How to Calculate OPS in Baseball
Baseball statistics have long been a significant aspect of the game. When talking about baseball and its many leagues, terms such as batting average, runs batted in, hits, runs, and more have become standard. However, as baseball has progressed throughout the years, the statistics have gotten very intricate. It might be difficult to keep up with the new-age language, which includes statistics such as on-base percentage (OBP), slugging percentage (SLG), and wins above replacement (WAR), among others.
Initially glanced at, it appears to be a difficult figure to compute and comprehend, however it can be simply broken down into a series of steps.
1. Understanding and Calculating On Base Percentage
On Base Percentage (also known as On Base Percentage or OBP) is a crucial statistic in baseball and the first important statistic required to comprehend On Base Percentage (also known as OPS). Quite literally, the On Base Percentage tracks how many times an individual player gets on base. In order to compute this, you tally up a player’s hits, walks, and times hit by a pitch, and then divide the total by the number of plate appearances the player has made (at bats plus walks plus hit by pitch plus sacrifice flies).
2. Understanding and Calculating Slugging Percentage
The slugging percentage, abbreviated as SLG, is the other important statistic in the calculation of the OPS. Although similar to calculating on-base percentage (OBP), SLG is used to assess the overall quality of hits made by a player rather than amount of base hits made. It does this by giving a numerical value to each base (single = 1, double = 2, etc.) and assessing the type of hit a player receives when he smacks the ball. The formula for calculating SLG is Singles + Doubles x 2 + Triples x 3, + Home Runs x 4 divided by the number of at bats.
3. Calculating and Understanding OPS
So, now that we’ve learned how to compute OBP and SLG, it’s important to remember that OPS is basically On Base Percentage plus Slugging, which makes it much simpler to calculate. To compute on-base percentage and slugging % for a player, multiply their on-base percentage by their slugging percentage. For example, a player with an OBP of.280 and an SLG of.500 will have an OPS of.780 if he also has an OBP of.280 and an SLG of.500. This statistic practically reflects the best of both worlds between the two statistics because it evaluates both the amount of time a player spends on base and the quality of their hits.
On-base plus slugging
On-base plus slugging (sometimes known as on-base percentage and slugging percentage) is a baseball statistic that is computed as the sum of a player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. This method is excellent for determining a player’s offensive worth since it considers both the ability to get on base and the ability to hit for power, which are two crucial hitting talents, and it is simple to use.
In Major League Baseball, a player with an OPS of.900 or more is considered to be in the highest tier of offensive skill. Typically, the team with the highest OPS will be in the top half of the league.
Where OBP represents on-base percentage and SLG represents slugging percentage, we have the following fundamental formula: These percentages are defined as follows and in which locations:
- The letters H, BB, and HBP stand for hits, bases on balls, and times hit by pitch respectively. The letters AB stand for at bats, SF stands for sacrifice fly, and TB stands for total bases.
Because the denominators of OBP and SLG are different, it is feasible to rewrite the calculation for OPS using a common denominator in order to simplify the expression. Mathematics says that this statement is the same as the simple sum of OBP and SLG, which is as follows:
Interpretation of OPS
It should be emphasized that, in contrast to many other statistics, a player’s OPS does not have a straightforward intrinsic meaning, despite the fact that it is valuable as a comparing measure. One flaw with OPS is that it gives equal weight to both on-base average and slugging percentage, despite the fact that on-base average is more closely associated with run production. This flaw is exacerbated by the fact that the component portions of OPS are not normally close to equal in terms of numerical value (league-average slugging percentages are usually 75-100 points higher than league-average on-base percentages, while league-leading slugging percentages are often 200-300 points higher than league-leading on-base percentages).
Inconsistencies between published OPSes and the sum of on-base average and slugging percentage are due to rounding mistakes in the calculations.
The Hidden Game of Baseball, written by John Thorn and Pete Palmer in 1984, was the first book to make the concept of on-base plus slugging prominent. The New York Times then began publishing the names of the top performers in this statistic in its weekly “By the Numbers” box, a feature that ran for four years and garnered widespread attention. The statistics were popularized by baseball journalist Peter Gammons, who utilized them and spread the word about them to other writers and announcers.
The Major League Baseballplayers with a lifetime on-base percentage greater than 1.000 are as follows (through 2005, current players are shown in bold):
- Babe Ruth has a 1.1636 rating
- Ted Williams has a 1.1155 rating
- Lou Gehrig has a 1.0798 rating
- Barry Bonds has a 1.0533 rating
- Albert Pujols has a 1.0490 rating
- Todd Helton has a 1.0404 rating
- Hank Greenberg has a 1.0169 rating
- Rogers Hornsby has a 1.0103 rating
- Manny Ramirez has a 1.0076 rating
- Babe Ruth has a 1.16
Albert Pujols has the best career on-base percentage (OPS) of any right-handed batter in baseball history. The following are the best 10 single-season performances in Major League Baseball (all by left-handed hitters):
- 1.4217 for Barry Bonds in 2004
- 1.3807 for Barry Bonds in 2002
- 1.3791 for Babe Ruth in 1920
- 1.3785 for Barry Bonds in 2001
- Babe Ruth in 1921
- Babe Ruth in 1923
- 1.2874 for Ted Williams in 1941
- 1.2778 for Barry Bonds in 2003
- Babe Ruth in 1927
- Ted Williams in 1957
- 1.2582 for Babe Ruth in 1927
- 1.2566 for Ted
Rogers Hornsby set the record for the greatest single-season batting average for a right-handed batter in 1925 with a 1.2449 mark (13th on the all-time list). Since 1925, Mark McGwire has had the greatest single-season OPS for a right-hander, with a 1.2224 mark in 1998.
