What Is Pa In Baseball Stats

Plate appearance – Wikipedia

With 778 plate appearances in a season, Jimmy Rollins owns the single-season record for the most plate appearances. During the course of a baseball game, a player is credited with a plate appearance (abbreviated as PA) for each time he takes a turn at bat. Under Rule 5.04(c) of the Official Baseball Rules, a player completes a turn at bat when he is out or when he is designated as a runner in the field. The latter occurs when he strikes out or is declared out before reaching first base; or when he safely reaches first base or is awarded first base (for example, as a result of a base on balls, hit by pitch, catcher’s interference, or obstruction); or when he hits a fair ball that causes the third out to be recorded before he himself is put out or reaches first base safely (see also left on base, fielder’s choice, force play).

At bats, which is a very comparable statistic, counts a subset of plate appearances that come to an end under specific circumstances.

Use as batting record qualifier

In contrast to at-bats, which are used to compute such crucial player hitting statistics asbatting average, slugging percentage, and on-base percentage, plate appearances are not utilized to produce any of these statistics. However, in order to be rated in any of these categories at the end of a season, a player must have amassed 3.1 times the number of games planned for each club (502 plate appearances for a 162-game season) over the season. Consider the following scenario: Player A has 510 plate appearances and 400 at bats over the season, and he collects 100 hits and finishes the season with a.250 batting average.

The season-ending rankings will not include Player B, despite the fact that he had the same number of at bats as Player A and had a better batting average, since he did not accrue the requisite 502 plate appearances, although Player A did and will thus be eligible for the rankings.

Exception for batting titles

For the purposes of deciding the batting, slugging, and on-base percentage championships, Rule 9.22(a) of the Official Baseball Rules permits a single exception to the requirement of 502 plate appearances. If you’re a player:

  • Currently leads the league in one of the statistics
  • However, he does not have the required 502 plate appearances
  • However, he would still be the league leader in that statistic if as many at bats (without hitting or reaching base) were added to his records as would be required to meet the requirement

He will win the championship, but only with the statistics he provided in the first place (before the extra at bats were added). The player in the preceding example, Player B, is 12 plate appearances shy of the requisite 502, but if he were given 12 extra at bats, he would go 110-for-412, good for a batting average of.267. As long as no one else has an above.267 batting average (which may be similarly changed if necessary), player B will be given the batting title (with his initial batting average of.275), despite the fact that he did not have 502 plate appearances.

Because an additional at bat is added and his batting average is adjusted, he would still have led the league in batting average if the rule had been followed, he would have won the batting title.

Cabrera concluded the season with just 501 at bats because he was suspended in mid-August after testing positive for illicit performance-enhancing substances.

Even though Cabrera was still eligible for that extra plate appearance, he requested that it not be added to his total, and that he not be considered for the batting title, because he acknowledged that his use of performance-enhancing drugs had given him an unfair advantage over other players.

A as a result, Cabrera’s name is nowhere to be seen on the list of National League hitting leaders for the 2012 season.


Any plate appearances made by a hitter who does not put the ball into play during his or her at-bat are not counted if, while batting, a previous runner is put out at third base in a manner other than by the batter himself or herself (i.e.,picked off,caught stealing). In this instance, the hitter takes his turn batting in the next inning with no balls or strikes thrown against him during the previous one. A hitter is not given credit for a plate appearance if, while hitting, the game is called because the winning run scores from third base on an error, a stolen base, a wild pitch, or a passed ball while the batter is on the mound.

Rule 9.15(b) states that when an initial batter is removed with two strikes against him and subsequently completes a strikeout, a pinch hitter receives the plate appearance (and the opportunity for an at-bat).

Relation to at bat

If the batter fails to finish the plate appearance required by Official Baseball Rule 9.02(a)(1), the hitter is considered to be out at bat.

  • First base is granted on four called balls
  • Second base is awarded on a pitched ball
  • Third base is awarded on an interference or obstruction
  • And fourth base is awarded on an interference or obstruction.

The word “at bat” is occasionally used to refer to a player’s “plate appearance” in baseball parlance (for example, “he fouled off the ball to keep theat batalive”). The objective is typically evident from the context, however the term “official at bat” is often used to refer expressly to anat batas as distinct from aplate appearance, which is not always the case. Plate appearance, on the other hand, is identical with phrases such as turn at bat and time at bat.

“Time at bat” in the rulebook

When a hitter is thrown out or becomes a runner, according to Official Baseball Rule 5.06(c), he has “legally finished his time at bat,” according to the rule (emphasis added). It is more commonly referred to as a plate appearance than the “time at bat” defined in this rule, and the playing rules (Rules 1 through 8) use the phrase “time at bat” in this sense as well (see for example, Rule 5.04(a)(3), which states that “the first batter in each inning after the first inning shall be the player whose name follows that of the last player who legally completed his time at bat in the preceding inning” (emphasis added).

Contrary to this, when referring to the statistical time at bat, which is specified in Rule 9.02(a)(1), the scoring rules use the term “time at bat,” but they also use the phrase “official time at bat” or go back to Rule 9.02(a)(1) on occasion when citing the statistic.

(I have underlined the importance) The phrase does not appear to be defined anywhere else in the regulation.

