## STATS Hosted Solution

Definitions of Baseball Terms | |

% Inherited Scored | A Relief Pitching statistic indicating the percentage of runners on base at the time a relief pitcher enters a game that he allows to score. |

1st Batter OBP | The On-Base Percentage allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces in a game. |

Active Career Batting Leaders | Minimum of 1,000 At Bats required for Batting Average, On-Base Percentage, Slugging Percentage, At Bats Per HR, At Bats Per GDP, At Bats Per RBI, and K/BB Ratio. One hundred (100) Stolen Base Attempts required for Stolen Base Success %. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category’s minimum requirements. |

Active Career Pitching Leaders | Minimum of 750 Innings Pitched required for Earned Run Average, Opponent Batting Average, all of the Per 9 Innings categories, and Strikeout to Walk Ratio. Two hundred fifty (250) Games Started required for Complete Game Frequency. One hundred (100) decisions required for Win-Loss Percentage. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category’s minimum requirements. |

BA ScPos Allowed | Batting Average Allowed with Runners in Scoring Position. |

Baserunners per Nine Innings | These are the hits, walks and hit batsmen allowed per nine innings. |

Bases Loaded | This category shows a player’s batting average in bases loaded situation. |

Batting Average | Hits divided by At Bats. |

Bequeathed Runners | Any runner(s) on base when a pitcher leaves a game are considered bequeathed to the departing hurler; the opposite of inherited runners (see below). |

Blown Saves | This is charged any time a pitcher comes into a game where a save situation is in place and he loses the lead. |

Catcher’s ERA | The Earned Run Average of a club’s pitchers with a particular catcher behind the plate. To figure this for a catcher, multiply the Earned Runs Allowed by the pitchers while he was catching times nine and divide that by his number of Innings Caught. |

Cheap Wins/Tough Losses/Top Game Scores | First determine the starting pitcher’s Game Score as follows: |

- Start with a number of 50
- The starting pitcher gets one point for every strikeout he records
- After the fourth inning, add 2 points for each additional inning the pitcher goes on to complete. For each strikeout, add one point to your total. For each hit that is permitted, deduct two points. For each earned run that is permitted, subtract 4 points. Add 2 points to account for an unearned run. For each stroll, deduct one point from your total.

Cleanup Slugging% | The Slugging Percentage of a player when batting fourth in the batting order. |

Clutch | This category shows a player’s batting average in the late innings of close games: the seventh inning or later with the batting team ahead by one, tied, or has the tying run on base, at bat or on deck. |

Complete Game Frequency | Complete Games divided by Games Started. |

Defensive Batting Average | A composite statistic incorporating various defensive statistics to arrive at a number akin to batting average. The formula uses standard deviations to establish a spread from best to worst. |

Earned Run Average | (Earned Runs times 9) divided by Innings Pitched. |

Fast-A | Otherwise known as “Advanced A,” these A-level minor leagues are the California League, Carolina League and Florida Stat League. |

Favorite Toy | The Favorite Toy is a method that is used to estimate a player’s chance of getting to a specific goal in the following example, we’ll say 3,000 hits.Four things are considered: |

- Needed Hits – the number of hits required to get the desired result. (Of course, this could also be “Need Home Runs” or “Need Doubles” – whatever you choose to call it.)
- Years Remaining in the Contract. The formula 24-.6 is used to estimate the number of years that will be required to achieve the target (age). As a result of this approach, players under the age of 20 have 12.0 seasons left on their contract. Players under the age of 25 have nine seasons left on their contract, players under 30 have 6.0 seasons left on their contract, and players over 35 have just three season left on their contract. Any athlete who is currently actively participating in competitive sports is presumed to have at least 1.5 seasons left, regardless of his or her age. Hit Level has been established. For 1996, the established hit level would be calculated by multiplying 1993 hits by two times 1994 hits by three times 1995 hits by six, and then dividing the result by six. In order to be eligible, a player must have an established performance level that is more than three-fourths of his or her most recent performance level—for example, a player who had 200 hits in 1995 cannot have an established hit level lower than 150 hits. Hits that are expected to be made in the future. This is calculated by multiplying the second number (the number of ears left) by the third number (the established hit level)

