (Adieu to the 1994 season.)
- Teams that have been removed from consideration because they do not compete in the National or American Leagues include: For the sake of this analysis, we are not concerned with the minor leagues or spring training leagues.

Following the collection of clean data, we conduct an investigation into the relationship between typical hitting measures and runs. According to the findings of the investigation, OPS is the single most important indicator, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. (extremely correlated to runs.)

## Best Players Ever by OPS (with a little help from a Random Forest)

Now that we know that offensive point differential (OPD) should be the most important number to pay attention to, the next question I would ask is who are the top players according to this metric? The calculations for the solutions are straightforward. They aren’t, in actuality. I said earlier in the piece that statistics for players from specific baseball periods were not recorded in a clean manner. The regulation that would later become known as the sacrifice fly stat was established in 1954.

Consequently, how are we going to define OPS for players who were born before 1954?

After that, I utilized the forecasted stats to get an estimated OPS for players who were born before 1954.

The Random Forest Model is a type of statistical model.

As an example, consider the following tuned RF algorithm and its output, which predicted sacrifice fly for players whose stats were kept: When it comes to modeling sacrificial flies, you’ll see that the random forest was incredibly effective, with 92.4 percent of the variation described by known hitting factors.

According to OPS, Frank Thomas, a boyhood idol of mine, has made the cut.

May he be king for a very long time!

## In Conclusion

The on-base percentage (OPS) is a reliable measure that covers two important aspects of baseball’s offensive strategy.

- Player’s ability to put himself in a scoring position (also known as his offensive positioning skill). Player’s power and ability to generate hits that move players around the bases (including themselves) are measured in SLG.

Keep an eye out for guys with really high OPS figures, which is what I would advise you to do. Generally speaking, they will be your most entertaining hitters. According to the data, an OPS of 0.8 is outstanding, and I use that as my cutoff point for evaluating players today, as seen below.