Adjusted OPS (OPS+)
OPS+, or Adjusted OPS, is a metric that is closely connected to OPS. OPS+ is an adjusted OPS that takes into account the park and league in which the player played, but does not take into account fielding position.
The league average is defined as having an OPS+ of 100 points. An OPS+ of 150 or greater is considered exceptional, indicating that the player’s overall OPS was 50 percent better than the national average after adjusting for park.
Leaders in OPS+
According to lifetime leaders in OPS+ (minimum 3000 plate appearances, current players in bold), the following players were the best through 2005:
- Babe Ruth has 207 hits
- Ted Williams has 190
- Barry Bonds has 184
- Lou Gehrig has 179
- Rogers Hornsby has 175
- Mickey Mantle has 172
- Dan Brouthers has 170
- Joe Jackson has 170
- Ty Cobb has 167
- And the list goes on.
The following were the best single-season performances:
- Barry Bonds has 275 hits in 2002
- Barry Bonds has 262 hits in 2001
- Barry Bonds has 260 hits in 2004
- Babe Ruth has 256 hits in 1920
- Fred Dunlap has 250 hits in 1884
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1921
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1923
- Ted Williams has 235 hits in 1941
- Ted Williams has 233 hits in 1957
- Ross Barnes has 231 hits in 1876
- Barry Bonds has 231 hits in 2003
- Barry Bonds
- Sabermetrics, on-base percentage, slugging percentage, and other metrics
- John Thorn and Pete Palmer are co-authors of this work (1984). Baseball’s “Secret Game” is a little known fact. ISBN 0-385-18283-X
- Alan Schwarz, Doubleday & Company, ISBN 0-385-18283-X (2004). The Game of Numbers. Thomas Dunne Books (ISBN 0-312-32222-4)
- Thomas Dunne Books (ISBN 0-312-32222-4)
How to Calculate On-base Plus Slugging (OPS) in Baseball
A player’s On-Base Percentage (OBP) and Slugging Average (SBA) are added together to get the OPS (On-Base Plus Slugging) in baseball (SLG). It provides us with a good indication of a player’s ability to reach base as well as his power hitting abilities. In this section, we will discuss how to compute OPS statistics in baseball. Fascinating tidbit Speaking on Gaylord Perry’s slugging abilities in 1963, Gaylord Perry’s Major League Baseball manager predicted that man will arrive on the moon before the former baseball player hit a home run.
- Baseball’s origins may be traced back to the mid-18th century in England, when it was first played.
- Many people in the United States like it as a recreational activity.
- Previously, teams in Major League Baseball (MLB) were separated into two divisions: the National League (NL) and the American League (AL) (AL).
- The National League and the American League united to become an unified organization in the year 2000.
- On-base plus slugging percentage is one of the in-game statistics that may be utilized for empirical analysis (OPS).
- This implies that it takes into account the On-base Percentage (OBP) and the Slugging Average (SA) (SLG).
- OPS FormulaOPS = OBP + SLGOBPOBP = (H + BB + HBP) / (AB + BB + SF + HBP)OPS = OBP + SLGOBPOBP = (H + BB + HBP) / (AB + BB + SF + HBP) SLGSLG =TB / AB SLGSLG =TB / AB Here,
|H = Hits|
|BB = Base on Ball|
|HBP = Times Hit by Pitch|
|AB = At Bats for a given player|
|SF = Sacrifice Flies|
|TB = Total Bases|
Slugging TB in Slugging TB = (1B) + (2B) + (3B) + (4HR) = (1B) + (2B) + (3B) + (4HR) Singles, doubles, triples, and home runs are referred to as 1B, 2B, 3B, and HR, respectively. As a result, OPS =/ (AB + BB + SF + HBP) is equal to A player with an OPS of 0.900 or higher is considered to be an exceptional player in most circles. Over the years, there have been a slew of players with outstanding offensive and defensive statistics. Barry Bonds had an overall on-base percentage (OPS) of 1.051 during his career, which spanned 1986 to 2007.
- Ted Williams’ on-base percentage (OPS) was 1.116 throughout the course of his 19-season career.
- Over the course of his 22-year professional career, he had an OPS of 1.164.
- In baseball, an at bat is defined as 500 sacrifice flies (SF) or 7 singles hit (1B).
- The number of hits (2B) equals 53; the number of triples (3B) equals 34; and the number of home runs (HR) equals 15.
- As a result, his overall performance score (OPS) isOPS = 0.433 + 0.704 =1.137.
- His OPS has not consistently been in the upper single digits.