Once you have obtained the projected remaining hits, the probability of achieving the objective is calculated as (projected remaining hits) divided by (require hits), minus.5. If your “require hits” and your “projected remaining hits” are the same, you have a 50 percent probability of achieving your target using this technique of calculation. If your anticipated remaining hits are 20 percent greater than your required hits, you have a 70 percent probability of achieving your target in time. There are two specific rules, as well as a note:

- The probability of a player continuing to develop toward a goal cannot be more than.97 per year. For example, a player cannot calculate that they have a 148 percent probability of completing their goal because this is against the rules.)
- The possibility of a player continuing to develop toward the objective cannot be more than.75 each season if his offensive winning percentage is below.500 throughout the season. If a below-average batter is two years away from attaining a goal, his likelihood of accomplishing that objective cannot be proved to be better than nine-sixteenths of a percent, or three-fourths times three-fourths, no of his age.
- Rather of using actual figures from a complete season of play, we utilized predicted metrics for 1994 and 1995.

Fielding Percentage | (Putouts plus Assists) divided by (Putouts plus Assists plus Errors). |

First Batter Efficiency | This statistic tells you the batting average allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces. |

GDP per GDP Situation | A GDP situation exists any time there is a man on first with less than two outs. This statistic measures how often a player grounds into a double play in that situation. |

Go-Ahead RBI | Any time a player drives in a run which gives his team the lead, he is credited with a go-ahead RBI. |

Ground/Fly Ratio (Grd/Fly) | Simply a hitter’s ground balls divided by his fly balls. All batted balls except line drives and bunts are included. |

Hold | A Hold is credited any time a relief pitcher enters a game in a Save Situation (see definition below), records at least one out, and leaves the game never having relinquished the lead.Note: a pitcher cannot finish the game and receive credit for a Hold, nor can he earn a hold and a save. |

Inherited Runner | Any runner(s) on base when a relief pitcher enters a game are considered “inherited” by that pitcher. |

Isolated Power | Slugging Percentage minus Batting Average. |

K/BB Ratio | Strikeouts divided by Walks. |

LateClose | A LateClose situation meets the following requirements: |

- During the seventh inning or later, the batting side is either up by one run, tied, or has a possible tying run on base, at the plate, or on deck
- The game is over

Leadoff On Base% | The On-Base Percentage of a player when batting first in the batting order. |

No Decision (ND) | The result when a starter is credited with neither a win nor a loss. |

OBP+SLUG (OPS) | On-base percentage plus slugging percentage. |

Offensive Winning Percentage (OWP) | The Winning Percentage a team of nine Fred McGriffs (or anybody) would compile against average pitching and defense. The formula: (Runs Created per 27 outs) divided by the League average of runs scored per game. Square the result and divide it by (1+itself). |

On Base Percentage | (Hits plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher) divided by (At Bats plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies). |

Opponent Batting Average | Hits Allowed divided by (Batters Faced minus Walks minus Hit Batsmen minus Sacrifice Hits minus Sacrifice Flies minus Catcher’s Interference). |

Outfielder Hold Percentage | A statistic used to evaluate outfielders’ throwing arms. “Hold Percentage” is computed by dividing extra bases taken (by baserunners) by the number of opportunities. For example, if a single is lined to center field with men on first and second, and one man scores while the other stops at second, that is one extra base taken on two opportunities, a 50.0 hold percentage. |

PA* | The divisor for On Base Percentage: At Bats plus Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies; or Plate Appearances minus Sacrifice Hits and Times Reached Base on Defensive Interference. |

PCS (Pitchers’ Caught Stealing) | The number of runners officially counted as Caught Stealing where the initiator of the fielding play was the pitcher, not the catcher. Note: such plays are often referred to as pickoffs, but appear in official records as Caught Stealings. The most common pitcher caught stealing scenario is a 1-3-6 fielding play, where the runner is officially charged a Caught Stealing because he broke for second base. Pickoff (fielding play 1-3 being the most common) is not an official statistic. |

Percentage of Pitches Taken | This tells you how often a player lets a pitch go by without swinging. |

Percentage of Swings Put In Play | This tells you how often a player hits the ball into fair territory, or is retired on a foul-ball out, when he swings. |

Pickoffs (Pk) | The number of times a runner was picked off base by a pitcher. |

Pivot Percentage | The number of double plays turned by a second baseman as the pivot man, divided by the number of opportunities. |

PkOf Throw/Runner | The number of pickoff throws made by a pitcher divided by the number of runners on first base. |