Other uses

The denominator used in calculating on-base percentage (OBP), an alternative measurement of a player’s offensive performance, is frequently misquoted; in reality, the OBP denominator does not include certain plate appearances, such as times reached via catcher’s interference or fielder’s obstruction, as well as sacrifice bunts and other special circumstances. The denominator is really defined as the sum of all at-bats, walks, hit-by-pitches, sacrifice flies, and other similar events during the game.

Because each item is equal to the total number of plate appearances for each team, the next two items should be equal for each team, according to Rule 9.03(c), as follows:

  • It is the total of the team’s at-bats, walks, hit-by-pitch attempts, sacrifices (both bunts and flies), and times given first base due to interference or obstruction
  • It is also known as the team’s batting average. The total number of runs scored by the team, including runners left on base and men sent out

Major League Baseball leaders

I’m up to bat. It’s a phrase that effortlessly flows off the tongue. The aratatatat charm evokes the sound of horsehide rubbing across a piece of timber. On that tragic day in Mudville, Mighty Casey was at bat for the home team. At bats are depicted on the backs of baseball cards. So basic is the abbreviation “AB,” with the first two letters of the alphabet denoting a player’s time in the batter’s box, that even the abbreviation “AB” feels essential. Children in Little League stand pressed up against the chain link fence of the dugout to cheer on their teammates.

  1. If the outcome is a walk, the children frequently chant the chorus “Nice at bat!” afterward.
  2. To put it mildly, my astonishment when I saw that the at bat statistic does not include walks was justified.
  3. The hundreds of “Nice at bat!” claps that have been yelled out after a player has drawn a walk over the years were all inaccurate.
  4. The at-bat provides an inadequate representation of a batter’s total performance, as it excludes more than only walks from consideration.
  5. Here is what the at-bat statistic does not include:
  • There was a walk, a sacrifice, a hit by pitch, catcher’s interference (which is technically an error, but I’ve put it individually)
  • And there was a sacrifice.

The following occurrences are not included in the plate appearance stat because they occur infrequently:

  • Interference by the catcher (as a result of which the batter was denied the opportunity to swing or walk)

When you look at the two statistics in the other direction, the following results are considered to be an at bat:

  • Fielder’s choice
  • Strikeout
  • Hit
  • Fielder’s choice
  • Having been beaten
  • Been reached by mistake

In addition to the above plays, the plate appearance includes:

  • Fielder’s choice
  • Strikeout
  • Hit
  • Fielder’s choice
  • Batter struck out
  • Runner advanced to second on mistake
  • Hit by pitch
  • Sacrificed

The term “plate appearance” refers to practically every time a player steps into the batter’s box during a game. The at bat consists of fewer plays than the average at bat. As a result, because it incorporates more plays, the plate appearance provides a more complete view of a player’s hitting attempts. This can make a significant effect depending on the individual player. Matt Carpenter is the first person who springs to mind. A baseball bat is in his hands, and he is a grinder. Carpenter works on the count and draws a lot of walks around the neighborhood.

To illustrate, let’s compare Carpenter to another leadoff player, but this time one who is more of a free swinger than a walker. Carpenter’s 2013 statistics are shown in the following chart with those of Cubs shortstop Starlin Castro.

Starlin Castro 161 163 117 34 2 10 30 129 7 1 1 21 666 705
Matt Carpenter 157 199 126 55 7 11 72 98 9 7 3 4 626 717

Castro had 40 more ABs than Carpenter, for a total of 666 to Carpenter’s 626. Carpenter, on the other hand, had 717 PAs, which was 12 more than Castro’s 705. Making comparisons between the two players based on at-bats is inaccurate because Castro’s at-bats were significantly greater than Carpenter’s at the time of the comparison. When the Red Baron and I were working together at VEB some years ago, we got into a heated debate regarding the merits of using the at bat stat over the plate appearance stat.

That’s why when we talk about hitting at VEB, we refer to the plate appearance rather than the at bat.

Correction: In the initial version of this piece, reaches on error were wrongly listed as being eliminated from the at bat statistics.