- The emphasis was less on hitting home runs and more on stealing bases and running the bases in order to advance the runners.
- The fact that the balls used during the games lacked design and were abused was also a contributing factor to this.
- The on-base percentage, on the other hand, does not provide a comprehensive view of a batter’s offensive performance.
- In addition, OPS does not take into account the runs generated by a player.
OBP and Slugging Average are both taken into consideration when calculating OPS. The on-base percentage, on the other hand, is more closely related to the number of runs scored by a player than it is to his slugging percentage.
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Baseball On-base plus slugging (OPS) Calculator
On-base plus slugging (OPS) is a baseball statistic that is computed to evaluate the performance of a baseball hitter’s bat. Using an online Baseball On-base plus Slugging (OPS) calculator, you can figure out a player’s ability to both get on base and hit for power at the same time. On-base plus slugging (OPS) is a baseball statistic that is computed to evaluate the performance of a baseball hitter’s bat. Using an online Baseball On-base plus Slugging (OPS) calculator, you can figure out a player’s ability to both get on base and hit for power at the same time.
OPS = ((H+BB+HBP) / (AB+BB+SF+HBP)) + (((1 × B) + (2 × D) + (3 × T) + (4 × HR)) / AB)Where, OPS = On-Base Plus Slugging, H = Hits, BB = Walks, HBP = Hits By Pitch, AB = At Bats, SF = Sacrifice Flies B = Singles, D = Doubles, T = Triples, HR = Homeruns, On-base plus slugging (OPS) is a baseball statistic calculated as the total of a player’s on-base percentage and slugging average. It does not gives a complete desciption of a player’s offensive contributions and does not consider such factors as baserunning, basestealing, and the leverage/timeliness of performance.
Try thisbaseball on-base plus slugging (OPS) calculatorto calculate and assess the performance of a baseball hitter.
OPS and OPS+
In baseball, On-base Plus Slugging (OPS) is exactly what it sounds like: it is the product of a player’s on-base percentage and their slugging % added together. Many sabermetricians dislike OPS because it regards OBP as being on par with SLG in terms of importance, despite the fact that OBP is nearly twice as essential as SLG in terms of influence on run scoring (x1.8 to be exact). In spite of this, OPS has importance as a measure since it is recognized and utilized more extensively than other, more accurate statistics, while simultaneously being a pretty accurate depiction of offensive output and effectiveness.
- On-base Plus Slugging Plus (OPS+), which has not gained as much widespread acceptance as OPS but is a more informative metric than OPS, can be found on baseball cards and broadcasts.
- A 100 OPS+ is considered league average, and each point above or below 100 OPS+ represents one percentage point above or below league average, respectively.
- Since OPS+ accounts for league and park effects, it’s possible to utilize OPS+ to compare players from various years and on different clubs.
- If you’re feeling ambitious, we propose replacing OPS withwOBAand OPS+ withwRC+.
- On-base plus slugging:OPS = OBP + SLGI On-base plus slugging You can find detailed instructions on how to compute OBP and SLG separately here if you want a more technical understanding: In this equation, OBP = (H + BB + HBP) divided by (AB + BB + HBP + SF).
- Why OPS is important: A player’s ability to get on base and hit for extra bases is captured better by the OPS than other metrics like as batting average or RBI, which are used to measure other aspects of the player’s performance.
- With a few small exceptions, if you order batters by OPS, you are generally categorizing them based on their productivity to date, unless otherwise specified.
OBP is about twice as useful as SLG, which means that OPS overrates power hitters while underrating people with high OBP.
OPS has the advantage of being fairly simple to calculate in a pinch and being more well recognized, but there is really no reason to prefer OPS over wOBA if you have the option to choose between the two.
If you don’t have access to wOBA or wRC+, it’s a reasonable estimate if that’s all you have.
In 2015, A.900 OPS is a significant improvement over the previous year of 2000.
As a general rule, OPS requires a large sample size in order to be representative of genuine skill.
Always be certain that you understand the context and sample size involved while utilizing OPS.
Check out the FanGraphs leaderboards to discover what the league-average OPS has been for every year since 1901 up to the present. The average OPS+ for the league is always 100.
Keep in mind that, when evaluating a player’s offensive, OPS is a better number to utilize than batting average; nevertheless, OPS should always be used in conjunction with other statistics as well, such as slugging percentage and on-base percentage. It’s an excellent starting point for getting people to think about things other than typical statistics. If you have the option, utilize Weighted On-Base Average (wOBA) instead of On-Base Percentage (OPS). OPS treats both OBP and SLG equally, however wOBA takes into consideration the fact that OBP is really more useful than SLG.
Listed below are some further reading resources: FanGraphs provides a visual comparison of OPS and wOBA.
What Is OPS in Baseball? Well, It Measures…
There are several approaches of evaluating baseball players, as well as numerous schools of thought on the most effective method of doing so. The earned run average (ERA) of a pitcher is widely considered to be the most reliable conventional statistic for determining his or her performance. Ops, on the other hand, has become a common measure for evaluating hitters in order to quantify their overall effectiveness. As a result, what exactly is OPS in baseball? On-base plus slugging (also known as OPS) is a statistic that attempts to assess a hitter’s overall effectiveness by combining two figures that reflect how well he is at reaching base and hitting for power: on-base percentage and slugging percentage.
