which of the following describes the pathway that nerve impulses travel while throwing a baseball?
Home»Chemistry In the act of pitching a baseball, which of the following best reflects the path taken by nerve impulses? An example of this is the motor neuron in the spinal cord, the sensory neuron in the muscle, and the muscle itself. The B-sensory neuron/spinal cord/motor neuron/muscle system A motor neuron/brain/sensory neuron/muscle is represented by the letter C. The D-sensory neuron, the brain, the motor neuron, and the muscle
Muscles are formed through the connections between sensory neurons, the brain, and the muscles. Explanation: When you contact the ball, your hand senses it, and an impulse is conveyed to the brain through sensory neurons in your hand. Once the information collected from the sensory neuron has been processed, the brain sends another signal through the motor neuron, which transmits the message to the muscle. I believe the alternatives are as follows:1: Motor neuronspinal cord sense neuronmuscles 2: sensory neuronspinal cordmotor neuronmuscles 3: motor neuronbrainsensory neuronmuscles Sensory neuronbrainmotor neuronmuscles (number four) This is for anyone attempting to help since the solutions weren’t supplied.
the correct answer isA.) motor neuron, spinal cord, sensory neuron, muscles Explanation: because is just the answer AND I PF RESH A VA CADOOOH What are the choices?
The right answer is a The correct answer is A.
Which of the following describes the pathway that nerve impulses travel while throwing a baseball
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A geothermal heat pump system is comprised of a heat pump, an air delivery system (ductwork), and a heat exchanger-a system of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building-in the winter, the heat pump removes heat from the heat exchanger and transfers it to the building-in the summer, the heat pump transfers heat from the heat exchanger to the building-a geothermal heat pump system is comprised of a heat pump, an air delivery system (ductwork), and a heat
What exactly are the components of a neuron? While watching Neuron Garciaparra work up a sweat throwing baseballs to display the structures and activities of the billions of neurons that dwell in your body, you’ll be able to see the structures and functions of your own neurons. Neurons are nerve cells that are continually transmitting impulses to your brain, muscles, and glands. Neurons are also known as nerve cells. Your brain has about 100 billion neurons, each of which transmits impulses. The signals aid in the communication of information between the many areas of your body.
- Neurons transmit chemical impulses known as neurotransmitters, and they function swiftly to assist you in responding to everything that is going on in your environment.
- Neurotransmitters are the chemical signals that are represented by the baseballs.
- This sets off a chain reaction of impulses, which are then transmitted to motor neurons, which force your muscles to contract in order for you to catch the ball in your hands.
- Neuron Garciaparra is getting ready to go.
- In addition, he has a throwing arm that sends out messages.
- Amyelin sheath protects the axon, or pitching arm, and increases the speed with which Neuron may fire off impulses, much like a pitcher’s power sleeve does for a pitcher.
- This is the point at which Neuron sends out messages.
When the signal (ball) is received, it causes Neuron to become activated.
Given that sports drinks include sodium ions, consider the following scenario: Neuron consumes a sports drink in order to enhance electrolytes such as sodium ions.
The action potential is the term used to describe this process.
It is required that, once the neuron gets the signal, it must shoot it off.
The neuron cannot balk, just as a pitcher cannot balk after winding up and starting to throw the pitch.
However, if your neurons do not get a signal, they will not fire.
Either you feel it and the neurons send messages to your brain to allow you to react, or you don’t feel it at all.
After receiving a chemical signal or neurotransmitter, the dendrite stimulates the neuron.
Synaptic gaps are smaller than one millionth of an inch in size.
However, certain neurons in the outfield have extremely long axons, sometimes known as throwing arms.
However, even with these extremely long neurons, the same mechanism takes place.
The neurons get stimulated, and sodium ions are released to charge them.
The terminal branches send neurotransmitters to your other neurons via synaptic gaps created by the terminal branches.
Following the firing of the signal, the neuron enters a phase of arefractory activity.
