When Did Steroids Become Illegal In Baseball

A timeline of steroids in baseball

Jose Canseco, according to baseball writer Thomas Boswell of the Washington Post in October 1988, is “the most visible example of a guy who has made himself great using drugs.” Canseco, who is coming off the first season in baseball history to record 40 home runs and 40 steals, has denied using steroids prior to Game 1 of the American League Championship Series at Fenway Park. The MVP honor is given to the Athletics’ slugger. Those who “distribute or possess anabolic steroids with the purpose to distribute for any use in humans other than the treatment of sickness on the instruction of a physician” may face criminal penalties under the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, which goes into effect on November 18.

On June 7, 1991, Commissioner Fay Vincent delivers a message to each club informing them that steroids have been added to the league’s prohibited substances list.

Curtis Wenzlaff, a trainer, is arrested on suspicion of steroid trafficking on May 7, 1992.

The Padres’ general manager Randy Smith is reported as stating in a story by Bob Nightengale of the Los Angeles Times on July 15, 1995, that “we all know there’s steroid usage, and it’s clearly getting more popular.” Additionally, in the story, Tony Gwynn claims that, “It’s like the huge secret that we’re not permitted to discuss.” Baltimore, Seattle, and Oakland are the three clubs to break the single-season home run record in 1996, with Baltimore, Seattle, and Oakland.

  • At least 40 home runs were hit by seventeen different players.
  • a container of androstenedione is discovered in the locker of Cardinals slugger Mark McGwire, who, along with teammate Sammy Sosa, is attempting to break Roger Maris’ single-season home run record of 61.
  • Major League Baseball has not yet made anabolic steroids, which is the precursor to anabolic steroids, banned.
  • The testing of all players who are not on a team’s 40-man roster for performance-enhancing substances is done on a random basis.
  • Players who test positive five times will be banned from the game for life.
  • The 37-year-old, who has never before reached 50 runs in a season, goes on to smash 73 runs.
  • 326 total bases, 40 home runs, and 130 runs batted in.

August 7, 2002 — Players and owners agree to the first unified anti-drug program since 1985, with anonymous testing to begin in 2003 as a result of the agreement.

Players will not be penalized if their tests come up positive.

Ephedra is discovered in his system by the medical examiner.

29th of October, 2003 — Baseball has added tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) to its drug testing list for 2004, less than two weeks after the United States Anti-Doping Agency announced that many track competitors had tested positive for the substance.

On November 13, 2003, the league said that between five and seven percent of the 1,438 anonymous tests conducted throughout the 2003 season were positive, forcing the implementation of random testing with penalties in 2004.

The Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative (BALCO), founded by Victor Conte, is the subject of an investigation by a grand jury in December 2003.

In a 42-count federal indictment, Bonds’ personal trainer, Greg Anderson, Conte, BALCO vice president James Valente, and track coach Remi Korchemny are all accused of orchestrating the operation of a steroid-distribution ring that supplied performance-enhancing drugs to dozens of athletes, including Bonds.

  1. Baseball immediately imposes a prohibition as a result of the FDA action.
  2. The punishment for a first offense involves counseling, and the identities of those who commit the offense are not to be revealed.
  3. Bush on October 22, 2004.
  4. Baseball’s prohibited substances list now includes all medications that have been outlawed by Congress.
  5. On December 11, 2003, Giambi testified before a federal grand jury that he had used steroids for at least three seasons and that he had injected himself with human growth hormone the previous year.
  6. The next day, Bonds testified before a federal grand jury about his usage of a clear liquid and a cream supplied to him by Anderson, but claimed he had no idea they were steroids at the time of his testimony.
  7. It is agreed that players who fail drug tests will have their identities made public as a result of the deal.

Bud Selig, Commissioner of Baseball, said on March 5, 2005 that between one and two percent of the 1,183 drug tests performed in 2004 were positive for performance-enhancing substances.