STATS Hosted Solution

Definitions of Baseball Terms
% Inherited Scored A Relief Pitching statistic indicating the percentage of runners on base at the time a relief pitcher enters a game that he allows to score.
1st Batter OBP The On-Base Percentage allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces in a game.
Active Career Batting Leaders Minimum of 1,000 At Bats required for Batting Average, On-Base Percentage, Slugging Percentage, At Bats Per HR, At Bats Per GDP, At Bats Per RBI, and K/BB Ratio. One hundred (100) Stolen Base Attempts required for Stolen Base Success %. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category’s minimum requirements.
Active Career Pitching Leaders Minimum of 750 Innings Pitched required for Earned Run Average, Opponent Batting Average, all of the Per 9 Innings categories, and Strikeout to Walk Ratio. Two hundred fifty (250) Games Started required for Complete Game Frequency. One hundred (100) decisions required for Win-Loss Percentage. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category’s minimum requirements.
BA ScPos Allowed Batting Average Allowed with Runners in Scoring Position.
Baserunners per Nine Innings These are the hits, walks and hit batsmen allowed per nine innings.
Bases Loaded This category shows a player’s batting average in bases loaded situation.
Batting Average Hits divided by At Bats.
Bequeathed Runners Any runner(s) on base when a pitcher leaves a game are considered bequeathed to the departing hurler; the opposite of inherited runners (see below).
Blown Saves This is charged any time a pitcher comes into a game where a save situation is in place and he loses the lead.
Catcher’s ERA The Earned Run Average of a club’s pitchers with a particular catcher behind the plate. To figure this for a catcher, multiply the Earned Runs Allowed by the pitchers while he was catching times nine and divide that by his number of Innings Caught.
Cheap Wins/Tough Losses/Top Game Scores First determine the starting pitcher’s Game Score as follows:
  1. Start with a number of 50
  2. The starting pitcher gets one point for every strikeout he records
  3. After the fourth inning, add 2 points for each additional inning the pitcher goes on to complete. For each strikeout, add one point to your total. For each hit that is permitted, deduct two points. For each earned run that is permitted, subtract 4 points. Add 2 points to account for an unearned run. For each stroll, deduct one point from your total.
If the starting pitcher scores over 50 and loses, it’s a Tough Loss. If he wins with a game score under 50, it’s a Cheap Win.
Cleanup Slugging% The Slugging Percentage of a player when batting fourth in the batting order.
Clutch This category shows a player’s batting average in the late innings of close games: the seventh inning or later with the batting team ahead by one, tied, or has the tying run on base, at bat or on deck.
Complete Game Frequency Complete Games divided by Games Started.
Defensive Batting Average A composite statistic incorporating various defensive statistics to arrive at a number akin to batting average. The formula uses standard deviations to establish a spread from best to worst.
Earned Run Average (Earned Runs times 9) divided by Innings Pitched.
Fast-A Otherwise known as “Advanced A,” these A-level minor leagues are the California League, Carolina League and Florida Stat League.
Favorite Toy The Favorite Toy is a method that is used to estimate a player’s chance of getting to a specific goal in the following example, we’ll say 3,000 hits.Four things are considered:
  1. Needed Hits – the number of hits required to get the desired result. (Of course, this could also be “Need Home Runs” or “Need Doubles” – whatever you choose to call it.)
  2. Years Remaining in the Contract. The formula 24-.6 is used to estimate the number of years that will be required to achieve the target (age). As a result of this approach, players under the age of 20 have 12.0 seasons left on their contract. Players under the age of 25 have nine seasons left on their contract, players under 30 have 6.0 seasons left on their contract, and players over 35 have just three season left on their contract. Any athlete who is currently actively participating in competitive sports is presumed to have at least 1.5 seasons left, regardless of his or her age. Hit Level has been established. For 1996, the established hit level would be calculated by multiplying 1993 hits by two times 1994 hits by three times 1995 hits by six, and then dividing the result by six. In order to be eligible, a player must have an established performance level that is more than three-fourths of his or her most recent performance level—for example, a player who had 200 hits in 1995 cannot have an established hit level lower than 150 hits. Hits that are expected to be made in the future. This is calculated by multiplying the second number (the number of ears left) by the third number (the established hit level)

Once you have obtained the projected remaining hits, the probability of achieving the objective is calculated as (projected remaining hits) divided by (require hits), minus.5. If your “require hits” and your “projected remaining hits” are the same, you have a 50 percent probability of achieving your target using this technique of calculation. If your anticipated remaining hits are 20 percent greater than your required hits, you have a 70 percent probability of achieving your target in time. There are two specific rules, as well as a note:

  1. The probability of a player continuing to develop toward a goal cannot be more than.97 per year. For example, a player cannot calculate that they have a 148 percent probability of completing their goal because this is against the rules.)
  2. The possibility of a player continuing to develop toward the objective cannot be more than.75 each season if his offensive winning percentage is below.500 throughout the season. If a below-average batter is two years away from attaining a goal, his likelihood of accomplishing that objective cannot be proved to be better than nine-sixteenths of a percent, or three-fourths times three-fourths, no of his age.
  3. Rather of using actual figures from a complete season of play, we utilized predicted metrics for 1994 and 1995.
Fielding Percentage (Putouts plus Assists) divided by (Putouts plus Assists plus Errors).
First Batter Efficiency This statistic tells you the batting average allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces.
GDP per GDP Situation A GDP situation exists any time there is a man on first with less than two outs. This statistic measures how often a player grounds into a double play in that situation.
Go-Ahead RBI Any time a player drives in a run which gives his team the lead, he is credited with a go-ahead RBI.
Ground/Fly Ratio (Grd/Fly) Simply a hitter’s ground balls divided by his fly balls. All batted balls except line drives and bunts are included.
Hold A Hold is credited any time a relief pitcher enters a game in a Save Situation (see definition below), records at least one out, and leaves the game never having relinquished the lead.Note: a pitcher cannot finish the game and receive credit for a Hold, nor can he earn a hold and a save.
Inherited Runner Any runner(s) on base when a relief pitcher enters a game are considered “inherited” by that pitcher.
Isolated Power Slugging Percentage minus Batting Average.
K/BB Ratio Strikeouts divided by Walks.
LateClose A LateClose situation meets the following requirements:
  1. During the seventh inning or later, the batting side is either up by one run, tied, or has a possible tying run on base, at the plate, or on deck
  2. The game is over
Note: this situation is very similar to the characteristics of a Save Situation.
Leadoff On Base% The On-Base Percentage of a player when batting first in the batting order.
No Decision (ND) The result when a starter is credited with neither a win nor a loss.
OBP+SLUG (OPS) On-base percentage plus slugging percentage.
Offensive Winning Percentage (OWP) The Winning Percentage a team of nine Fred McGriffs (or anybody) would compile against average pitching and defense. The formula: (Runs Created per 27 outs) divided by the League average of runs scored per game. Square the result and divide it by (1+itself).
On Base Percentage (Hits plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher) divided by (At Bats plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies).
Opponent Batting Average Hits Allowed divided by (Batters Faced minus Walks minus Hit Batsmen minus Sacrifice Hits minus Sacrifice Flies minus Catcher’s Interference).
Outfielder Hold Percentage A statistic used to evaluate outfielders’ throwing arms. “Hold Percentage” is computed by dividing extra bases taken (by baserunners) by the number of opportunities. For example, if a single is lined to center field with men on first and second, and one man scores while the other stops at second, that is one extra base taken on two opportunities, a 50.0 hold percentage.
PA* The divisor for On Base Percentage: At Bats plus Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies; or Plate Appearances minus Sacrifice Hits and Times Reached Base on Defensive Interference.
PCS (Pitchers’ Caught Stealing) The number of runners officially counted as Caught Stealing where the initiator of the fielding play was the pitcher, not the catcher. Note: such plays are often referred to as pickoffs, but appear in official records as Caught Stealings. The most common pitcher caught stealing scenario is a 1-3-6 fielding play, where the runner is officially charged a Caught Stealing because he broke for second base. Pickoff (fielding play 1-3 being the most common) is not an official statistic.
Percentage of Pitches Taken This tells you how often a player lets a pitch go by without swinging.
Percentage of Swings Put In Play This tells you how often a player hits the ball into fair territory, or is retired on a foul-ball out, when he swings.
Pickoffs (Pk) The number of times a runner was picked off base by a pitcher.
Pivot Percentage The number of double plays turned by a second baseman as the pivot man, divided by the number of opportunities.
PkOf Throw/Runner The number of pickoff throws made by a pitcher divided by the number of runners on first base.
Plate Appearances At Bats plus Total Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Hits plus Sacrifice Flies plus Times Reached on Defensive Interference.
Power/Speed Number A way to look at power and speed in one number. A player must score high in both areas to earn a high Power/Speed Number.The formula: (HR x SB x 2) divided by (HR + SB).
Quality Start Any start in which a pitcher works six or more innings while allowing three or fewer earned runs.
Quick Hooks and Slow Hooks A Quick Hook is the removal of a pitcher who has pitched less than 6 innings and given up 3 runs or less. A Slow Hook occurs when a pitcher pitches more than 9 innings, or allows 7 or more runs, or whose combined innings pitched and runs allowed totals 13 or more.
Range Factor The number of Chances (Putouts plus Assists) times nine divided by the number of Defensive Innings Played. The average for a Regular Player at each position in 1997:
  • 5.00 points for second base, 2.67 points for third base, 4.56 points for shortstop, and 1.99 points for left field, 2.55 points for center field, and 2.06 points for right field.
Relief Points (Pts) Wins plus saves minus losses
Run Support Per 9 IP The number of runs scored by a pitcher’s team while he was still in the game times nine divided by his Innings Pitched.
Runs Created A way to combine a batter’s total offensive contributions into one number. The formula:(H + BB + HBP – CS – GIDP) times (Total Bases +.26(TBB – IBB + HBP) +.52(SH + SF + SB)) divided by (AB + TBB + HBP + SH + SF).
Runs/Times on Base This is calculated by dividing Runs Scored by Times on Base
Save Percentage Saves (SV) divided by Save Opportunities (OP).
Save Situation A Relief Pitcher is in a Save Situation when upon entering the game with his club leading, he has the opportunity to be the finishing pitcher (and is not the winning pitcher of record at the time), and meets any one of the three following conditions:
  1. He enters the game with a lead of no more than three runs and has the opportunity to pitch for at least one inning, or he enters the game with the potential tying run on base, at bat, or on deck, regardless of the count, or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save
  2. Or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save
SBA Stolen-base attempts against a catcher
SB Success% Stolen Bases divided by (Stolen Bases plus Caught Stealing).
Secondary Average A way to look at a player’s extra bases gained, independent of Batting Average. The formula:(Total Bases – Hits + TBB + SB) divided by At Bats.
Slow-A Otherwise known as “Regular A,” these full-season minor leagues contain less-experienced professional players. The Slow-A leagues are the Midwest League and South Atlantic League (Sally).
Slugging Percentage Total Bases divided by At Bats.
Stolen Base Percentage Allowed This figure indicates how successful opposing baserunners are when attempting a stolen base. It’s stolen bases divided by stolen-base attempts.
Times on Base Hits plus walks plus hit by pitch
Total Bases Hits plus Doubles plus (2 times Triples) plus (3 times Home runs).
Win-Loss Percentage or Winning Percentage Wins divided by (Wins plus Losses).
Zone Rating Simply the percentage of balls fielded by a player in his typical defensive “zone,” as measured by STATS reporters.
Formulas and Definitions
PA AB + BB + HBP + SF + SH + defensive interference
PA* AB + BB + HBP + SF
Total Bases
OBP (H + BB = HBP)/(AB + BB + HBP + SF)
Breakdown Categories
Ahead/Behind in Count For hitters, ahead in count includes 1-0, 2-0, 3-0, 2-1 and 3-1. Behind in count for hitters includes 0-1, 0-2, 1-2 and 2-2. The opposite is true for pitchers.
Day/Night Officially, night games in the National League are those that start after 5:00 pm, while night games in the AL begin after 6:00 pm. Therefore, a game at 5:30 in Yankee Stadium is a day game while one in Shea Stadium at the same time is a night game. We avoid this silliness by calling all games starting after 5:00pm night games.
First Pitch Refers to the first pitch of a given at bat, and any walks listed here are intentional walks.
Grass/Turf Grass is grass. Turf is artificial turf.
Groundball/Flyball Ratio A hitter’s stats against pitchers that induce mostly grounders or flies, respectively. If the ratio is less than 1.00, then he is a Flyball hitter. If it is greater than 1.50, he is a Groundball hitter. Anything else is classified as neutral. Same cutoffs apply for classifying pitchers. Anyone with less than 50 plate appearances is automatically neutral.
First Inning Pitched Describes the result of the pitcher’s work until he recorded three outs.
Inning 1-6 and Inning 7+ These refer to the actual innings in which a pitcher worked.
None On/Out Refers to situation when there are no outs and the bases are empty (generally leadoff situations).
None On/Runners On Describes the status of the baserunners
Number of Pitches This section shows the results of balls put into play while his pitch count was in that range.
Pitcher/Batter Match-Ups The following conditions must be met before a player is added to the list:
  • For a batter to be considered a “Hits Best Against” candidate, there must be at least 10 plate appearances between him and the pitcher
  • And for a pitcher to be considered a “Pitches Best Against” candidate, the batter must have a.300 batting average against the pitcher, and the pitcher must limit the batting average of the batter to under.250.
Thus, not all hitters will have five pitchers that qualify and not all pitchers will have five batters who qualify.
Scoring Position At least one runner must be at either second or third base.
Vs. 1st Batr (Relief) Describes what happened to the first batter a reliever faces.

