Chapter 2 Flashcards
In which one of the following situations is a sagittal plane movement not present? Extension (A), hyperextension (B), lateral flexion (C), and plantar flexion (D). Cardinal frontal plane: This plane splits the body into equal halves. A. the right and left half of a circle. B. the front and rear half of the body. C. the top and bottom half; D. the medial and lateral halves; and E. the middle and lateral halves. What is the axis around which movements in the transverse plane occur? A. mediolateralB.
- transverse D.
- anteroposterior) B.
horizontal A pirouette is performed by a dancer in which plane?
When the hip is distal to the knee, it is said that the hip is superior to the knee.
The hip joint is distal to the knee joint.
An example of rectilinearity is B.
angular or rotationality, and D.
In the context of a curved line, which of the following words best characterizes translational motion?
general Which of the following types of motion is mutually exclusive with each of the other types of motion?
rectilinear motion) C.
Identify which of the following movements is primarily carried out in the sagittal plane.
jogging or jogging-jogging A cartwheel B.
a pirouette D.
The following are examples: A.
The swinging of a baseball bat occurs mostly in one plane, which is the horizontal plane.
obtuse is an abbreviation for obtuse.
elongation and adduction of the limbs C.
adduction and abduction are two terms that are used to describe the process of adduction and abduction.
The following options are available: A, sagittal B, frontal C, transverse, or none of the options above Before the forward swing of the arm is made, the hand holding the ball is dragged behind the body, preparing for an underhand softball pitch.
In order for the hand to be pulled behind the body, which of the following actions happens at the shoulder?
What are transverse plane motions at the shoulder, and which of the following are they?
both A and B in the preceding list Neither A nor B (horizontal abduction and medial rotation) nor D (none of the aforementioned).
inferior A superficial muscle (or muscles) is/are any of the following instances.
proximal Which of the following words best describes the biceps muscle in its entirety?
a combination of the aforementioned elements (palms face forward,erect posture,starting position for describing motion) all of the foregoing What is the position of the elbow when it is in its anatomical position?
More information is required.
none of the options listed above Which joint in the foot is responsible for pronation?
Which of the following is a synonym for internal rotation in the workplace?
external rotation What is the location of the forearm in anatomical position?
NONE OF THE ABOVE (also known as horizontal flexion and occurs in the transverse plane) both ABD Which of the following statements is correct about circumduction?
integrates the movements of flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction in one motion.
rotation is synonymous with the letter B.
both ABD; none of the options above.
and It can be used to describe two-dimensionalorthree-dimensional motion.) both A and B In two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate systems, what unit is used to represent the vertical axis of the coordinate system?
are all characteristics that are unique to 3-D systems.
the frontal perspective C.
According to a movement analyzer, which of the following might be classified as a mechanical system?
the whole of the human body B.
the ball that is projected D.
Medial Posterior C.
anterior (initials) In what language is the motion of moving the foot closer to the lower leg described?
elevation of the shoulder girdle C.
both AB elevation of the shoulder girdle A “no” shake of the head is comprised of which one of the following movements? lateral and medial rotation (A) B. rotation to the left and right C. rotation both internally and externally D. all of the answers provided above are correct.
What Are the Three Planes of Motion?
When you move your body through daily activities (like household chores) or during exercise, it moves in different dimensions. Your body can move forward and backward, side to side, up and down, and it can rotate around itself. These movements are described in exercise settings as occurring in different planes of motion (or planes ofmovement) (or planes ofmovement). By understanding the three planes of motion, you can adjust your fitness training to maximize exercise or sports performance andreduce your risk of injury.
The Three Planes of Motion
There are three planes of motion: the sagittal plane, the frontal plane, and the transverse plane. When standing in the anatomical stance, it’s best to conceive of each plane as an imaginary line or a glass plate that splits the body into opposing parts, which is what each plane represents.
- The sagittal plane divides the body into two sides, one on each side. The frontal plane divides the body into two parts: the front and the rear. The transverse plane divides the body into two sections: the top and bottom.
Consider how a particular movement would interact with those three imaginary lines or plates in order to identify the plane of motion of that movement. When a movement occurs in a plane of motion that is parallel to an imaginary line or plate, the movement is said to be occurring in that plane of motion. The sagittal plane is usually used while going up stairs because the forward and upward movement (flexion) that happens along with the hip, knee, and ankle occurs parallel to an imaginary line that separates the body into right and left halves.
If you turned around to look behind you, the rotational movement would occur in the transverse plane because the rotation of your torso travels parallel to a line that divides the body into two sections: the top section and the bottom section of the body.
The majority of the time, complicated motions take place in many planes of motion at the same time.