Plate Appearances | At Bats plus Total Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Hits plus Sacrifice Flies plus Times Reached on Defensive Interference. |

Power/Speed Number | A way to look at power and speed in one number. A player must score high in both areas to earn a high Power/Speed Number.The formula: (HR x SB x 2) divided by (HR + SB). |

Quality Start | Any start in which a pitcher works six or more innings while allowing three or fewer earned runs. |

Quick Hooks and Slow Hooks | A Quick Hook is the removal of a pitcher who has pitched less than 6 innings and given up 3 runs or less. A Slow Hook occurs when a pitcher pitches more than 9 innings, or allows 7 or more runs, or whose combined innings pitched and runs allowed totals 13 or more. |

Range Factor | The number of Chances (Putouts plus Assists) times nine divided by the number of Defensive Innings Played. The average for a Regular Player at each position in 1997: |

- 5.00 points for second base, 2.67 points for third base, 4.56 points for shortstop, and 1.99 points for left field, 2.55 points for center field, and 2.06 points for right field.

Relief Points (Pts) | Wins plus saves minus losses |

Run Support Per 9 IP | The number of runs scored by a pitcher’s team while he was still in the game times nine divided by his Innings Pitched. |

Runs Created | A way to combine a batter’s total offensive contributions into one number. The formula:(H + BB + HBP – CS – GIDP) times (Total Bases +.26(TBB – IBB + HBP) +.52(SH + SF + SB)) divided by (AB + TBB + HBP + SH + SF). |

Runs/Times on Base | This is calculated by dividing Runs Scored by Times on Base |

Save Percentage | Saves (SV) divided by Save Opportunities (OP). |

Save Situation | A Relief Pitcher is in a Save Situation when upon entering the game with his club leading, he has the opportunity to be the finishing pitcher (and is not the winning pitcher of record at the time), and meets any one of the three following conditions: |

- He enters the game with a lead of no more than three runs and has the opportunity to pitch for at least one inning, or he enters the game with the potential tying run on base, at bat, or on deck, regardless of the count, or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save
- Or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save

SBA | Stolen-base attempts against a catcher |

SB Success% | Stolen Bases divided by (Stolen Bases plus Caught Stealing). |

Secondary Average | A way to look at a player’s extra bases gained, independent of Batting Average. The formula:(Total Bases – Hits + TBB + SB) divided by At Bats. |

Slow-A | Otherwise known as “Regular A,” these full-season minor leagues contain less-experienced professional players. The Slow-A leagues are the Midwest League and South Atlantic League (Sally). |

Slugging Percentage | Total Bases divided by At Bats. |

Stolen Base Percentage Allowed | This figure indicates how successful opposing baserunners are when attempting a stolen base. It’s stolen bases divided by stolen-base attempts. |

Times on Base | Hits plus walks plus hit by pitch |

Total Bases | Hits plus Doubles plus (2 times Triples) plus (3 times Home runs). |

Win-Loss Percentage or Winning Percentage | Wins divided by (Wins plus Losses). |

Zone Rating | Simply the percentage of balls fielded by a player in his typical defensive “zone,” as measured by STATS reporters. |

Formulas and Definitions | |

PA | AB + BB + HBP + SF + SH + defensive interference |

PA* | AB + BB + HBP + SF |

Total Bases | |

AVG | H/AB |

OBP | (H + BB = HBP)/(AB + BB + HBP + SF) |

SLG | TB/AB |

Breakdown Categories | |

Ahead/Behind in Count | For hitters, ahead in count includes 1-0, 2-0, 3-0, 2-1 and 3-1. Behind in count for hitters includes 0-1, 0-2, 1-2 and 2-2. The opposite is true for pitchers. |

Day/Night | Officially, night games in the National League are those that start after 5:00 pm, while night games in the AL begin after 6:00 pm. Therefore, a game at 5:30 in Yankee Stadium is a day game while one in Shea Stadium at the same time is a night game. We avoid this silliness by calling all games starting after 5:00pm night games. |

First Pitch | Refers to the first pitch of a given at bat, and any walks listed here are intentional walks. |