Plate appearance – BR Bullpen

The number of plate appearances is increased every time a hitter completes a turn at the plate (PA). After successfully reaching base safely via a hit, fielder’s choice, or an error, or after being given the opportunity to do so by being hit by a pitch, being hit by an obstruction (including catcher’s interference) or being retired before reaching base, the player is considered to have completed a turn at the plate. If a hitter’s turn at the plate is stopped by an inning ending on acaught stealing or other similar incident that prevents the batter from completing his or her turn at the plate, no PA is charged and the batter starts the next inning with a freshcount.

  1. The count at the moment the batter is changed is used to decide whether or not he will be charged with a PA if he is replaced during a time at the dish.
  2. A plate appearance is distinct from an at bat, which is a sub-category of plate appearances that excludes specific results such as, but not limited to, a base on balls or a hit by pitch.
  3. It is necessary to know how many at bats you have to compute your batting average and Slugging percentage, whereas you need to know how many plate appearances you have to calculate your batter’son-base percentage (noting the aforementioned exclusions).
  4. It has been noted that the longest plate appearance has been 21 pitches since 1988, when detailed pitch counts were first established.

A battle between Brandon Belt and Jaime Barria took place on April 22, 2018, with Brandon Belt taking a soaring leap to right field. It is already regarded exceptionally long when a plate appearance lasts more than 10 pitches.

All Time Leaders
Span Player Total Notes
Career Pete Rose 15861
Season Jimmy Rollins 778 2007

Further Reading

  • “Here are the MLB at-bats that have gone the longest on record:” Chad Thornburg and Matt Kelly: Belt’s 21-pitch battle with Barria ranks first among all ABs since 1988, according to MLB.com on September 8, 2020
  • Brian Yonushonis, “The Infinitely Long MLB Plate Appearance,” SABR, Volume 40, Number 1 (Spring 2011), pp. 103-107
  • Brian Yonushonis, “The Infinitely Long MLB Plate Appearance,” SABR, Volume 40, Number 1 (Spring 2011), pp. 103

Baseball Abbreviations

Tony Gwynn had another outstanding season in 1997, with 592 at-bats and 220 strikeouts, and an avg of.372, which was the best in the National League. Which of these abbreviations do all of these letters stand for? The Baseball Almanac is glad to give a standard collection of acronyms that are seen and used in print on a regular basis in the sport of baseball.