A hearing held by the House Government Reform Committee on March 17, 2005, witnesses Rafael Palmeiro, Jose Canseco, and Mariano Rivera all avoid questioning concerning steroid usage.

Baseball commissioner Bud Selig and union chief Donald Fehr are chastised by lawmakers, who claim the sport’s sanctions are too mild.

On April 3, 2005, Alex Sanchez of the Tampa Bay Rays became the first player to be punished for steroid use under the Major League Baseball program.

A total of more than 50 minor leaguers will be suspended before the conclusion of the calendar month.

Conte and Anderson plead guilty to steroid trafficking and money laundering on July 15, 2005, while Valente pleads guilty to one count of distributing illicit steroids on the same day.

In total, twelve players were suspended in 2005, each for a period of ten days.


Anderson is sentenced to three months in prison and three months of home confinement, while Valente is sentenced to probation.

In an interview with The Associated Press, he says, “I committed a terrible and idiotic mistake that I will regret for the rest of my life.” Players and owners have agreed, subject to ratification, to Selig’s 50-game, 100-game, and lifetime system for sanctions, which will be implemented in 2006.

  1. The book, which draws on BALCO transcripts and court papers, tells the story of a huge steroid conspiracy in the sport of baseball.
  2. Reuters reported on April 13, 2006, that Bonds is being investigated by the United States authorities for perjury and tax evasion.
  3. The subpoenas are being fought by the writers.
  4. According to an affidavit filed by a federal agent, Grimsley divulges the identities of other athletes who have taken performance-enhancing substances.
  5. The imposition of punishment has been halted awaiting the outcome of the appeal.
  6. On November 1, 2006, the New York Mets reliever Guillermo Mota was suspended for 50 days for breaching the league’s drug policy, making him the third and last suspended player of the season.
  7. An appeals court rules that the names and urine samples of approximately 100 Major League Baseball players who tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in 2003 can be used by investigators.

Troy Ellerman, a former attorney for Conte and Valente, pleads guilty to being the Chronicle’s source for secret grand jury testimony on February 15, 2007.

The government has withdrew its subpoenas against Fainaru-Wada and Williams, effective immediately.

He cooperates with investigators, and he has testified before the same grand jury that is looking into Bonds’ case.

The most severe punishment handed out for drug usage thus far has not been for the use of steroids; rather, the severe penalty has been handed out as a result of the league’s crackdown on performance-enhancing substances.

“There will be no steroids,” Cameron says on a radio station.

That would be 50 games, and it would have a significant impact on my life.” Bonds tells MSNBC that he will boycott Cooperstown if the Hall of Fame displays his record-breaking home run ball with an asterisk, as the Hall of Fame did in 2005.

15, 2007.

Bonds could face a sentence of up to 2 1/2 years in prison if convicted, according to legal experts.

Juan Salas, a pitcher for the Tampa Bay Rays, was the first to go.

Outfielders Jose Guillen and Jay Gibbons, who have been connected to getting human growth hormone in media reports, have been suspended for the first 15 days of the 2008 season, as of December 6, 2007.

On December 10, 2007, the players’ association filed a grievance in an attempt to have Guillen’s 15-day suspension overturned. Gibbons has decided not to fight the sentence he received.

Full Timeline of MLB’s Failed Attempts to Rid the Game of PEDs

Photograph by Bryan Bedder/Getty Images The controversy surrounding Biogenesis has prompted Major League Baseball to engage in yet another war against an all-too-familiar adversary in the shape of performance-enhancing drugs, which has surfaced in recent months. Baseball is undoubtedly looking for a decisive win this time, one that will finally put an end to the use of performance-enhancing drugs in the sport. If Biogenesis founder Anthony Bosch provides the Major League Baseball with the information it requires to punish Alex Rodriguez, Ryan Braun, and the other players linked to the now-defunct clinic, it is possible that PEDs may be eliminated from baseball completely.