As a result, Neuron sweats out all of his problems and returns to his natural condition, or resting potential.
until another signal comes his way, prompting him to pick up the ball and start playing.
Whenever you catch a ball, consider the sensory neurons firing messages within your body, which in turn trigger your motor neurons in your arms and legs. It is these nerve cells that are in charge of your perceptions and reactions.
|Amazing video on the right of a little girl with only half of her brain intact.|
We decided it would be beneficial to see this amusing and instructive Untamed Science short before starting our tour through the nervous system. In this video, we’ll look into animal poisons and how they interact with the nervous system in more detail. We pay a visit to J.P. Bingham, a cone snail researcher at the University of Hawaii, where novel chemicals are being found that might potentially save lives! This film was created to accompany Pearson’s Miller and Levine Biology Textbook, published by Pearson Education.
A Broad Nervous System Overview
Have you ever stopped to consider the plethora of processes that are made possible by the human central nervous system? We’ll walk you through some of the primary components of the nervous system to help you gain a better grasp of the system’s intricacies. Start with a real-life example that will perhaps help you comprehend the importance of having a good security system installed. After that, we’ll take a look at the brain, the spinal cord, and the nervous system. We’ll look at how each of the senses, such as sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell, works in more detail.
Football and your Nervous System:
The wide receiver makes a beeline towards the end zone as the ball is snapped in his direction. When he turns around, he witnesses the quarterback throw a bomb into the end zone. In order to control the flight path of the ball, his mind must concentrate on integrating information from his eyes and hearing as well as conveying movements to his muscles and joints. His pulse beats quicker and adrenaline chemicals are being pushed into his blood stream even when he is not thinking about it directly.
- However, while all of the body’s systems are vitally crucial to this athlete, we can focus on how the nervous system plays an important part in this circumstance.
- The conscious motions include sprinting, catching, and jumping, to name a few.
- He makes use of a variety of distinct sensory systems, including touch, sight, and sound.
- At the same time, several areas of the brain are functioning in tandem to send the necessary instructions for catching the soccer ball.
- When a player loses consciousness, it is frequently due to injury to the brain, which serves as the primary control center of the nervous system’s functions.
Our neurons are the fundamental building components of the neurological system. Our nerves run throughout our bodies and aid in the interpretation of the outside environment through the use of thousands of neurons. These neurons form a network that connects them all together and allows them to convey information throughout the body. Small electrical pulses that go along the length of the cell make it feasible for this message relay mechanism to function. When it reaches a new cell, substances known as neurotransmitters take over and control the process.
The “message” is conveyed at the synaptic cleft, which is the intersection between neurons, when neurotransmitter packets are released into the cleft and into the surrounding space.
This binding activity aids in the opening of ion channels.
These channels allow ions to enter and exit the neuron, resulting in the initiation of a new action potential to continue the “message.” Let’s have a look at how the action potential is produced in order to grasp the fundamentals of the electrical impulse.
Action Potential or Nerve Impulse:
The ability of the neuron to adjust the electrical charge throughout the length of the cell is the reason why a nerve impulse operates. It is not a miraculous occurrence, but it does necessitate the use of energy from the cell. The entire process is started in motion when the concentration of sodium and potassium in the cell changes due to the action of protein pumps that travel through the membrane. These sodium potassium pumps pump one potassium ion into the cell for every one sodium ion that is pumped out of the cell.
- Sodium seeks entry, whereas potassium seeks exit.
- In this case, however, due to the fact that some potassium is able to seep out, the entire cell ends up with a negative charge.
- A neuron’s resting potential remains constant until an external stimulation is substantial enough to cause a nerve impulse to be generated.
- Sodium channels that are gated open, enabling positively charged sodium inside the cell to enter.
- Other gated sodium channels activate in response to the impulse before the first one.
- Potassium that has been positively charged rushes out of the cell.
- Between now and then, sodium-potassium pumps are at work to maintain an uneven gradient of sodium and potassium throughout the cell.