In the meanwhile, let’s get down to business and answer the burning question.
What Is a Batter’s OPS?
In addition to On-Base, On-Base Plus The slugging percentage of a player is the sum of the player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. The on-base percentage (OPS) of a player demonstrates his or her ability to reach base and hit for power. On-base Plus is a slang term for Slugging percentage, often known as On-base percentage (OBP), is a combination of a batter’s On-base percentage (OBP) and Slugging percentage (SP) (SLG). The stat was created to analyze a batter’s ability to reach base and hit for power, which are the two key tasks that are regarded to be the most significant for hitters in baseball at the time of its creation.
You may calculate an OPS by adding these two values together, and voilà, the league OPS for 2019 was.758.
These prices, on the other hand, will alter over time as more and more people join the club.
Because a batter’s OPS tends to hold up better over time than counting figures, it may be used to evaluate batters even when comparing two players who have a significant difference in playing time.
How Do You Calculate OPS?
As we previously discussed, On-Base Plus is a type of military base. Slugging percentage, often known as on-base percentage and slugging percentage, is the sum of a player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. Put another way, you can compute an OPS by simply putting the two numbers together. The on-base percentage (OPS) of a hitter cannot be calculated, however, without these data. Because the complete OPS calculation is lengthy and difficult to compute on its own, it is preferable to calculate OBP and SLG separately and then combine them.
- In order to do so, sum up all of the hits, walks, and hit by pitches, then divide the total by the number of at-bats plus walks, sacrifice flies, and hit by pitches to get the on-base percentage.
- As a consequence, the calculation for OBP looks somewhat like this: At bats + walks + hit by pitch / (at bats + walks + hit by pitch + sacrifice flies) = On Base Percentage (OBP).
- Simply combine the two figures together to obtain the overall probability of success (OPS) for each situation.
- Using the on-base percentage calculation, the values for hits (30), walks (10), and HBPs (5) total up to 45 when multiplied together.
- The hitter’s on-base percentage is calculated by dividing 45 by 120, which equals.375.
- On the batting average side, the total bases from singles (15), doubles (10), triples (15), and home runs (20) add up to a total of a.600 slugging percentage.
- For the purposes of illustration, the entire equation is written as follows: With all of that work spread out in front of you, it’s usually better to compute the two figures individually in order to keep everything a bit more organized.
Why Is OPS a Good Stat?
On-base Plus Slugging is one metric that has remained mostly concealed in plain sight throughout history and has just lately been recognized as being significant. In the world of so-called “advanced” metrics, on-base percentage (OPS) is one of the simplest to compute and utilize. It is comprised of the two values created by the two most significant talents for hitters: reaching base and hitting for power. Because of these two elements, on-field performance (OPS) is a simple metric for fans to locate, compute, and understand.
OPS, on the other hand, is by no means impenetrable.
According to theSporting News’ evaluation of on-base percentage (OPS), David Ortiz topped all of Major League Baseball with a 1.021 OPS in 2016, yet in 2000, same score would have matched him for 16th place in the league.
Because OPS is sensitive to changes in ballpark dimensions and league-wide adjustments, it is not the be-all and end-all metric.
This statistic is far more sophisticated, since it normalizes a player’s OPS based on league and park considerations, with 100 serving as a reference point for comparison. However, we will not go into detail about this statistic in this post.
What Is a Good OPS in Baseball?
According to what we discussed previously, OPS standards can shift over time as leagues and ballparks evolve. But there are still broad numbers that are deemed to be excellent or harmful in some way, shape or form. At any point in time in history, an OPS of over.800 has been deemed good, with an OPS of over.900 considered very good, and an OPS of 1.000 or greater considered extraordinary. On the other hand, an OPS of less than 700 is regarded bad, and anything less than 600 is considered extremely poor.
When Did OPS Become a Stat in Baseball?
On-base Plus is made up of several components. Slugging (both on-base percentage and slugging percentage) has been around for a very long time. Branch Rickey was a pioneer in the development of the on-base percentage statistic in the 1940s and 1950s, and he was credited with inventing the concept. A metric known as “Extra Base Power” was also established by him, and he even reasoned that the two statistics might be combined to determine an individual batter’s total performance. Apparently, Rickey was decades ahead of his time in terms of thinking.
However, it wasn’t until the rise of sabermetrics in the late 1990s and early 2000s that baseball began to take the overall OPS (as well as its components) seriously.
The on-base percentage (OPS) is not regarded an official statistic by Major League Baseball, despite the fact that it is well known and highly accepted today.
After reading this, the next time you see a batter’s OPS, you will have a better understanding of whether you should be optimistic about him or if you should be concerned.
Highest Career OPS
Babe Ruth, who is in the Hall of Fame, holds the record for the best career On-base Plus Slugging percentage with a 1.164 OPS throughout his 22-year professional baseball career. Seven batters have concluded their careers with an OPS greater than 1.000, with Mike Trout now straddling the line between the two categories.