  1. Based on the MLB’s track record, you could call it a wild guess.
  2. The storyline goes something like this, roughly speaking.
  3. On the basis of looks alone (i.e., players the size of houses and balls flying over the fence at insane rates), one may conclude that drugs were not prohibited in baseball throughout the 1990s.
  4. With the passage of the Anabolic Steroids Control Act in 1990, Congress officially declared anabolic steroids to be a controlled substance under federal law.
  5. ViaESPN.com: Players and staff members of the Major League Baseball organization are severely forbidden from possessing, selling, or using any illicit drugs or controlled substances.
  6. Including steroids and prescription pharmaceuticals for which the individual in possession of the drug does not have a prescription, this restriction extends to all illicit drugs and prohibited substances, including those obtained without a prescription.
  7. Any players who had seen the message were aware of what was going on.
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Players would not be subjected to steroid testing, and the letter said that players with substance addiction issues would be thrown out of the league only after rehabilitation efforts had been completed in their respective communities.

During the strike-shortened 1994 season, the league’s slugging percentage increased to.424, which was the highest ever recorded.

It was immediately evident that something strange was taking place, and it would only become more apparent in the following years.

It was the late 1990s.

The 1996 season proved to be a watershed moment in sports history.

Brady Anderson, whose previous career high was 21 home runs, hit a career-high 50 home runs this season.

A letter from Major League Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig sent early in the 1997 season basically reiterated what was expressed in Fay Vincent’s 1991 memo on the subject.

However, there was no testing and no clear-cut consequence for those who used steroids at the time.

It’s no surprise that the power spike didn’t abate.

It was the next year that four players hit at least 50 home runs for the first time in Major League Baseball history, with McGwire and Sammy Sosa both topping Roger Maris’ single-season record of 61 home runs set in 1908.

After 1998, the electricity spike remained unabated.

In 2000, the league’s slugging percentage reached a new high of.437, a new record.

There wasn’t much the league could do other than shoot at the easiest target possible, which was the goal of the game.

Big League Baseball was unable to undertake drug testing at the major league level on its own in the early 2000s due to a lack of resources.

As a result, the Major League Baseball chose a vulnerable institution: the lower leagues.

According to MLB.com, starting in 2001, all players not on a big league club’s 40-man roster were subjected to random testing for performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and substances of abuse. The following was the system of punishments in place:

  • An initial 15-game suspension
  • A further 30-game suspension
  • A third-offense suspension of 60 games
  • And a fourth-offense suspension of one year’s probation. For a fifth offense, a permanent ban is imposed.

The five-strikes-and-out rule had little effect on the number of minor leaguers who used it. Baseball announced in 2005 that it has banned a total of 38 minor leaguers in the years after the implementation of drug testing procedures. The MLB’s warning shot was mostly ignored at the big league level, despite its importance. With 73 home runs, Barry Bonds broke Mark McGwire’s single-season home run record. Sammy Sosa reached the 60-homer plateau for the fourth time, and Luis Gonzalez and Alex Rodriguez both reached the 50-home run plateau for the first time.

  1. Major League Baseball still had a problem on its hands, and it wasn’t until the following year that the players’ union recognized that something needed to be done to address the situation.
  2. By the time the 2002 season rolled around, there was rising skepticism about the use of performance-enhancing drugs in baseball.
  3. Tom Verducci of Sports Illustrated was instrumental in turning the whispers into shouts that summer.
  4. According to players, trainers, and executives who have been interviewed by Sports Illustrated over the previous three months, the game has evolved into a pharmaceutical trade fair.
  5. When Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached a new labor agreement later that summer, one of the terms of the agreement was to begin random testing for steroids and performance-enhancing drugs.
  6. The goal was to simply determine how many athletes were juicing at the time.
  7. The results were announced in November of 2003.

That was MLB’s justification for instituting obligatory testing in 2004, although the new policy was devoid of significant deterrents.

Upon failure of a subsequent test, conviction or plea of guilty to the sale and/or use of a prohibited drug, a player already undergoing treatment would be placed on the ‘Administrative Track’ and subject to disciplinary action.