Peripheral Nervous System:
All of our nerves are either a member of the peripheral nervous system or a part of the central nervous system, depending on their location. The brain, spinal column, and nerves that connect these masses of ganglia are all considered to be components of the central nervous system by the majority of scientists. The peripheral nerves, which govern our muscles and our perceptions, are the only remaining nerves. The peripheral nervous system is made up of all of these nerves. It is divided into two primary divisions: the sensory division (which consists of nerves that transmit impulses from sensory organs) and the motor division (nerves controlling muscles).
Our muscles respond to our commands by sending impulses to our nerves, which is a rather simple concept to grasp. In order to type on a computer, we must move our fingers, just as we control where we walk. Despite this, there are several muscles that are stimulated without our knowledge or consent. Muscles in our stomach contract and relax without us even realizing it.
In addition to sending impulses to glands, the motor division of the peripheral nervous system is involved. The autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system are the two categories that we use to categorize the moto division.
Somatic Nervous System:
Essentially, the somatic nervous system is made up of muscles that may be regulated by the conscious mind. When we move our skeletal muscles, we do so with full awareness of what we are doing. We have complete control over our muscles for the majority of the time. The nervous system may only take control at times of extreme stress, though. When you come into contact with something hot, for example, it might be difficult to keep your hands from pulling away. Another example is the blinking reflex that you have.
Autonomic Nervous System:
The autonomic nerve system is responsible for the regulation of body functions that are not controlled by the conscious mind. The movement of our digestive system would be considered to be a part of this mechanism. The majority of the glands in our body are regulated by our neurological system, and we are completely unaware of this. The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into two additional systems, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system, which are also subsystems of the autonomic nervous system.
Controlling one’s heart rate is a typical illustration of this.
There are several additional instances of how these two systems interact with one another, but the crucial element to remember is that they both operate together to assist maintain balance in the body, which is important.
The human boy have the ability to perceive and respond to his surrounding environment. Chemicals in our meals can be detected by our senses. They provide us with scents and flavors. In response to light, cells in the back of the eye react and assist us in creating pictures of the world around us. Skin cells respond to pressure and provide us with the ability to sense items. It is via our ears that we can detect sound waves and maintain our equilibrium. Each of these systems is intricate, but they all function as a result of processes that transmit sensations to our central nervous system when they are activated.
- Touch is provided by the skin
- Smell is provided by the nose
- Taste is provided by the taste buds
- Hearing is provided by the ear
- And sight is provided by the eye.
Central Nervous System:
The central nervous system is responsible for processing the nerve impulses received from the peripheral nervous system, which is located in the brain. All of our sensory organs provide information to the spinal cord and the brain, and the information is processed by the brain. Both of these sectors are in charge of the administration of complicated projects and tasks.
Although the spinal cord does less processing than other parts of the brain, it is the source of most of our reflexes (automatic responses to stimuli). However, the brain is split into several areas, each of which is responsible for controlling a distinct aspect of the body.
The Brain: Thinking Headquarters
The cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem are the three primary parts of the brain where the majority of nerve processing takes place. Each of these zones is in charge of a distinct component of the body’s functions. However, the brain is responsible for much more than simply commanding the constantly changing body. It also evolves throughout time as a result of changes in environmental factors. The primary areas of the brain are depicted in the diagram below. To discover more about what each part does, simply scroll over it.
The Spinal Chord:
For the majority of people, their spinal cord serves as their primary communication route between their brains and the rest of their bodies. The spinal-chord differs from the vertebral column in several ways. It is housed within and protected by the bony spinal column on the interior of the body. In part because the spinal-chord serves to connect nerves from various parts of the body, injury to the spinal-chord can result in a lack of communication between the brain and the affected body part.
Science of Baseball
A big league pitcher can hurl a baseball at speeds of up to 95 miles per hour – and some are capable of moving the ball even more quickly. A baseball traveling at this speed will take approximately four tenths of a second to travel the 60 feet, 6 inches from the pitcher’s mound to home plate, where the batter, his muscles tense as coiled springs, waiting for the precise moment to swing at the ball, will take approximately four tenths of a second. Batting practice is a game that takes place on the verge of biological time, just outside the range of a human’s capacity to react.