Generally speaking, movement that occurs in the sagittal plane occurs either in front of us or behind us. This is most likely the plane of motion that most people are most familiar with because many of our regular day-to-day activities take place right in front of us, within arms reach. Texting, walking, and typing on a computer are all examples of activities that entail movement largely in the sagittal plane. Even a significant portion of our feeding mechanics takes place in the sagittal plane.
- Flexion is a bending action that causes the angle at a joint to decrease in size. Movement that increases the angle at a joint is referred to as extension. Hyperextension is defined as the extension of an angle at a joint beyond its neutral position. Dorsiflexion is the action of bending the ankle such that the top of the foot comes closer to the shin. Plantarflexion is defined as the act of pushing the foot down and away from the body.
Abseiling, lunging, squatting, vertical leaping, jogging, downward dog, and chair position are all examples of workout exercises that take place in the sagittal plane, as well as other variations (in yoga).
The sagittal plane is the plane in which many classic strength training motions occur.
The frontal plane splits the body into two sections: the frontal (anterior) segment and the posterior (posterior) section. Movements that take place in the frontal plane are referred to as lateral or side-to-side motions. These are some examples:
- Abduction is defined as the movement of the body (or the movement of a limb) laterally and away from the midline of the body. Adduction is defined as the movement of the body (or the movement of a limb) towards the midline of the body. Elevation is achieved by raising the scapula (shoulder blades). Movement of the shoulder blades downward
- Depression Eversion is defined as the movement of the foot towards the inner (medial side). Inversion is defined as the movement of the foot towards the outside (lateral side).
Frontal motions are slightly less prevalent than sagittal movements throughout the course of a typical day’s activities. Consider how often you walk forward as opposed to side to side, or how often you reach for something in front of you as opposed to directly out to the side. These are all examples of how you might improve your posture. Side lunges, lateral shoulder lifts, and a side shuffle are examples of exercises that take place on the frontal plane. In the frontal plane, yoga postures such as standing side bends and triangle pose can be performed.
The transverse plane splits the body into two sections: the upper (superior) part and the lower (inferior). The majority of movements that take place in the transverse plane include rotation. For many of us, movement in one plane is less common than movement in the other. In reality, the majority of exercise-related injuries occur during transverse (rotational) motions. The following are examples of transverse plane movements:
- Rotation is defined as the movement of the torso or a limb around its vertical axis. Pronation is defined as the rotation of the forearm or foot to a palm-side or foot-side down posture, respectively. Supination is the act of rotating the forearm or foot to the palm-side up or the foot-side up position. When the upper arm is lifted to 90 degrees, horizontal abduction is achieved by moving the upper arm away from the midline of the body. When the upper arm is lifted to 90 degrees, horizontal adduction is performed by moving the upper arm towards the midline of the body.
Twisting your head to look behind you or turning a doorknob are examples of common behaviors that take place in the anterior plane. Swinging a bat or striking a golf ball are examples of exercises that occur in the transverse plane. Aseated twisting is another example.
Benefits of Training in the Three Planes of Motion
There are a variety of ways in which training in all three planes of motion may assist you in moving more easily in your daily life and athletic activities.
Prepares the Body for Daily Life
In the past, many conventional strength training regimens would concentrate on exercising (mainly) one muscle at a time and in a particular plane of motion, which was not always effective. Bicep curls, for example, may be used to work (mainly) the biceps in the sagittal plane, while a chest fly exercise can be used to work (mostly) the pectoral muscles in the transverse plane, and lateral raises can be used to work the shoulders in the frontal plane, among other things. Nonetheless, complex workouts have grown significantly more popular in recent years.
As a result, training activities become increasingly similar to activities that people engage in every day.
You can accomplish these complicated everyday duties with more ease if you prepare your body for them with compound workouts in the morning and before you start your day.
Prepares the Body for Sport
Aside from that, complex multi-planar motions assist us in preparing for safe and successful athletic performance. Researchers have discovered that many sporting activities need our bodies moving in a variety of directions at rapid speeds and under significant stress. Many studies have found that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, which are among the most prevalent sports injuries, are more likely to occur during multi-planar movements than than single plane movements, which is consistent with the findings of other research.
With exercise, we may assist lessen the likelihood of injury during daily tasks or strenuous sporting competitions by teaching our bodies to perform multi-planar motions safely and effectively.
Movements that are complex and multi-planar also assist us in preparing for safe and successful sports performance. Numerous sporting activities, according to researchers, necessitate our bodies moving in a variety of directions and under great stress. As a matter of fact, multiple studies have found that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, which are among the most prevalent sports injuries, are more likely to occur during multi-planar movements than they are during single-planar ones.