Furthermore, violators would not even have their identities made public until they were reprimanded, allowing users to escape public shame as long as they were only caught once in a given period.

It was a record season for the league in which nine players hit at least 40 home runs, and the league’s slugging percentage of.428 was actually greater than the league average during Barry Bonds’ record-breaking 2001 season.

Penalties were raised from non-existent to laughable between 2004 and 2006.

During a grand jury hearing in 2003, Jason Giambi and Barry Bonds were asked to testify about what they knew about BALCO.

As a result, Bud Selig was able to persuade the union to contemplate a more stringent PED policy, which was implemented in December 2004. When then-union president Donald Fehr agreed that it was a good idea, a contract was negotiated a few weeks later that included the following provisions:

  • 10 days for first-time offenders, 30 days for repeat offenders, 60 days for third-time offenders, and a year for fourth-time offenders are all possible punishments.

In addition to the sanctions, the agreement stipulated that the identities of first-time offenders would be made public as part of the settlement. Despite the fact that it had taken a long time for both the MLB and the union to get to this conclusion, the two parties had finally agreed that PED users deserved to be pounded and humiliated into submission. It didn’t turn out so good in the end. Early in the 2005 season, it became clear that the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) would result in a lengthy ban period.

By the end of the 2005 season, a total of a dozen players had been suspended for using performance-enhancing drugs.

In order to deal with PED users, the league put in place a system of punishments, but the large number of bans demonstrated that A) players were still using and B) that 10 games for a first-time infraction was not going to be enough to convince them to quit using.

Now is a good time to talk about tougher penalties, the Mitchell Report, and more troublemakers.

  • First-time offenders are subject to a 50-game suspension
  • Second-time offenders are subject to a 100-game suspension
  • Third-time offenders are subject to a lifetime suspension.

The MLB and the union have also added amphetamines to the list of prohibited substances, with multiple positive tests for those substances possibly ending in a lifelong suspension from participation. Selig’s efforts did not end there. In response to the publication of Game of Shadows, he appointed Sen. George Mitchell to conduct an inquiry into the history of performance-enhancing drugs in baseball in March 2006. Officially, Mitchell’s probe was conducted only for the sake of research. On the unofficial side, it was obvious that the witch hunt was being conducted in order to dig up identities and strike terror into the minds of former and potential users alike.

The names of Roger Clemens, Miguel Tejada, Andy Pettitte, and Eric Gagne were among those who had their reputations ruined, and the substance of the report may be summarized as follows: A severe danger to the integrity of the game comes from the illicit use of performance-enhancing chemicals in competition.

  • The good news is that It is the fact that tougher fines, as well as the Mitchell Report, have had a good impact.
  • It is undeniable that the PED culture that prevailed in baseball during the 1990s and early 2000s is no longer there.
  • Every year, a few players are suspended for performance-enhancing drugs, and Major League Baseball is coming off a particularly difficult year on the PED front.
  • Braun, A-Rod, Cabrera, Colon, and Grandal are among the players who have found themselves in the heart of the Biogenesis stalemate right now.
  • After the Biogenesis fiasco is settled, it is likely that the league and the players’ union will engage in a bitter legal battle over probable sanctions until the matter is finally resolved.
  • It is encouraging that both Seligand players are asking for stronger anti-doping regulations in the future.
  • However, there is a difference between clean and pristine.

Note: Baseball-Reference.com provided the statistics, and a special thanks goes out to MLB.com and NBCSports.com for their helpful PED timings. If you want to speak baseball, feel free to contact me over Twitter.

The Only Good Reason to Ban Steroids in Baseball: To Prevent an Arms Race

Associated Press / Kathy Willens According to reports, Major League Baseball is on the approach of executing the greatest drug raid in the history of the sport. The Miami Herald reports that around 20 players, including Alex Rodriguez and Ryan Braun, are suspected of purchasing performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) from BioGenesis, a Miami-based “anti-aging clinic.” Bud Selig, the commissioner of baseball, is considering banning these players for a total of up to 100 games, according to reports.