- He has made his judgment on whether the pitch is a fastball, curveball, slider, knuckleball, screwball, or whatever in a cognitive process that is far too quick for deliberation – despite the fact that a great quantity of information has gone into this instantaneous and non-verbal decision.
- And there are a plethora of different ways in which a pitcher might misdirect his throws.
- A curveball is a ball that he chokes when he throws it.
- And how much more white shows up on a curveball, if there is one?
- In addition, when they bring the ball into their glove with a flat wrist like that, they’re likely to be throwing a fastball at the batter.
- It may be done in several ways, and the excellent hitters are adept at identifying them.
- The hitter must begin swinging when the ball is roughly 25 to 30 feet in front of the plate, if he so chooses.
- An even shorter time span is required for the bat to make contact with the ball: A foul ball will come from a timing inaccuracy of a few thousandths of a second or less.
- When you hit the ball just a few millimeters too high or too low, you get a fly ball or a grounder respectively.
- Obviously, extensive hours of effort are required to master this incredible ability.
Getting a hit three times out of ten times at bat is considered a good average in baseball. It’s noteworthy to note that George Schaller and other ethologists have discovered that lions and cheetahs are only effective in catching their prey about a third of the time as well.
Just A Nerve Impulse Away
The speed with which nerve cells carry nerve signals eventually limits the amount of time a person may react. The transmission of data from sensory organs to the brain and back to the proper muscle groups takes a substantial amount of time, despite the fact that they are traveling at over 250 miles per hour at this pace. The knee-jerk response, for example, is quick because it requires only a few nerve-cell-to-nerve-cell connections and occurs in “the blink of an eye.” Other reactions are quick because they bypass the brain entirely.
- Because a message is given to the brain at the same time that a message is sent to the muscles, we are truly aware of the knee jerk while it is occurring in real time.
- The simultaneous operation of hundreds of thousands of nerve cells in the process of judgment, decision-making, and entire bodily movement amounts to hundreds of thousands of nerve cells.
- One nerve cell communicates with another by releasing a chemical substance that passes through a tiny gap between the cells, known as thesynapse, to communicate with it.
- The nerve cells that control the choice to swing are most likely responsible for the longest delays.
- The transmission of information concerning the velocity and trajectory of the baseball from the retina to the higher visual cortex takes at least 43 thousandths of a second.
- Batters, like pitchers, convert body momentum into bat speed by a progressive accumulation of movement: the hips and knees turn first, followed by the chest, shoulders, arms, and lastly the wrists, resulting in a forceful whipping motion.
- Surprisingly, even after the batter has begun his swing, he retains some capacity to change his mind and inspect his form before continuing.
- When you practice, you save time by making faster decisions.
However, the fundamental reaction time caused by nerve conduction and synaptic delay continues to be an irreducible constant in the game’s mechanics.
Finding The Ball
The effective length and weight of the bat are other important elements in determining the batter’s swing path. A batter’s swing is shorter the higher up he grips the bat handle, simply because there is less mass to move through space and, thus, less inertia to overcome with pure muscular strength. However, as a result, less mass strikes the ball. Since strength is a trade-off for speed and precision, the maxim holds that the more forceful the swing, the less probable it is to strike the ball comes into play.
- it’s similar to using a hatchet to cut with accuracy, or an axe to chop with force.
- The first is precision with a hatchet, and the second is strength with an axe.
- The hitter is likely to continue to hit well until he or she is approximately 35 years old or so, which shows that excellent hitting requires extensive experience with a wide variety of pitches and throwing styles.
- If the hitter does not hit the ball perfectly, he will be in serious danger.
- In as little as two steps, he may have already grabbed and blasted the ball back to first base for an out, demonstrating a dexterity and confidence that can only be gained through years of experience.
- Take a look at a beginning little league team someday; typically, a fielder will wait until the ball has stopped rolling before going after it, or he may race to the wrong location in order to make a catching attempt.