Baseball Stats

Baseball Abbreviations 101
Offensive Abbreviations for Statistics
ABBBAVGCS2BGIDP GRSLHBPHHRRHRIBBISO LOB OBPOPSRRBISFSHSSLGSB%SBRSBSOTB3B At BatsBases on Balls (Walks)Batting AverageCaught StealingDoublesGround into Double Plays Grand SlamsHit by PitchHitsHome Run RatioHome RunsIntentionalBasesonBalls(Walks)Isolated Power Left on Base On-Base PercentageOn-Base Plus SluggingRunsRuns Batted InSacrifice FliesSacrifice Hits (Bunts)SinglesSlugging PercentageStolen Base PercentageStolen Base RunsStolen BasesStrikeoutsTotal BasesTriples
Pitching Abbreviations for Statistics
AOBB BFPBKCBOCGCGLERERAGFGOGOAOGPGSHHBPHRIBBIPIRAIPSLMB9OBAPARRPFRWS/SHOSOSVSVOTBWWP Fly Outs (Air)Walks (Bases on Balls) Batters Facing PitcherBalksCombined ShutoutComplete GamesComplete Game LossesEarned RunsEarned Run AverageGames FinishedGround OutsGround Outs / Fly Outs RatioGames PlayedGames StartedHitsHit BattersHome RunsIntentional WalksInnings PitchedInherited Runs AllowedInnings Per StartLossesBaserunners Per 9 InningsOpponents’ Batting AveragePlate AppearancesRunsRelief FailuresRelief WinsShutoutsStrikeoutsSavesSave OpportunitiesTotal BasesWinsWild Pitches
Defensive Abbreviations for Statistics
ACSDPEGPOFAPBPKPOSBTCTP AssistsCaught StealingDouble PlaysErrorsGames PlayedOutfield AssistsPassed BallsPickoffsPutoutsStolen Bases Total ChancesTriple Plays
Miscellaneous Abbreviations for Statistics
ML SER Major League Service
Baseball Stats Abbreviations 101

The “common” set has several variations (DO Doubles, TR Triples, etc.), but these are the ones that are regarded “official” and are the ones that are used here at Baseball Almanac, among other places. Did you know that the National Association (a non-official league that gave rise to the National Leagueofficial )’s statistics were destroyed in a fire in the early 1900’s? Major League Baseball organized a Special Baseball Records Committee in the 1960s to examine the irregular records that had been kept previous to the 1920 season.

What is an At-Bat in Baseball?

The number of hits a baseball player had in relation to the number of times he or she came up to bat are two statistics that people look at when reading about how well a baseball player did in a game. When comparing one player’s hitting performance to another player’s batting performance, there are frequently inconsistencies to be found in the results. While both players came to the plate on equal number of occasions, one player may have gone 1-3 while the other may have gone 0-1 throughout the game.

When it comes to baseball, an At-Bat (AB) is defined as any Plate Appearance (PA) that results in a hit, error, fielder’s choice, or an out without sacrificing a runner on base.

Prior to delving into the topic of what is an At-Bat, it’s important to understand what is a Plate Appearance since an At-Bat may be thought of as an in-depth sub-category of a Plate Appearance.

What is Considered an At-Bat?

There is a significant distinction between an At-Bat and a Plate Appearance (PA), even though they are both statistics that have comparable characteristics. A Plate Appearance (PA) is tallied whenever a player completes their batting turn, regardless of the outcome of the game. It is referred to as an At-Bat (AB) if a Plate Appearance results in one of the following outcomes: hit, error, fielder’s choice, or non-sacrifice out. If you get an At-Bat and you get anything else out of a Plate Appearance, you don’t get an At-Bat.

While each batting outcome will result in a Plate Appearance being recorded, only a subset of those results will be recorded as part of a player’s At-Bat statistics record.

What Qualifies as an Official At-Bat?

Understanding that an At-Bat is a subset statistic of a Plate Appearance leads to the next logical question: “What exactly is an At-Bat in baseball?” An official At-Bat (AB) happens when a Plate Appearance (PA) comes to a conclusion in one of the following four scenarios:

  • The batter receives a base hit
  • The batter advances to second base on an error
  • The batter advances to third base on a fielder’s choice
  • A batter is struck out or is forced to leave the game on a play that is not judged a sacrifice fly or a sacrifice bunt.

The outcome of any other scenario will not be counted towards a player’s official At-Bat, but let’s take a closer look at what those other possible outcomes may be.

What is Not an Official At-Bat?

As crucial as comprehending the circumstances that constitute an official at-bat in baseball is understanding the scenarios that do not constitute an official at-bat in baseball. This is especially true in baseball. According to the Major League Baseball regulation, there are five instances in which a Plate Appearance (PA) does not qualify as an official At-Bat (AB):

  • A sacrifice fly or a sacrifice bunt is hit by the batter. The batter walks around with four balls in his hands. A pitch strikes the batter in the head
  • First base is granted to the batter as a result of interference or obstruction
  • With two strikes in the game, a pinch hitter comes in and completes the strikeout.

Pinch-hitting with two strikes is a rare situation that will mainly occur when a batter is injured during his or her time at the plate, which is why it is so important to be prepared. The batter who was removed from the game would be charged with an At-Bat as well as a strikeout in the event that a pinch hitter enters the game with two strikeouts and completes the strikeout with two strikes. If, on the other hand, the pinch hitter completes the plate appearance in any other manner, the pinch hitter will be credited with the outcome of that particular plate appearance.

Why is a Walk Not an At-Bat?

When considering what constitutes an At-Bat and what does not constitute an At-Bat, many people are perplexed as to why taking a stroll does not constitute an At-Bat. I was also perplexed by the same question, so I looked into the history of walks and At-Bats for answers. An At-Bat (AB) is not equal to a walk since At-Bats are used to determine a player’s batting average (BA). Because include walks as an official At-Bat would significantly alter a player’s batting average, walks have been omitted from the list of official At-Bats.