Highest Single Season OPS
Barry Bonds owns the single-season record for the greatest On-Base Plus Slugging percentage (1.422) with a mind-boggling 1.422 in 2004.
He also established an MLB record with an on-base percentage of.609 and a slugging percentage of.812, both of which were the highest ever recorded.
What Is Batting Average?
The batting average demonstrates a player’s ability to put the ball in play and advance to the next base. The batting average of a hitter is derived by dividing the total number of hits he has received by the total number of at-bats he has had. It is important in measuring a player’s performance at the bat, but it does not take into consideration walks, sacrifices, and other factors.
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What Does OPS Mean in Baseball – What is a Good OPS?
Baseball may just be the perfect sport for math nerds, according to some experts. The OPS package, for example, incorporates formulae from various statistics, which makes it really fascinating to use. However, despite the fact that it appears to be a convoluted method, the outcome is clear: calculating OPS, or on-base plus slugging, may be a rapid way to determine a player’s true contribution to his club. OPS (on-base percentage) is a unique baseball statistic that is explained in detail in this article.
How is OPS Calculated?
OPS is one of those statistics that must be interpreted in conjunction with other data in order to make sense. To compute On-base plus slugging, we’ll need two statistics: first, the number of times a player has reached base.
- Percentage of time spent on base (OBP). It is a cold, hard statistic that measures how many times a player gets on base by any method in comparison to the total number of at-bats they have had throughout their career. It makes no difference how a player gets on base in the OBP game. Were they tainted with something? Walked? Did they make contact? It everything contributes to their overall batting average (OBP)
- Slugging average (SLG). Unlike other stats, this one is a system that measures the quality of a player’s strikes. The batting average of a baseball player, for example, does not tell you how often they hit the ball
- It just tells you how often they scored a hit. SLG includes the quality of those hits into the calculation by including the amount of bases reached as a component of the equation. An individual player might theoretically have a slugging average of 4.000, which would result in an optimum ratio of home runs to at-bats. That is to say, if a player only has one at-bat and hits a home run, his slugging average will be 4.000 points higher than normal. An SLG of 1.000 indicates that a single was hit in a single at-bat, and so on.
Keep in mind that there are some uncommon instances (such as sacrifice flies) that do not count toward at-bats and, as a result, have no meaningful influence on either of these statistics. The terms OBP and SLG are certainly familiar to you; OBP is a rate measure, and SLG is a rate and quality metric. When you combine the two metrics, on-base plus slugging, you get a more complete picture of a player’s ability to smash the ball hard. What is the formula for calculating it? Simply add the two numbers together.
What is a Good OPS in Baseball?
For fans of Major League Baseball, it might be difficult to make sense of how OPS works on sometimes. What does it have to say about the look of the plates? What is the overall quality of the ballpark in which they are playing during the season? What is the total number of bases they have amassed? To obtain a real understanding of what a good OPS is, it’s helpful to first establish a standard of comparison. Here are a few of the top OPS in Major League Baseball history:
- With an OPS of 1.1636, Babe Ruth is the all-time leader
- Mike Trout is among the all-time OPS greats who are still active, with a career average of around 1.0000
- Barry Bonds ranks 4th on the list as of 2020, with an OPS of approximately 1.05
- Lou Gehrig ranks third with an OPS of 1.07
- And Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox is the only other player outside of Babe Ruth who has an OPS of 1.1 or higher over his This is among players who have accumulated at least 3,000 at-bats.
Of course, this only provides us only one end of the range to work with. What about the overall average of the league? A look at the data for Major League Baseball reveals that the league average in on-base plus slugging is often between 0.700 and 0.800.
What is the Highest OPS in Baseball History?
Already, we’ve shown you the player who has the greatest careerOPS, Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees, in our previous post. His 1.1636 OPS over that many at-bats may never be surpassed, putting him in the running for the title of greatest hitter of all time. However, this is merely one method of looking at the stats. Season-to-season comparisons of metrics such as on-base percentage (OPS) are important because they reveal exactly how spectacularly certain players have reached the pinnacle of their careers.
- Babe Ruth, 1920: 1.3791
- Barry Bonds, 2001: 1.3785
- Babe Ruth, 1921: 1.3586
- Babe Ruth, 1923: 1.3089
- Babe Ruth, 2004: 1.4217
- Babe Ruth, 2002: 1.3807
Eventually, Ted Williams enters the picture, having posted the 7th-best offensive season in baseball history.
When Rogers Hornsby appears on the list, it is at the thirteenth position that a fourth player is included.
What about High OPS Seasons in Recent Years?
- Juan Soto of the Washington Nationals had the best OPS in 2020, batting 1.1846 with a 1.1846 on-base percentage. That was good enough for the 25th greatest OPS season in baseball history
- In 2019, Christian Yelich of the Milwaukee Brewers hit 1.1001, which was strong enough for a season in the top 100 of all-time OPS rankings
Are there Better Stats than OPS?