- The ability of humans to predict the trajectories of moving objects is difficult to comprehend.
An outfielder starts sprinting toward the location where he believes the ball will land as soon as he sees it.
Charlie Metro (narrator): “The best catches are made in the beginning of the game, not towards the conclusion.
If you turn, you’ve taken one stride and are three or five feet away from the ball, depending on how far you want to go.
As a result, the spectacular catches in the outfield are made with the first motion.” Humans have the capacity to precisely forecast where the ball will land because of their extrapolative abilities, although these abilities are not entirely unique to humans.
They must have their brains taught to recognize when the flies are within range and which direction they are travelling in order to do this task.
To be sure, this accomplishment requires a near instantaneous capacity to predict future paths in order to be accomplished.
Although the frog appears to be completely unaware of these things until their pictures begin to grow larger on his retina, signaling that they are approaching him, the frog appears to pay attention to them.
Frogs and other lesser species appear to have their behavior totally pre-programmed, according to recent research.
In contrast, for birds of prey and other comparably clever creatures, a significant amount of trial-and-error learning occurs before they are capable of diving and capturing escaping prey.
Evolution Wins Again
Our ability to grab and throw objects appears to be based in our evolution as hunters and tool users, as evidenced by fossil evidence of early humans hunting and eating other animals. A moving animal must be hit or caught with the capacity to predict its movement ahead of time. These are the fundamental abilities required for every game of catch and toss, but they may have also been necessary for our ancestors’ survival in prehistoric times. A recent study from the paleoanthropological field suggests that our forefathers were walking upright four million years ago, long before humans had enormous brains.
Psychologists have observed that human babies as young as eight months of age already have expectations about the movements of objects in their field of vision, expectations that they cannot possibly have learned from experience and that, as a result, must have been wired into their brains by evolutionary processes.
- Charlie Metro (narrator): I performed a lot of research and discovered that it is impossible to remove Rickey Henderson from the game.
- I discovered that it was impossible to get rid of some of the males.
- Actually, the runner who is capable of making a continuous, regular motion like Rickey’s cannot be thrown out, as he has demonstrated time and time again.
- However, this is not the case.
- This is analogous to attempting to draw a straight line freehand without success.
- Instead of worrying about how straight the line is, you should concentrate on how straight the line is millimeter by millimeter.
- When you don’t have time to think about it, catching a ball may be simpler.
“And whoever designed baseball, whether it was Doubleday or Cartwright or whoever it was, he was fantastic as an engineering genius because it takes such a long time to run and even longer to make a double play, and if it had been any longer or shorter, it would have thrown the game completely out of whack.” The trade-off that baseball players must make between their abilities and their limitations results in a game that is both entertaining and always changing.
Pathway of a Nerve Impulse
Note: A thorough understanding of the human nervous system, as well as familiarity with the major concepts linked with it, is an essential aspect of training in many treatments, including massage, aromatherapy, acupuncture, shiatsu, and many more, including acupressure. Nerves work in a variety of ways, and this page summarizes some of the most fundamental facts available. Generally speaking, the course of a nerve impluse can be summarized as follows, using the figure below: (See Figure 1): The Nerve Impulse’s Traveling Route
- This signifies that the first event in this sequence is a’stimulus,’ which is a triggering event. The word’stimuli’ is the plural form, and it refers to more than one type of stimulus. In this context, a stimulus is defined as something that human sensory receptors are capable of detecting, such as noises, physical contact, tastes, visual sensations, and so on. The sensory receptors, which are responsible for perceiving the stimuli, are the next stage in the process. This information is transmitted to the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord, by sensory neuron(s) located throughout the body, with some types of receptors concentrated in specific areas of the body, for example, taste receptors in the mouth
- Sensory neuron(s) then transmit information from the sensory receptor(s) to the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. Due to the fact that peripheral nerves communicate with the spinal cord through a network of nerves inside the nervous system, information acquired by the central nervous system (CNS) is then sent by relay neurone(s) within the CNS, this occurs. This is illustrated in further detail in Figure (2), which follows.