Grass/Turf | Grass is grass. Turf is artificial turf. |

Groundball/Flyball Ratio | A hitter’s stats against pitchers that induce mostly grounders or flies, respectively. If the ratio is less than 1.00, then he is a Flyball hitter. If it is greater than 1.50, he is a Groundball hitter. Anything else is classified as neutral. Same cutoffs apply for classifying pitchers. Anyone with less than 50 plate appearances is automatically neutral. |

First Inning Pitched | Describes the result of the pitcher’s work until he recorded three outs. |

Inning 1-6 and Inning 7+ | These refer to the actual innings in which a pitcher worked. |

None On/Out | Refers to situation when there are no outs and the bases are empty (generally leadoff situations). |

None On/Runners On | Describes the status of the baserunners |

Number of Pitches | This section shows the results of balls put into play while his pitch count was in that range. |

Pitcher/Batter Match-Ups | The following conditions must be met before a player is added to the list: |

- For a batter to be considered a “Hits Best Against” candidate, there must be at least 10 plate appearances between him and the pitcher
- And for a pitcher to be considered a “Pitches Best Against” candidate, the batter must have a.300 batting average against the pitcher, and the pitcher must limit the batting average of the batter to under.250.

Scoring Position | At least one runner must be at either second or third base. |

Vs. 1st Batr (Relief) | Describes what happened to the first batter a reliever faces. |

## Baseball Abbreviations

Tony Gwynn had another outstanding season in 1997, with 592 at-bats and 220 strikeouts, and an avg of.372, which was the best in the National League. Which of these abbreviations do all of these letters stand for? The Baseball Almanac is glad to give a standard collection of acronyms that are seen and used in print on a regular basis in the sport of baseball.

## Baseball Stats

Baseball Abbreviations 101Offensive Abbreviations for Statistics | |

ABBBAVGCS2BGIDP GRSLHBPHHRRHRIBBISO LOB OBPOPSRRBISFSHSSLGSB%SBRSBSOTB3B | At BatsBases on Balls (Walks)Batting AverageCaught StealingDoublesGround into Double Plays Grand SlamsHit by PitchHitsHome Run RatioHome RunsIntentionalBasesonBalls(Walks)Isolated Power Left on Base On-Base PercentageOn-Base Plus SluggingRunsRuns Batted InSacrifice FliesSacrifice Hits (Bunts)SinglesSlugging PercentageStolen Base PercentageStolen Base RunsStolen BasesStrikeoutsTotal BasesTriples |

Pitching Abbreviations for Statistics | |

AOBB BFPBKCBOCGCGLERERAGFGOGOAOGPGSHHBPHRIBBIPIRAIPSLMB9OBAPARRPFRWS/SHOSOSVSVOTBWWP | Fly Outs (Air)Walks (Bases on Balls) Batters Facing PitcherBalksCombined ShutoutComplete GamesComplete Game LossesEarned RunsEarned Run AverageGames FinishedGround OutsGround Outs / Fly Outs RatioGames PlayedGames StartedHitsHit BattersHome RunsIntentional WalksInnings PitchedInherited Runs AllowedInnings Per StartLossesBaserunners Per 9 InningsOpponents’ Batting AveragePlate AppearancesRunsRelief FailuresRelief WinsShutoutsStrikeoutsSavesSave OpportunitiesTotal BasesWinsWild Pitches |

Defensive Abbreviations for Statistics | |

ACSDPEGPOFAPBPKPOSBTCTP | AssistsCaught StealingDouble PlaysErrorsGames PlayedOutfield AssistsPassed BallsPickoffsPutoutsStolen Bases Total ChancesTriple Plays |

Miscellaneous Abbreviations for Statistics | |

ML SER | Major League Service |

Baseball Stats Abbreviations 101 |

The “common” set has several variations (DO Doubles, TR Triples, etc.), but these are the ones that are regarded “official” and are the ones that are used here at Baseball Almanac, among other places. Did you know that the National Association (a non-official league that gave rise to the National Leagueofficial )’s statistics were destroyed in a fire in the early 1900’s? Major League Baseball organized a Special Baseball Records Committee in the 1960s to examine the irregular records that had been kept previous to the 1920 season.

## Basic Baseball Stats Abbreviations

This “common” set has several variations (DO Doubles, TR Triples, etc.), but these are the ones that are regarded “official” and are the ones that are used here at Baseball Almanac, among other places. Did you know that the National Association (a non-official league that gave rise to the National Leagueofficial )’s statistics were destroyed in a fire in the 1920s and 1930s? It was founded by Major League Baseball in the 1960s to look into the irregular records that had been kept before to the 1920 season.