A hitter’s talent can be evaluated by adding up his or her slugging % or slugging average with his or her on-base percentage, which some may argue is a rudimentary method of doing so. However, it is possible that there is more to it than you realize. After all, on-base percentage (OBP) includes at-bats, walks, sacrifice flies, and the number of times a batter is hit by a pitch. Overall, the OPS statistic takes a variety of factors into consideration, including at-bats and total bases. Hits, walks, HBP, and even sacrifice fly are all accounted for in the overall calculation.
This is why many people consider it to be an effective tool to evaluate a batter’s offensive output on a consistent basis.
What about OPS+?
The OPS+ statistic, which takes this statistic and “normalizes” it across the league, is also available. A player’s OPS+ takes into account external factors such as the ballpark in which he or she was hitting. It is calculated such that an OPS of 100 represents the league average, which provides people with an immediate understanding of how a player’s offensive productivity compares to the rest of the team. As a result, the statistics of a Cubs player may differ from those of a Dodgers player, who in turn may differ from the statistics of a Cardinals player or a White Sox player.
When a player is free agent, OPS+ is important because he or she may benefit from primarily playing in a smaller ballpark where it is easier to hit home runs, which can increase his or her value.
The on-base average and slugging percentage, when combined, can provide useful information on a player’s offensive performance in the big leagues. However, like with any other sabermetrics in baseball, it’s not always simple to quantify everything without actually seeing it firsthand in action.
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What is OPS in Baseball? (Detailed Explanation)
We rely on the generosity of our readers. If you make a purchase after clicking on one of our affiliate links, we may receive a commission. In addition, we get commissions from eligible Amazon sales because we are an Amazon affiliate. More and more new statistical categories have been introduced into Major League Baseball in recent years as a result of an effort to better assess nearly every aspect of baseball, from the velocity of a ball flying off a bat to the speed at which thrown balls spin, and much more.
In baseball, what is the OPS (on-base percentage)?
The overall batting average of a batter is calculated by multiplying his or her ability to reach base successfully by another statistic that represents the strength of the batter’s swing.
OBP and SLG are the abbreviations for on-base and slugging percentages, respectively. OBP and SLG are the acronyms for on-base percentages. When you add them all together, you get OPS.
How Do You Calculate OPS?
The mathematical formula is straightforward: OBP (on-base percentage) plus SLG (slugging average) equals OPS. A player’s at-bat value is calculated using this method, which is simple to understand. What I mean is, on average, how much is produced by each at bat? Over the years, the popularity and impact of the OPS category has expanded very moderately in both popularity and influence. It’s essentially a byproduct of a surge in interest in on-base percentage that began in the 1990s with sabermetrics and the publication of the book “Moneyball,” as well as a broader focus by statisticians on what factors most influence the production of runs.
not just all singles, but doubles, triples, and home runs).
An Overview of Baseball’s OPS
Baseball statistics are more popular than statistics for almost every other sport, with the exception of football. Beginning with the introduction of the box score in the late 1880s, newspapers attempted to express all the action of a baseball game in a small printed “box,” with the names of players followed by their exploits in single games. It was a failure, and the box score was scrapped. With the introduction of the new box scores, a limited number of categories were created to track the hitting (and pitching) accomplishments of the players.
The “batting average” of a batter may be calculated by dividing the number of at bats by the number of hits.
However, by the mid-20th century, baseball experts believed they could gain even more insight from the stats.
An summary of the situation:
On-Base Percentage: How Good Batters are at Avoiding Outs
On-base percentage (OBP) dates back to the 1940s, when Brooklyn Dodgers executive Branch Rickey, with the assistance of statistician Allan Roth, developed the concept over a period of several years. Essentially, it is a fundamental indicator of a batter’s ability to reach at least first base when compared to the total amount of at bats he has accumulated. “Getting on base” refers to reaching first base by any methods possible, including base hits, base on balls, and being hit by a pitch. As an example, if a hitter batted 10 times and reached at least first base on each of those ten occasions, his OBP would be 1.000.
For old-time baseball fans who are particularly familiar with batting average, the on-base percentage statistic should be greater than the batting average category, in general (but typically not by a lot).
Obp became increasingly valuable in the 1990s, as new evidence from what is now known as sabermetrics revealed that getting on base is more significant for scoring runs (and hence winning games) than simply having a high batting average during the season.
Though on-base percentage (OBP) was not officially recognized by the Major League Baseball until 1984, it does not imply that clubs did not do the calculations for many years prior to that date.
Slugging Percentage: How Many Bases Per Hit
Over the years, one underappreciated baseball statistic has been “total bases,” which refers to how many total bases a batter has gained as a result of his or her hits. A single base hit earns a hitter one base to count, while a home run earns a batter four bases to count in total. The theory is that the more power and, consequently, extra-base hits a batter generates, the more effective he will be in terms of driving in runs to help his team win a game. A batter’s slugging percentage is the number of bases he or she gets on each at bat.
As an example, if a player hits a home run (worth four bases) but does not hit anything else in his first ten at-bats, his SLG is.400.
Slugging percentages can approach 1.000, and league leaders frequently achieve this level of performance.