  • What is it about these medicines that makes them so dangerous, I can’t help but wonder as a philosophy professor.
  • Despite all of the attention paid to the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in sports, answering this seemingly straightforward topic of ethics is more difficult than it appears.
  • Reason No.
  • The first logical conclusion is that using performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) is wrong since it is cheating.
  • The usage of anabolic steroids in baseball was prohibited in 1991, and anyone who did so after that was breaching the rules, which included Alex Rodriguez.
  • The decision to play clean was made by some players even during the height of baseball’s steroids-enhanced era.
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Doug had a successful career, playing in the Major Leagues for nine years and racking up more than 200 hits in one season as the Philadelphia Phillies’ center fielder, but there is no doubt that he would have had more hits, a longer career, and a larger paycheck if he had followed the example of many of his peers and used performance-enhancing drugs during his playing days.

  1. He was, without a doubt, not alone.
  2. As part of his Euthyphro dialogue, Plato explores whether an action is bad because the gods disapprove of it, or if an action is wrong because the gods disapprove of it, is the issue of whether an action is wrong due to the fact that the gods disapprove of it.
  3. Alternatively, do the gods disapprove of murder because it is immoral to do so?
  4. After all, the gods aren’t behaving randomly in their disapproval of murder as opposed to, say, the practice of knitting.
  5. We should all agree that athletes who use banned performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are cheating.
  6. However, as Euthyphro demonstrates, there is a more fundamental question: why should performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) be prohibited in the first place?
  7. In other words, is our preference just arbitrary, such as our preference for a game in which stretching and singing are encouraged in the seventh inning rather than the sixth?

2: Performance-enhancing drugs are dangerous.

There is little information available on the long-term effects of pharmaceuticals such as steroids because, as the Mayo Clinic points out, it is unethical to design trials to look for those effects in the first place.

It is not immediately evident, however, why this can be considered a disqualification for their usage.

Injuries to the head are common among boxers, soccer players, and football players, whereas runners and basketball players hurt their knees and tennis players injure their ankle and elbow joints.

It is possible to greatly lessen these damages by rewriting the regulations-marathons could be shorter and the NFL could adopt the “two-hand touch” restrictions from the playground-but this is not something we are doing.

If performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) were significantly more damaging than sports themselves, the case might be made that they should be prohibited because they are particularly dangerous.

In most cases, they’re no worse than repeated head injuries, and when taken in moderation, certain performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) may be no more risky than marathon running.

Reason No.

Some philosophers hold that an action is good or bad not because of its effects, but because of the reasons associated with it.

So perhaps the problem with PEDs is that they are used for the wrong reasons.

But we don’t always find it objectionable when people go to extraordinary means to reach the top.

Ballplayers who immerse themselves in their crafts for 90 hours a week are not tried in the court of public opinion for neglecting their families.

Our disapproval of PEDs is surely more than a disapproval of the hyper-competitive spirit that motivates their use.

4: PEDs create inequalities.

They’re expensive, and not everyone can afford them.

But even aspiring Major League players can’t necessarily afford PEDs when the average contract for a first-year minor leaguer is only $850 per month.

Baseball clubs could hand them out with uniforms and lockers at the start of each season, and the International Olympic Committee could find pharmaceutical companies willing to sponsor athletes.

Reason No.

The philosopher Immanuel Kant emphasized the importance of agency for morality and responsibility.

By contrast, you can take credit for your athletic accomplishments, but only insofar as they are caused byyouand not your PEDs.

It’s not you who deserves praise for your athletic prowess, but your pharmacist.

Racers do not design and build their own bicycles, batters with poor eyesight do not fashion their own corrective lenses, and no athlete is responsible for the education of his or her coach.

So why not add your pharmacist to the long list of people who make it possible for you to succeed?

Reason No.

Even if PEDs don’t sap all responsibility from your achievements, you might worry that they make success too easy.