  1. Walks were deemed a mistake on the pitcher’s part in 1876, and the hitter was assessed an At-Bat penalty.
  2. Between the years 1877 and 1886, taking a walk was not considered an official At-Bat activity.
  3. Then, for one season in 1887, walks were counted as both a hit and an At-Bat, which was a first for baseball.
  4. The general population was similarly perplexed by this rule.
  5. But because walks counted as hits, the general public would have to dig deeper into the stats to determine how many of those hits were base on balls and how many were actual hits.
  6. Despite the fact that this helped address the batting average problems from the previous season, there was still some misunderstanding over when a walk was considered an earned run and when it was considered an unearned run.
  7. When a walk happens, this rule adjustment made it easier to distinguish between an earned run and an unearned run, which was beneficial.

It was also because of this rule change that we have the way we compute walks today, which is that a walk does not count as an At-Bat and does not count as an error on the pitcher’s part.

A Strikeout is Considered an At-Bat

When a hitter strikes out, the ball is not placed in play, just as it is not placed in play when the batter walks. The fact that a player walks does not qualify as an at-bat, but what about strikeouts? Do strikeouts count toward the total number of at-bats? In baseball, strikeouts are referred to as “At-Bat” decisions (AB). In baseball, any non-sacrifice out counts as an official At-Bat, and strikeouts fall into this category because they were not intentionally thrown out in order to advance a base runner to second base.

Reached On Error Counts as an At-Bat

When players put the ball into play, the defense tries everything they can to prevent a turnover. On rare occasions, the defense will make a mistake, allowing the batter to advance to second base. Is it possible to reach on error (ROE) and still be considered an At-Bat? In baseball, a run scored on an error (ROE) is considered one at-bat. Even though the batter made it safely to first base, it was only because of an error on the part of the defense, rather than because of a base hit, that they were able to do so.

As a result, if a mistake is made, the batter is still charged with an At-Bat since they should have been thrown out.

An At-Bat is Used To Calculate Batting Average and Slugging Percentage

The next natural thing to ask after comprehending the fundamental notion of an At-Bat is “how do you use an At-Bat?” To compute a player’s batting average (AVG), as well as the player’s slugging percentage, an At-Bat (AB) is needed (SLG). Some advanced analytics make use of At-Bats, although the batting average and slugging percentage of a player are the most well-known applications of a player’s At-Bat statistic. As a result, an At-Bat is an important piece of the jigsaw in assessing how well a player is hitting for average (batting average) and how well a player is hitting for extra bases (extra-base hit %).

Basic Baseball Stats Abbreviations

It is possible to make an already thrilling game even more interesting to watch by understanding the meanings of fundamental baseball statistics acronyms. If you know the W+S and BS percentages of a pitcher in the 7th inning, for example, a manager’s choice to replace him in the 7th inning signifies a lot more. Continue reading to understand the definitions of significant baseball acronyms, as well as how they impact the effectiveness of a baseball team. A large group of people is watching a baseball game.

Offensive Statistics Abbreviations

Batting practice is in session, so get ready to swing! The anticipation of seeing a hitter make his way from the strike zone to the infield is one of the most enjoyable aspects of the game. When a hitter or runner attempts to put points on the board, the following abbreviations are used to indicate their position.

Batting Abbreviations

What is the difference between an AB and a BA for a batter?

With the help of these abbreviations, you may become an expert in batting terminology and statistics.

  • A total of 1BorS is a single
  • A total of 2B is a double
  • A total of 3B is a triple
  • A total of AB is a total of at bats
  • An AB/HR is a total of at bats per home run. AO- Airplane Takeoffs and Landings
  • BAorAVG is the batting average
  • BAorAVG is the batting average
  • Bases on Balls (Walks)
  • BB- Bases on Balls (Walks)
  • In baseball, BABIP is for Batting Average on Balls in Play. In baseball, BB/K stands for Batting Average on Strikeouts. BRorBsR- Base Runs
  • BRorBsR- Base Runs EQA is an abbreviation for Equivalent Average. Ground into Double Plays (GIDP) are a type of ground into double play. Ground Balls to Fly Balls
  • GO/AO- Ground Balls to Fly Balls
  • GSorGRSL- Grand Slams
  • H- Hits
  • HBP- Hit by Pitch
  • GSorGRSL- Grand Slams
  • HRR is an abbreviation for Home Run Ratio
  • HR is an abbreviation for Home Runs
  • HR/H is an abbreviation for Home Runs per Hit. Home Run within the park, abbreviated as ITPHR
  • ISO is an abbreviation for Isolated Power
  • KorSO is an abbreviation for Strikeouts
  • And OBP is an abbreviation for On-Base Percentage. OPS stands for On-Base Plus Slugging
  • PA stands for Plate Appearance
  • PA/SO stands for Plate Appearances per Strikeout
  • RBI stands for Runs Batted In
  • RC stands for Runs Created. RISP stands for Runner in Scoring Position
  • RP stands for Runs Produced
  • SF stands for Sacrifice Flies
  • SH stands for Sacrifice Hits (bunts)
  • SLG stands for Slugging Average
  • TA stands for Total Average
  • TB stands for Total Bases
  • TOB stands for Times on Base
  • XBH stands for Extra Base Hits.

Baserunning Abbreviations

What happens now when the hitter has reached second base? An individual’s SB percentage becomes extremely essential while examining his or her possibilities at second base, for example. Take a look at these acronyms that might help you forecast if a runner will remain put or try to take the ball from you.