## Offensive Statistics Abbreviations

Batting practice is in session, so get ready to swing! The anticipation of seeing a hitter make his way from the strike zone to the infield is one of the most enjoyable aspects of the game. When a hitter or runner attempts to put points on the board, the following abbreviations are used to indicate their position.

### Batting Abbreviations

What is the difference between an AB and a BA for a batter? With the help of these abbreviations, you may become an expert in batting terminology and statistics.

- A total of 1BorS is a single
- A total of 2B is a double
- A total of 3B is a triple
- A total of AB is a total of at bats
- An AB/HR is a total of at bats per home run. AO- Airplane Takeoffs and Landings
- BAorAVG is the batting average
- BAorAVG is the batting average
- Bases on Balls (Walks)
- BB- Bases on Balls (Walks)
- In baseball, BABIP is for Batting Average on Balls in Play. In baseball, BB/K stands for Batting Average on Strikeouts. BRorBsR- Base Runs
- BRorBsR- Base Runs EQA is an abbreviation for Equivalent Average. Ground into Double Plays (GIDP) are a type of ground into double play. Ground Balls to Fly Balls
- GO/AO- Ground Balls to Fly Balls
- GSorGRSL- Grand Slams
- H- Hits
- HBP- Hit by Pitch
- GSorGRSL- Grand Slams
- HRR is an abbreviation for Home Run Ratio
- HR is an abbreviation for Home Runs
- HR/H is an abbreviation for Home Runs per Hit. Home Run within the park, abbreviated as ITPHR
- ISO is an abbreviation for Isolated Power
- KorSO is an abbreviation for Strikeouts
- And OBP is an abbreviation for On-Base Percentage. OPS stands for On-Base Plus Slugging
- PA stands for Plate Appearance
- PA/SO stands for Plate Appearances per Strikeout
- RBI stands for Runs Batted In
- RC stands for Runs Created. RISP stands for Runner in Scoring Position
- RP stands for Runs Produced
- SF stands for Sacrifice Flies
- SH stands for Sacrifice Hits (bunts)
- SLG stands for Slugging Average
- TA stands for Total Average
- TB stands for Total Bases
- TOB stands for Times on Base
- XBH stands for Extra Base Hits.

### Baserunning Abbreviations

What happens now when the hitter has reached second base? An individual’s SB percentage becomes extremely essential while examining his or her possibilities at second base, for example. Take a look at these acronyms that might help you forecast if a runner will remain put or try to take the ball from you.

- CS stands for Caught Stealing
- DI stands for Defensive Indifference
- LOB stands for Left on Base (Runners)
- R stands for Runs
- SB stands for Stolen Bases. SB percent stands for Stolen Base Percentage
- SBAorATT stands for Stolen Base Attempts
- SBR stands for Stolen Base Runs
- And UBR stands for Ultimate Base Running.

## Defense Statistics Abbreviations

A high-quality pitcher has the ability to influence the flow and outcome of a baseball game.

An inexpensive pitcher, on the other hand, can accomplish the same result. See how the statistics of fielders and pitchers may have an impact on a baseball team’s infield and outfield defense.

### Fielding Abbreviations

What distinguishes a first baseman as one worth keeping an eye on? What about a left fielder or right fielder? With the help of these acronyms, you may get more familiar with fielding statistics.

- A stands for assists
- CI stands for Catcher’s Interference
- DP stands for double plays
- E stands for errors
- FP stands for Fielding Percentage
- GP stands for games played. The following terms are used in baseball: INN-innings (in a certain position)
- OFA-outfield assists
- PB-passed balls
- PK-pickoffs
- PO-putouts
- TC-total chances (assists plus putouts + errors)
- TP-triple plays
- UZR-ultimate zone rating.

### Pitching Abbreviations

Pitching statistics have the ability to make or break a team’s defensive performance. Examine the following baseball acronyms to determine what is desirable – and what is unsafe – in a pitching bullpen.