There is nothing good in and of itself about hitting a home run; rather, what’s good about hitting a home run is that it’s usually the culmination of a long process of hard work that involves years of honing one’s talents, thousands of swings in the batting cage, endless hours in the weight room, and a careful diet.

  1. They’re not magic pills that instantly transform you into Babe Ruth.
  2. PEDs accelerate the rewards of hard work; they don’t substitute for it.
  3. 7: PEDs generate a vicious arms race.
  4. Traditionally, an arms race occurs between nations when they compete to amass superior weaponry.
  5. Each nation built up its own stockpile of nuclear weapons to counter the threat from the other.
  6. But once started, an arms race quickly runs out of control and everyone suffers.
  7. Not just anyone can play for the Yankees or the Red Sox; you need to be better than almost everyone else.

Sometimes this arms race is virtuous, as when it encourages everyone to practice more and train harder.

In the Beijing Olympics, swimmers who adopted a polyurethane body suit that was designed with the help of NASA won a disproportionate number of medals and shattered world records.

An arms race was on.

Collectively, swimmers recognized that the arms race was vicious.

While they made everyone faster, that hardly seemed relevant.

Swimming races are supposed to showcase swimming, not NASA’s engineering.

Recognizing the absurdity, the sport’s governing body, FINA, wisely banned the suits in 2009.

The America’s Cup is of interest as much for the engineering of the yachts as for the skill of the sailors.

The technology arms races in these sports are arguably virtuous.

The legalization of PEDs in baseball would likewise generate a vicious arms race.

Even players who wanted to compete drug free would be coerced into taking PEDs to keep up with their peers.

If two players are competing for a starting spot on the Yankees, neither player can rest content with yesterday’s pharmaceutical technology.

And so they’re off to the races, with the finish line set only by the ingenuity of bioengineers.

If it were, Bud Selig would order the outfield walls moved in.

As I wrote above, a concern about safety is ordinarily not a sufficient reason to ban something from a sport.

Imagine if the bodysuits used by swimmers not only made everyone faster, but also occasionally caused dangerous overheating.

It’s important to see that using PEDs is notalwayswrong.

But when the only point of using PEDs is to obtain a competitive advantage over the rest of the field, we have entered the realm of an arms race where their use threatens to do more harm than good.

The most effective method to prevent this escalation is to outright prohibit all weapons and impose stiff sanctions on those who cheat.

Achieving this in a real-world international arms race is notoriously difficult, owing to the weakness of internationally sanctioned bodies and the fact that few countries have the power or will to enforce sanctions unilaterally.

However, in baseball’s arms race, Major League Baseball has had the authority to punish players who cheat for a long time. Fortunately, it now appears to have the will to do so as well.

Juicin’ In The Majors: A History Of Steroids In Baseball

Kathy Willens for the Associated Press. There have been reports that Major League Baseball is on the verge of executing the largest drug bust in the history of the sport. The BioGenesis “anti-aging” clinic in Miami is accused of selling performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) to some 20 baseball players, including Alex Rodriguez and Ryan Braun. Several players have been suspended for up to 100 games by the office of Major League Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig. The principle of using performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) is presupposed by this punishment and baseball’s ban.

  • What makes their use inappropriate?
  • Here are six well-known but flawed arguments against performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs), as well as a seventh, less-known argument that explains what’s really wrong with them.
  • The first logical conclusion is that using performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) is wrong because it constitutes cheating in athletic competition.
  • But it’s still considered cheating, right?
  • It is also simply incorrect to assert that all successful athletes use performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs).
  • Let’s take the example of Doug Glanville, a former Major Leaguer and personal friend of mine who was the catalyst for my initial interest in these topics.
  • However, there is no doubt that he would have had more hits, a longer career, and a larger paycheck if he had followed the example of many of his peers and used performance-enhancing drugs.

Without a doubt, he wasn’t by himself.

As part of his Euthyphro dialogue, Plato considers whether an action is wrong because the gods disapprove of it, or whether an action is wrong because the gods disapprove of it, is the question of whether an action is wrong due to the gods disapproving of it.