  • CS stands for Caught Stealing. DI stands for Defensive Indifference. LOB stands for Left on Base (Runners). R- Runs
  • R- Runs
  • SB stands for Stolen Bases. SB percent is an abbreviation for Stolen Base Percentage. SBAorATT- Stolen Base Attempts
  • SBAorATT- Stolen Base Attempts Stolen Base Runs (SBR) are defined as follows: UBR stands for Ultimate Base Running.

Defense Statistics Abbreviations

A high-quality pitcher has the ability to influence the flow and outcome of a baseball game. An inexpensive pitcher, on the other hand, can accomplish the same result. See how the statistics of fielders and pitchers may have an impact on a baseball team’s infield and outfield defense.

Fielding Abbreviations

What distinguishes a first baseman as one worth keeping an eye on? What about a left fielder or right fielder? With the help of these acronyms, you may get more familiar with fielding statistics.

  • A stands for assists
  • CI stands for Catcher’s Interference
  • DP stands for double plays
  • E stands for errors
  • FP stands for Fielding Percentage
  • GP stands for games played. The following terms are used in baseball: INN-innings (in a certain position)
  • OFA-outfield assists
  • PB-passed balls
  • PK-pickoffs
  • PO-putouts
  • TC-total chances (assists plus putouts + errors)
  • TP-triple plays
  • UZR-ultimate zone rating.

Pitching Abbreviations

Pitching statistics have the ability to make or break a team’s defensive performance. Examine the following baseball acronyms to determine what is desirable – and what is unsafe – in a pitching bullpen.

  • BB- Bases on Balls
  • BB/9- Bases on Balls per nine innings
  • BF- Batters Faced
  • BB/9- Bases on Balls per nine innings BFP stands for Batters Facing the Pitcher. Balks (illegal pitching actions)
  • BK- Balks (Balks (Illegal Pitching Actions)
  • BS stands for Blown Save. CERA is for Component ERA
  • CBO stands for Combined Shutout
  • CG stands for Complete Games
  • CGL stands for Complete Game Losses
  • DICE stands for Defense-Independent Component ERA. ER is for Earned Runs
  • ERA stands for Earned Run Average. GorGP- Games have been pitched
  • GF- Games have been completed. Double Plays or Double Play Groundouts Induced
  • GIDPO- Double Play Opportunities
  • GIDP- Double Plays or Double Play Groundouts Induced GIR stands for Games in Relief. GO- Ground Outs
  • GO/AO- Ground Outs to Fly Outs
  • GO/AO- Ground Outs to Fly Outs GS stands for Games Started
  • FIP stands for Fielding Independent Pitching. HorHA stands for Hits Allowed
  • H/9orHA/9 stands for Hits Allowed over 9 Innings
  • HBorHBP stands for Hit Batters
  • HLDorH stands for Hold
  • HRorHRA stands for Home Runs Allowed. IR- Inherited Runners
  • IRA- Inherited Runs Allowed
  • K- Strikeouts
  • K/9orSO/9- Strikeouts per nine innings
  • L- Losses (while pitching)
  • BB- Balls on Bases
  • IPS- Innings Per Start
  • IBBorIW- Intentional Walks
  • IP/GS- Innings Pitched Per Games Started
  • IP/GS- Innings Pitched per Games Started LOB is an abbreviation for Left on Base
  • LOB percent is an abbreviation for Left on Base Percentage
  • OBA is an abbreviation for Opponents’ Batting Average. The pitch count and strike count inside those pitches are denoted by the letters PC-ST. PIT or NP-Pitch Count
  • MB9-Baserunners Per 9 Innings
  • PIT or NP-Pitch Count
  • PFR is the Power Finesse Ratio (the sum of strikeouts and walks divided by the number of innings pitched). QOP is for Quality of Pitch
  • QS stands for Quality Start. RA is for Run Average (number of runs allowed over nine innings)
  • RPF stands for Relief Failures
  • RW stands for Relief Wins. Shutouts
  • S/SHO- Shutouts SIERA (Skill-Interactive Earned Run Average) is an acronym that stands for Skill-Interactive Earned Run Average. A combination of K/SO and strikeouts. SV- Saves
  • SVO- Save Opportunities
  • W- Wins
  • W+S- Relief Wins and Saves
  • SV- Saves
  • SVO- Save Opportunities WHIP is the number of walks and hits allowed per inning pitched. WP stands for Wild Pitches.

NERD Statistics

When it comes to baseball acronyms, the acronym NERD may come up in conversation. NERD is an abbreviation for Narration, Exposition, Reflection, and Description, which is a word used in abermetrics. In its simplest form, it is a mathematical formula that evaluates the aesthetic worth of seeing a pitcher (pNERD) or a team (tNERD) play baseball based on a variety of performance measures.

  • Grades 8 through 12 are divided into four categories: middle school, high school, and college.

Related Articles

  • Baseball Position Abbreviations and Numbers (Baseball Positions) A baseball position list may be quite useful while studying the game of baseball or when attempting to solve a baseball crossword puzzle puzzle hint. In baseball, the different player positions are sometimes reduced and replaced with standardized numbers in order to make calling and scoring a game more efficient
  • For example, Baseball Abbreviations for the Scoreboard and Scorecard Baseball scorecards are used by everyone from Little League umpires to Major League umpires to baseball spectators to keep track of all the activity during a game of baseball. If you want to be able to write or read a baseball scorecard, you’ll need to start by being familiar with all of the standard baseball scorecard acronyms and symbols.

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