How to Get Started
It is possible that even if you comprehend the concept and value of exercising in the three planes of motion, incorporating it into your exercise regimen will seem difficult at first. Even many workout applications (and even many personal training professionals!) could have trouble distinguishing between the three different directions in which you should do a certain exercise. However, you may still push yourself to move your body in new and interesting directions. One approach to get started is to challenge yourself to perform your favorite exercises in a different position than you are used to.
Rather than doing walking lunges (sagittal plane) to warm up for your run, why not incorporate some side shuffles (frontal plane) into your routine?
When performing a basic bicep curl to train the front of the forearm (sagittal plane), why not add a side step onto a platform (frontal plane) to make it more challenging?
You may also incorporate rotating activities like as a woodchop or ahay baler into your routine to ensure that you’re receiving a varied workout.
Cardinal Planes and Axes of Movement
It is possible that even if you comprehend the concept and significance of exercising in the three planes of motion, incorporating it into your exercise regimen will seem difficult at first. Even many workout applications (and even many personal training professionals!) could have trouble distinguishing between the several planes in which you should do a certain activity. However, you may still push yourself to move your body in new and interesting ways. One approach to get started is to challenge yourself to perform your favorite exercises in a new posture each time you perform them.
Consider adding some side shuffles to your warm-up routine if you normally do walking lunges (sagittal plane) to prepare for your run.
When performing a basic bicep curl to train the front of the forearm (sagittal plane), why not add a side step onto a platform (frontal plane) to make it more challenging.
Optional: If your favorite lunge exercise is the basic lunge, consider including some transverse plane action by rotating your torso at the bottom of the lunge. Adding rotating activities such as a woodchop or ahay baler to your routine will ensure that you receive a variety of workouts.
The Anatomical Position
All motions are based on the anatomical position, which serves as a reference point.
In anatomy, three primary reference planes are used: the sagittal plane, the coronal plane, and the transverse plane.
- The asagittal plane, also known as the longitudinal plane, is perpendicular to the ground and splits the body into two halves, one on each side of the midline. It lies in the midline, i.e. it would pass through the midline structures (e.g. navel or spine), and all other sagittal planes (sometimes referred to asparasagittal planes) are parallel to it, as is the midsagittalormedian plane. It can also apply to the midsagittal plane of other structures, such as a finger, in addition to the human body. The coronal or frontal plane is perpendicular to the ground and divides the body into dorsal (posterior or back) and ventral (anterior or front) portions
- The coronal or frontal plane is perpendicular to the ground and divides the body into dorsal (posterior or back) and ventral (anterior or front) portions
- The coronal or frontal plane is perpendicular to the ground and divides the body into dorsal A transverse plane, also known as anaxial plane or cross-section, is a plane that divides the body into two parts: the cranial (head) portion and the caudal (tail). When viewed from above, it is parallel to the ground, and it divides the superior from the inferior in humans, or, to put it another way, the head from the feet.
This type of plane is used to define the axis along which an action is conducted in anatomical motion descriptions. Moving in the transverse plane allows movement to pass from one end of the body to the other. In the case of a person jumping straight up and then down, their body would be traveling across the transverse plane in both the coronal and sagittal planes, as seen in the illustration.
An axis is a straight line around which an item turns, and it is also known as a pivot. The joint moves in a plane around an axis, which is shown by the arrow. There are three axes of rotation in this system.
- It is produced by the junction of the transverse and sagittal planes and travels horizontally from posterior to anterior
- It is also known as the sagittal axis. The transverse plane is generated by the junction of the frontal and transverse planes. The frontal axis is a horizontal line that runs horizontally from left to right. The vertical axis – which runs vertically from inferior to superior and is produced by the junction of the sagittal and frontal planes – is defined as follows:
A sagittal plane about a frontal axis is formed when the angle between two adjacent body segments increases as the ventral surfaces of those segments move away from one another. Extension occurs when the angle between two adjacent body segments increases as the ventral surfaces of those segments move away from one another. Extension of the thumb, which occurs in a frontal plane along a sagittal axis, is an exception to this rule. It happens in a sagittal plane around a frontal axis and occurs when the angle between two consecutive segments in the body decreases as the ventral surfaces of the segments become more similar to each other.
- Sagittal plane rotation about the frontal axis is defined as: Abduction/Adduction These are rotational movements in the frontal plane about the sagittal axis that require moving a body component away from or towards an imaginary center line in the frontal plane.
- Alternatively, abduction may be defined as the movement of a bodily part over the center line and to the opposite side of the body, as seen in the hip abduction illustration below.
- In addition to the fingers, there are other abduction and adduction motions.