Otherwise, do the gods disapprove of murder due to its moral heinousness?

As a matter of fact, the gods aren’t acting arbitrarily in expressing their disapproval of murder over other activities such as knitting.

Almost everyone would agree that athletes who use banned performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are cheating.

However, Euthyphro argues that there is a more fundamental question to consider: why should performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) be prohibited in the first place.

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In other words, is our preference purely arbitrary, similar to our preference for a game in which stretching and singing are encouraged in the seventh inning rather than the sixth?

If you told your mother that you wanted to experiment with performance-enhancing drugs, she would most likely be concerned about your health as a first priority.

However, it is unlikely that performance-enhancing drugs will be as safe as calcium supplements in the long term.

When it comes to sports, there is always a certain amount of risk involved.

Runners and basketball players suffer knee injuries, while tennis players suffer ankle and elbow injuries.

It is possible to significantly reduce these harms by rewriting the rules-marathons could be shortened and the NFL could adopt the “two-hand touch” rules from the playground-but this is not something that we do.

If performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) were much more damaging than sports themselves, it might be argued that they should be prohibited because they are particularly dangerous.

PEDs, when used in moderation, are almost likely no more harmful than repetitive head injuries, and particular PEDs, when taken in excess, may be no more risky than marathon running.

Reason No.

Others believe that an action is either good or terrible not because of its consequences, but because of the reasons that underpin the decision to take it.

Perhaps the problem with performance-enhancing drugs is that they are being utilized for the wrong reasons.

Those who use unusual tactics to achieve the top, on the other hand, aren’t necessarily frowned upon as being unpleasant.

Ballplayers who devote 90 hours a week to their professions are not prosecuted in the court of public opinion for ignoring their family responsibilities.

Our condemnation of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) is unquestionably more than a rejection of the hyper-competitive mentality that motivates their usage.

4: Prescription drugs cause disparities.

They are prohibitively costly, and not everyone can afford to purchase them.

Even ambitious Major League players, however, may not be able to purchase performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) when the average salary for a first-year minor leaguer is only $850 per month.

During the beginning of each season, baseball clubs might provide them with jerseys and lockers, and the International Olympic Committee could identify pharmaceutical businesses eager to sponsor athletes.

Fifth, PED users are not deserving of recognition for their achievements in the field of sports.

A snowfall might have negative or positive consequences—it can result in road deaths or provide a cozy night in front of the fireplace—but it does not deserve credit or blame for what it accomplishes since it is not an agent.

The ability to qualify for the Tour de France or hit 50 home runs just because you have access to the most up-to-date medications raises the question of whether you are truly accountable for your accomplishments.

Our accomplishments, on the other hand, are never really our own.

Similarly, batters with bad eyesight are not responsible for the design and construction of their own corrective glasses.

Consider adding your pharmacist to the long list of persons who have made it possible for you to be successful in your endeavors.

Reason No.

Even if performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) do not remove all responsibility from your accomplishments, you may be concerned that they make success too easy.

Rather than being inherently beneficial, hitting a home run is a result of a protracted process of hard work that typically takes years of polishing one’s abilities, thousands of swings in the batting cage, endless hours in the weight room, and an attention to one’s nutrition.

They aren’t miraculous medicines that can instantaneously change you into Babe Ruth, as some people believe.

PEDs accelerate the benefits of hard effort; they do not serve as a substitute for hard labor.

7: PEDs cause a nasty arms race amongst athletes.

Tradition dictates that when nations strive to collect greater armaments, they are said to be in an arms race.

Each nation built up its own arsenal of nuclear weapons in order to offset the threat posed by the other nation’s arsenal.

However, once launched, an arms race swiftly spirals out of control, resulting in the suffering of all parties involved.

In order to play for the Yankees or the Red Sox, you must be significantly better than practically everyone else in the league.

Sometimes an arms race is beneficial, such as when it motivates everyone to put in more hours of practice and train harder.