It is possible that the information will be processed in the brain or not. Others (such as all visual stimuli) always need processing by the brain, and certain stimuli (such as all visual stimuli) always result in “reflex reactions” that may be defined in terms of the “Simple Reflex Arc.” Figure (2), which contains further information regarding the simple reflex arc, is presented below. An effector can be activated by neural “instructions” that are supplied to it via a motor neurone after a basic reflex arc reaction or after processing by the brain (usually a muscle or gland).
The action may be a physical movement of a muscle – and hence the movement of a bodily component such as a leg – or it could be a chemical action by a gland, for example.
A ‘Simple Reflex Arc’
The sequence of events mentioned above is illustrated in further detail in the accompanying figure, which is especially for the situation of the’simple reflex arc.’ This graphic depicts a vertebra of the spine, however it does not depict the brain as a separate entity. ‘Simple Reflex Arc’ is seen in Figure 2. See also information on neurons, as well as information on illnesses and disorders affecting the neurological system.
Reactions and Reflexes
Ronald E. Hammond, PhD is the Product Manager for Anatomy and Physiology at Applied Biosystems.
|Figure 1Schematic representation of the sensorimotor pathway for a volunatry response to a stimulus.|
Although reflexes and responses are sometimes confused, there are significant distinctions between the two. Reactions are deliberate reactions, whereas reflexes are inadvertent or involuntary responses (and not subject to conscious control in most cases). A sensory stimulus can be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or gustatory in nature, and each of these types of responses is triggered by that stimulus. The stimulus activates particular sensory receptors, which are sensitive to a specific kind, quality, and/or strength of stimulation and respond accordingly.
In most cases, the speed of a reflex is faster than the speed of a voluntary reaction.
1) and that for a reflex (Fig (Fig.
Reactions or reflexes?
A good technique to assist your pupils distinguish between responses and reflexes is to walk them through a scenario involving a sport they are acquainted with. You may, for example, describe the events that take place when a baseball player goes up to bat in a game. He is facing the pitcher, who is 6012 feet away and preparing to throw a fastball at 90 mph, which he will deliver. The time it takes for the ball to go from his hand to the plate is around 0.45 seconds. That is all the time the batter will have to reply, either by swinging the bat or by letting the ball to pass through his or her hands.
He gets congratulated by the announcer for his “unbelievable reflexes” after launching a home run over the left field fence.
Return your kids to the batter’s box for a new scenario, this time in which the pitcher loses control and hurls a fastball right into the batter’s mouth.
As he does every time he says something about the player’s “terrific reactions,” the announcer is at least somewhat true this time.
The batter’s eyelids closed instinctively in response to the baseball being hurled at his face in the scenario described above, reducing the probability of harm to his eyes. Meanwhile, he responded to the threat by making a voluntary movement to get out of the path, which was successful.
How much time?
The length of time it takes for an individual to notice and respond to a sensory stimuli is referred to as reaction time (such as the act of swinging a bat at a baseball). The average reaction time to a visual stimuli is 200 to 250 milliseconds; the average reaction time to a hearing stimulus is 150 to 200 milliseconds; and the average reaction time to a touch stimulus is 130 to 170 milliseconds. Through repetition, reaction speed may be improved to a certain extent, which is a positive outcome of the countless hours of practice that athletes put in.
Nerve conduction velocity can be affected by the diameter of the nerve and the amount of myelination present.
The most straightforward and least expensive method for students to measure response time is through the use of a reaction time ruler.
With his thumb and forefinger situated opposite a chosen place near the bottom of the ruler, the subject sits in a vertical position while his experimenter holds the ruler vertically.
It is determined how quickly the subject’s fingers catch the ruler by placing a time mark at the spot when his fingers catch the ruler.
These experiments can serve as an excellent introduction to the fundamental techniques that are employed in scientific data collecting and analysis, which can be very useful.