OBP vs. SLG in Baseball
When compared to on-base percentage (OBP), the distinction is that SLG only includes base hits, whereas OBP counts base hits as well as walks and hit-by-pitches. Because different types of base hits are weighted differently, the SLG % will almost always be greater than the batting average (AVG) percentage. Essentially, extra-base hits increase the SLG rather than the AVG, which is concerned with how frequently a hitter successfully reaches base regardless of hit type. Calculating a slugging percentage has been around at least since the 1880s, when it was referred to as “total base average,” which is exactly what it is when you think about it.
In the Major Leagues, what is considered a good slugging percentage?
Assuming that the batter’s batting average is around.300, greater SLG values in the range of.400 and.500 indicate that the hitter is slugging well in the field.
Is OPS a Good Stat? Why, and Why Not?
In baseball, the on-base percentage (OPS) is valued because it indicates whether a batter is hitting with power or not. Having a lot of “pop” in the lineup is preferred by baseball managers because it results in more runs (RBIs) than non-power hitting. Fans also appreciate power, to paraphrase a well-known television commercial. It is possible to calculate how frequently a hitter safely reaches first base as well as how many times his hits result in his gaining further bases using the OPS formula.
The term for this is slugging, mashing, or driving the ball in baseball jargon.
Sluggers hit long or extremely hard balls that wreak havoc in the outfield and allow base runners to run amok around the bases in the middle of the game.
They “create” the runs that are required to win baseball games.
To put it another way: Tony Gwynn was a tremendous batter, and Dave Winfield was a fantastic slugger, and they were both greats. Sluggers are similar to batters in terms of power. Overall, the on-base percentage (OPS) is a reliable method of determining how powerful a batter is in baseball.
What is a Good OPS in Baseball?
Anything in the vicinity of a 1.000 OPS is considered excellent. Anything with a score of more than 1.000 is extraordinary. League leaders frequently have winning percentages in excess of 1.000 at the end of the season. This is true for the current season as well. By the middle of June in 2021, three players had an OPS of or better than 1,000: Vladimir Guerrero Jr. (tops the list with 1.089), Jesse Winker, and Nick Castellanos. Ronald Acuna Jr. (.989), Kris Bryant (.959), and Shohei Ohtani (.951), all of whom are stars in the Major League Baseball, were among those who came close to the “very good” threshold.
Can OPS Judge Pitchers, Too?
The answer is yes, but it is employed less frequently than in the case of hitters. It’s referred to as “slugging-percentage against,” and it simply measures how many total bases pitchers allow for each hit. The same is true for “average against,” and so on. Teams are interested in learning which pitchers are most prone to yielding a high number of base hits (avg against), as well as who of those pitchers is allowing the most extra-base hits (SPA). Anything and everything you can think of that may be used to evaluate a baseball player’s performance is being counted and evaluated right now.
Final Words on Baseball’s OPS Statistical Category
There is no one way to assess how well a hitter contributes to the production of runs that enable the team to win a baseball game. Most of the time, it is necessary to take into account more than one measuring instrument, which is essentially what the OPS is. The on-base percentage (OPS) measures how frequently a hitter gets to second base safely, so avoiding outs, while also displaying how many extra-base hits he slugs out. It assesses a hitter’s ability to get on base as well as hit with power, with the latter implying a higher likelihood of producing more runs.
Question:Which batter recorded the highest OPS, both for a season, and lifetime?
Answer:Only batters with a minimum of 3,000 at-bats are included for this career record. Babe Ruth is the all-time leader in on-base percentage (OPS), with 1.1636 during his career. Ruth, Barry Bonds, and Ted Williams each had the top 10 OPS figures in a single season, with Bonds’ 1.4217 in 2004 setting the record for the best single-season OPS total ever. Likewise, Bonds has the No. 2 position with a 1.3807 in 2002, while Ruth had the position with a 1.3791 in 1920.
Q.:Who was the best MLB player for total bases?
A.:Hank Aaron, who has amassed a total of 6,856 total bases over his career. Babe Ruth set the record for most hits in a season with 457 in 1921. To everyone’s surprise, the very next season, Rogers Hornsby broke the National League record for total bases, which remains today, with 450 total bases! Many old-timers believe that total bases is an extremely essential statistic to use in evaluating hitters. (In addition, total bases have a significant role in a batter’s OPS.) Take a look at these more resources: What is the record for the highest-scoring Major League Baseball game in history?
Which batting average is considered to be the best in high school baseball? What is the meaning of L10 in baseball? (Click Here for the Answer) An Overview of the MLB Draft’s Rounds and Number of Picks
Let’s not use OPS any more!
Welcoming the conclusion of the 2015 season! Baseball is a strange sport, which is why the Twins and the Mets are both making strong postseason bids. Baseball is a highly predictable sport, which explains why the Cardinals and Dodgers are performing exceptionally well. Kris Bryant is fantastic, but Alex Rodriguez is as fantastic. That’s about all there is to say about baseball’s first half of the season thus far. Furthermore, we’ve been in what we may call the “sabermetric” period in baseball for perhaps seven to fifteen years.
While certain statistics (wins, saves, etc.) are practically completely meaningless, others are perfectly acceptable and are only waiting to be replaced by measures that are more accurate and more descriptive.