During the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, swimmers who wore a polyurethane body suit that was built with NASA’s assistance won a disproportionate amount of medals and set world records in the pool.

There was a race to the finish line.

Swimmers understood that the arms race was a nasty one when they came together as a group.

Despite the fact that they made everyone speedier, it didn’t seem to matter.

Swimming competitions are intended to highlight the sport of swimming, not NASA’s engineering.

Recognizing the ridiculousness of the situation, the sport’s governing body, FINA, took the prudent decision to prohibit the suits in 2009.

The America’s Cup is a spectacle that is as much about the engineering of the boats as it is about the sailing ability of the competitors.

The technological arms races that take place in these sports are, in some ways, admirable.

The legalization of performance-enhancing drugs in baseball would also result in a nasty arms race.

Even athletes who wished to compete without the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) would be forced to do so in order to stay up with their colleagues.

If two players are fighting for a starting position on the New York Yankees, neither one can be satisfied with pharmaceutical technology that was developed years ago.

As a result, they’re off to the races, with only the imagination of bioengineers determining where they’ll finish.

If that were the case, Bud Selig would order the outfield walls to be relocated.

As I previously stated, a concern about safety is not a sufficient justification to prohibit something from participation in a sport in most cases.

If swimming bodysuits not only made everyone faster, but they also caused severe overheating on occasion, it would be a nightmare for everyone.

It is critical to recognize that taking performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) is not necessarily bad.

If utilizing performance-enhancing drugs is only for the purpose of gaining an edge over the competition, we have entered the area of an arms race in which their usage has the potential to cause more harm than benefit to athletes.

A complete prohibition on all weapons, as well as strict sanctions for cheats, is the most effective method to prevent this escalation.

This is famously difficult to do in a true, worldwide weapons competition, because globally sanctioned entities are weak, and few governments have the capacity or motivation to implement sanctions unilaterally.

Baseball’s arms race, on the other hand, has long given Major League Baseball the authority to sanction players who cheat. The good news is that it appears to now now possess the will to do so.

A timeline of MLB’s drug-testing rules

For the first time since October 1985, players and owners have reached an agreement on a collective bargaining agreement that includes a joint drug program. An annual survey urine test for banned steroids will be conducted in 2003 and 2004. If more than 5 percent of tests are positive in a year, testing with penalties will begin in the following year and continue until less than 2.5 percent of tests are positive in two consecutive years combined. The 13th of November, 2003 — Major League Baseball estimates that between 5 and 7 percent of the 1,438 anonymous tests were positive for steroids, prompting the league to institute testing with penalties in 2004.

In addition to the 25-day suspension or fine of up to $25,000 for the third positive test, the 50-day suspension or fine of up to $50,000 for the fourth positive test, and the one-year suspension or fine of up to $100,000 for the fifth positive test, the penalties increase.

Sixth and subsequent violations are subject to disciplinary action as determined by the commissioner.

For the 2006 season, a large number of stimulants are prohibited.

22nd of April, 2008 — Following the release of the Mitchell Report on drugs in baseball, players and owners agreed to implement George Mitchell’s recommendations, which included appointing an Independent Program Administrator for a multiyear term, allowing him to be removed only in specific circumstances, and issuing annual public reports.

In a joint announcement on November 22, 2011, players and owners announce an agreement to have blood tests for human growth hormone performed during spring training in 2012.

Following the successful grievance that resulted in the suspension of Milwaukee’s Ryan Braun being overturned, the number of random urine tests will be increased, players suspended before the All-Star game will be ineligible for election or selection to the game, and collection rules will be modified.

Carbon Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) tests will be performed on any urine specimens that “vary materially,” according to the lab.

A player who is suspended for performance-enhancing drugs during the regular season will be ineligible for the postseason that year.

The number of random urine tests conducted during the season, in addition to the required two for each player, will increase from 1,400 to 3,200.

A minimum of one IRMS test shall be conducted on a specimen obtained from each participant. The hormone didehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been added to the list of prohibited substances.

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