- BB- Bases on Balls
- BB/9- Bases on Balls per nine innings
- BF- Batters Faced
- BB/9- Bases on Balls per nine innings BFP stands for Batters Facing the Pitcher. Balks (illegal pitching actions)
- BK- Balks (Balks (Illegal Pitching Actions)
- BS stands for Blown Save. CERA is for Component ERA
- CBO stands for Combined Shutout
- CG stands for Complete Games
- CGL stands for Complete Game Losses
- DICE stands for Defense-Independent Component ERA. ER is for Earned Runs
- ERA stands for Earned Run Average. GorGP- Games have been pitched
- GF- Games have been completed. Double Plays or Double Play Groundouts Induced
- GIDPO- Double Play Opportunities
- GIDP- Double Plays or Double Play Groundouts Induced GIR stands for Games in Relief. GO- Ground Outs
- GO/AO- Ground Outs to Fly Outs
- GO/AO- Ground Outs to Fly Outs GS stands for Games Started
- FIP stands for Fielding Independent Pitching. HorHA stands for Hits Allowed
- H/9orHA/9 stands for Hits Allowed over 9 Innings
- HBorHBP stands for Hit Batters
- HLDorH stands for Hold
- HRorHRA stands for Home Runs Allowed. IR- Inherited Runners
- IRA- Inherited Runs Allowed
- K- Strikeouts
- K/9orSO/9- Strikeouts per nine innings
- L- Losses (while pitching)
- BB- Balls on Bases
- IPS- Innings Per Start
- IBBorIW- Intentional Walks
- IP/GS- Innings Pitched Per Games Started
- IP/GS- Innings Pitched per Games Started LOB is an abbreviation for Left on Base
- LOB percent is an abbreviation for Left on Base Percentage
- OBA is an abbreviation for Opponents’ Batting Average. The pitch count and strike count inside those pitches are denoted by the letters PC-ST. PIT or NP-Pitch Count
- MB9-Baserunners Per 9 Innings
- PIT or NP-Pitch Count
- PFR is the Power Finesse Ratio (the sum of strikeouts and walks divided by the number of innings pitched). QOP is for Quality of Pitch
- QS stands for Quality Start. RA is for Run Average (number of runs allowed over nine innings)
- RPF stands for Relief Failures
- RW stands for Relief Wins. Shutouts
- S/SHO- Shutouts SIERA (Skill-Interactive Earned Run Average) is an acronym that stands for Skill-Interactive Earned Run Average. A combination of K/SO and strikeouts. SV- Saves
- SVO- Save Opportunities
- W- Wins
- W+S- Relief Wins and Saves
- SV- Saves
- SVO- Save Opportunities WHIP is the number of walks and hits allowed per inning pitched. WP stands for Wild Pitches.

## NERD Statistics

When it comes to baseball acronyms, the acronym NERD may come up in conversation. NERD is an abbreviation for Narration, Exposition, Reflection, and Description, which is a word used in abermetrics. In its simplest form, it is a mathematical formula that evaluates the aesthetic worth of seeing a pitcher (pNERD) or a team (tNERD) play baseball based on a variety of performance measures.

- Grades 8 through 12 are divided into four categories: middle school, high school, and college.

### Related Articles

- Baseball Position Abbreviations and Numbers (Baseball Positions) A baseball position list may be quite useful while studying the game of baseball or when attempting to solve a baseball crossword puzzle puzzle hint. In baseball, the different player positions are sometimes reduced and replaced with standardized numbers in order to make calling and scoring a game more efficient
- For example, Baseball Abbreviations for the Scoreboard and Scorecard Baseball scorecards are used by everyone from Little League umpires to Major League umpires to baseball spectators to keep track of all the activity during a game of baseball. If you want to be able to write or read a baseball scorecard, you’ll need to start by being familiar with all of the standard baseball scorecard acronyms and symbols.