- Bringing the fingers back together is known as adduction, since you are bringing them back to the center line of your body.
- The shoulder and hip are examples of joints that allow for rotation.
- We can also spin our necks and backs because of a variety of smaller joints, such as the atlantoaxial joint, which is a pivot joint in the neck between the first two vertebrae and is responsible for this rotation (C1 and C2).
Internal rotation and external rotation of the hip and shoulder are two different types of rotation (also sometimes known as medial and lateral rotation respectively). The rotation of the transverse (horizontal) plane about the vertical axis is referred to as rotation.
|Coronal / Frontal / Lateral||Bisects the body laterally from side to side, dividing it into front and back halves. Abduction and Adduction movements occur in this plane.|
|Sagittal / Antero-posterior||Bisects the body from front to back, dividing it into left and right halves. Flexion and Extension movements usually occur in this plane.|
|Transverse / Horizontal||Divides the body horizontally into Superior and Inferior halves. Rotational movements usually occur in this plane.|
A sagittal plane about a frontal axis is formed when an angle between two adjacent body segments increases as the ventral surfaces of those segments move away from one another. Extension occurs when the angle between two adjacent body segments increases as the ventral surfaces of those segments move away from one another. With one exception: thumb extension. This occurs in a frontal plane, although it is rotated along a vertical axis. It happens in a sagittal plane along a frontal axis and occurs when the angle between two consecutive segments in the body decreases as the ventral surfaces of the segments become more similar to each other.
Sagittal plane rotation about the frontal axis is represented by the symbol Abduction/Adduction These are rotational motions in the frontal plane along the sagittal axis that require moving a body component away from or towards an imaginary center line in the frontal plane When a bodily part is abducted away from the central line, it is considered to be adducted toward the central line.
- The shoulder and hip are two joints that are capable of both abduction and adduction.
- It is abduction when you splay your fingers and move them apart because they are moving away from their center location.
- Orientation of the frontal plane around the sagittal plane Rotational motions take place in the transverse plane and encompass any twisting motion that takes place.
- Both ball and socket joints are used in this configuration.
- Internal and external rotation of the hip and shoulder are two types of rotation that can occur (also sometimes known as medial and lateral rotation respectively).
In sports, the most often utilized plane is the x-axis, which is generally employed for rotating motions. Consider swinging a baseball bat or making a pivot in a basketball game. Twist the cable in a transverse direction in Exercise One. Even while the transverse cable twist motions train the entire body, they will focus largely on developing the transverse abdominals and obliques, which will allow the body to turn and twist in a more safe manner. In terms of functional strength for real-world movement, Agular believes that there are few few workouts that will translate to reality as well as this one, which he describes as follows: According to him, in order to make the workout as effective as possible, it is necessary to “keep a solid core with a neutral spin.” Prescription Carry out three sets until you reach failure, taking a 30-minute break in between.
The explosiveness you experience during a sprint, according to Agular, comes from your lats and glutes working diagonally during the race.
He strongly advises that you concentrate on rotating near the conclusion of the row to guarantee that you are getting the most out of the movement’s rotational advantages. Prescription Carry out three sets until you reach failure, taking a 30-minute break in between.
This includes motions such as “side to side.” Consider the actions of a baseball player taking the lead from first base or a basketball player side-shuffling to protect a teammate. Bosu Jumps in the Frontal Plane (Exercise 1) The bosu leap in the frontal plane is a fantastic workout for strengthening your lateral system. The quadriceps, glutes, and hamstrings will be strengthened, and your core muscles will be stimulated as a result of this activity. “Jumping on the Bosu will also help you develop a strong center of gravity, but remember to keep your posture in your upper body while doing so in order to preserve correct spinal mobility,” Agular explained.
Speed Skaters (Exercise No.
In addition, Agular advises that you “make use of your torso and twist your body back and forth during the activity.” Prescription Carry out three sets until you reach failure, taking a 30-minute break in between.
This entails the use of flexion and extension movements. Curls, tricep kickbacks, and squats are examples of exercises that are performed in this plane. Exercise No. 1: Squat with a Bosu Ball Although the bosu squat is a simple technique, its benefits should not be overlooked. The movement is quite good in developing a stable center of gravity. – “While doing the action, the bosu will force you to apply equal pressure to both feet, ensuring that you are not placing more weight on one leg than the other,” Agular explains.
Prescription Carry out three sets until you reach failure, taking a 30-minute break in between.
2: Medicine Ball Smackdown The medicine ball slam is an excellent workout for engaging the core, legs, and upper body all at the same time.
When doing the technique, he recommends that you maintain a tight grip on your heels in order to improve core engagement and functioning.
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