On this day, I’d want to release a quick manifesto on why utilizing OPS isn’t such a good idea, and yet, despite this, it continues to be used.
Please accept my apologies.
Reasons Not To Use OPS: Math
The over-under statistic (OPS), as has been stated previously, is a statistic that is not mathematically valid. The on-base percentage and slugging percentage of a baseball player are added together to create the player’s OPS. These two statistics are extremely helpful in determining how excellent a player is on the attacking end, but they are not supposed to be combined in this manner. The reason behind this is as follows: When it comes to an on-base percentage, the greatest potential score a player can get is 1.000, which signifies that a player gets on base 100 percent of the time when he steps up to the plate for a plate appearance (PA).
The highest conceivable slugging % a player may get is 4.000, which signifies that the player hits a home run on every occasion he steps up to the bat in the game.
This is something that no one accomplishes – a respectable slugging percentage is somewhere around.430.
What we have here are two mixed fractions, and if there’s one thing we learned in middle-school math class, it’s that you can’t truly combine two fractions with different denominators because they have different denominators.
However, this is not the case. If you were to combine these two statistics in any way, you’d want to make sure they were on an equal mathematical footing to begin with. That’s exactly what more effective offensive statistics accomplish in practice.
Reasons Not To Use OPS: Context (or, OBP is more important!)
It’s possible that the most crucial reason not to utilize OPS is that it handles OBP and SLG in the same way as it does SLG. Even if you ignore the flawed mathematical foundations of OPS, it’s easy to see that in 95 percent of circumstances, a player’s on-base percentage will be lower than their slugging percentage. When you combine the two metrics, the slugging % nearly typically accounts for the majority of the value, and men who hit for a lot of power will see an increase in their overall batting average as well.
- Unfortunately, this is not the case.
- That is not to suggest that slugging % – as well as power – are not essential, because they very certainly are!
- In each batting event, we may apply this formula to get the predicted run result.
- To be clear, this does not imply that being on-base is more essential than being powerful.
- Let’s look for a good example from this year!
- This equates to a.317 on-base percentage and a.572 slugging percentage.
- While this is happening, Buster Posey of the Giants has a fantastic.879 OPS on the season.
- Excellent, as well!
- He, on the other hand, is not.
- And that’s even before we take into consideration each player’s home park, and so on.
- That we are no longer need to utilize OPS is the most pleasant aspect of the situation.
In other words, OPS is awful and alternative measures such as wOBA (found at FanGraphs) or True Average (found atBaseball Prospectus) are superior, right? Is that correct?
Reasons To Use OPS: Simplicity
After discussing why OPS is computed in a “poor” method, we must realize that it does have one significant advantage as a result of the calculation: it is quite simple to figure out on your own (which is a huge plus). From nasty math analytics websites to your local TV broadcast, nearly every statistics outlet you look to delivers an on-base percentage and a slugging percentage. These numerals may be found all over the place. In addition, those two statistics are quite simple to generate from raw data, which makes them even more appealing.
- It’s just as simple as adding the two numbers together to get the overall performance score (OPS).
- But how much do you “pay” for a simple response – are you still able to utilize OPS to accurately represent a hitter’s offensive power if you employ a simplified approach?
- While on-base percentage (OPS) may not provide an accurate picture of a player’s offensive ability, it does not lead you too far afield.
- If a player’s on-base percentage (OPS) is low, that player is a poor hitter.
- The middle of the distribution is where OPS suffers the most, not the extremes.
Reasons To Use OPS: Availability
The power of Baseball-Reference gives OPS a significant contextual advantage over other statistics that may be used to estimate a player’s total offensive value: it is the most often utilized statistic in baseball. FanGraphs and Baseball Prospectus are both fantastic statistical tools, but they are likely to remain in the shadow of Sean Forman’s wall of data, which is a statistical monolith of unparalleled proportions. Without intending to be critical of B-R, which is the greatest, I am of the view that it is not the best place to go if you want the clearest, most complete data about modern players and statistical analysis available elsewhere.
In spite of this, I’m not sure there’s a more valuable baseball research tool than B-ubiquitousPlay R’s Index, which is quite simply the best modest purchase any baseball researcher could ever make.
OPS (or OPS+) is one of the few effective methods to use the tool that you have available to you.
That isn’t really a complaint, is it?
Because OPS is utilized on Baseball-Reference, it is more likely to be used in other contexts as well.
Even when I’m writing for publications that aren’t analytical in nature.
This is the most critical point to note: the alternatives to OPS that are now available are really good in today’s world.
Additional factors such as ballpark and league-average are taken into consideration by the algorithm.
It is not one of those numbers that is blatantly false (I’m looking at you, victories), yet it is accurate.
You’ll undoubtedly make a mistake in the calculation – possibly something significant – but you’ll almost certainly get it correctly 75 percent of the time at the very least.
Or, at the very least, it will take longer for them to reach the general public.
When anything like OPS gets used, it is a very, very little victory for science and mathematics.
(However, whatever you do, avoid using the word “wins.”) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Besides being the Lead Writer for Beyond the Box Score, Bryan Grosnick also writes a piece for Baseball Prospectus – Boston. Seriously, avoid using the word “wins.”