## MLB Baseball Abbreviations Legend

MLB Abbreviations and Symbols

Heading | Explanation | Position | Explanation |

W / L | Wins / Losses | C | Catcher |

ATS | Record Against The Spread | 1B | First Base |

Slug | Slugging Percentage | 2B | Second Base |

Ho | Home record | 3B | Third Base |

Aw | Away Record | SS | Short Stop |

O/U | Over/Under Record | LF | Left Field |

AF | Average Runs For | CF | Center Field |

AA | Average Runs Against | RF | Right Field |

BA | Batting Average | DH | Designated Hitter |

SLG | Slugging Percentage | SP | Starting Pitcher |

HR | Home Runs For | RP | Relief Pitcher |

ERA | Earned Run Average | ||

OBP | On Base Percentage | ||

Home-Away | Home Score – Away Score | ||

H Starter | Home Starter in that particular game | ||

A Starter | Away Starter in that particular game | ||

LOB:R | Left On Base to Runs ratio | ||

OPS | Slugging Percentage + On Base Percentage | ||

AVG | Batting Average for that game | ||

Starter | Team’s Starter for that game | ||

IP | Innings the starter pitched | ||

Opp Starter | Innings the starter pitched | ||

H | Hits Allowed by the starter | ||

R | Runs Allowed by the starter | ||

ER | Earned Runs Allowed by the starter | ||

SO | Strikeouts by the starter | ||

BB | Base on Balls allowed by the starter | ||

PIT | Total Pitches by the starter | ||

P/IP | Pitches divided by the number of Innings Pitched | ||

G/F | Number of Ground Ball outs divided by the Fly Ball outs | ||

OBA | Opposition Batting Average | ||

WHIP | Walks and Hits per Inning Pitched | ||

GB:FB | Ground Ball to Fly Ball Ratio | ||

SB | Stolen Bases | ||

CS | Caught Stealing | ||

SB% | Stolen Base Percentage | ||

QS% | Quality Start Percentage | ||

TWL | Team Win – Team Loss | ||

W/L% | Winning Percentage | ||

vs. R | vs. Right-handed Pitchers | ||

vs. L | vs. Left-handed Pitchers | ||

Start | Starters | ||

Rel | Relievers | ||

R/9 | Runs per nine innings | ||

K | Strikeouts | ||

Doub | Doubles | ||

Trip | Triples | ||

$ | Units Won or Lost | ||

Line | Line for the game | ||

$ Won | Units Won | ||

$ Loss | Units Lost |

## CEB Abbreviations

ANALYSIS STATISTICS | |

Avg against left-handed pitchers | |

Avg against right-handed pitchers | |

Avg whenleading off an inning | |

Avg whenbatting with 2 outs | |

Avg whenbatting with runners on base | |

Avg whenbatting with bases empty | |

Avg whenbatting with runners on 2nd or 3rd base | |

Number of groundouts (includes SACs, but not errors) | |

Number of fly outs(incudes SFs, but not errors) | |

Fly outs to groundouts ratio | |

Avg as pinch hitter | |

with runners in scoring pos | Avg whenbatting with runners in scoring positions |

w/rnr on 3rd and LT 2 outs | Avg whenbatting with runner on third base and less than 2 outs |

Avg whenbatting with 2 outs | |

Runs batted in with 2 outs | |

Success advancing runners | |

Number of timesbatter made an out and advanced at least 1 runner | |

Number of runnersleft on base by last batter of inning | |

Reach first base on error | |

Reach first base on fielder’s choice | |

Strikeouts look |

## Baseball Stats Glossary

Assists (A) | Number of times a defensive player assisted on an out. Not counted if the play results in an error. Example: Batter hits a ball to the shortstop who throws to first base, where the batter is out. The shortstop gets an assist. |

At Bat (AB) | Number of times a player has been up to bat. Not counting the times the plate appearance resulted in a walk, hit by pitch, sacrifice bunt, or sacrifice fly. |

Batting Average (AVG) | Number of base hits per at bat. Naturally, a higher number is better. Formula: (Base Hits) / (At Bats) |

Bats (B) | From the pitchers view, which side of the plate the batter stands. |

Base On Balls (BB) | When a batter is awarded first base as a result of four balls being pitched outside the strike zone. Note: Intentional walks IBB are also included here. |

Bench (BCH) | Lineup position for player who showed up for the game but did not get any play time. |

Batters Faced (BF) | Number of batters who made a plate appearance before the pitcher. |

Balks (BK) | Penalty for an illegal movement by the pitcher. The rule is designed to prevent pitchers from deliberately deceiving the runners. If called, baserunners advance one base. |

Complete Games (CG) | When a starting pitcher records all 27 outs. Game may end in a win or a loss. |

Catcher Interference (CI) | When a catcher intentionally or inadvertently physically hinders a batter from the opportunity to legally swing at a pitched ball, and for which the catcher is charged an error. |

Caught Stealing (CS) | A runner is caught stealing when, during an errorless play, he is: thrown out while trying to steal a base picked off a base while trying to advance overslides while stealing and is put out |

Caught Stealing Percentage (CS%) | Percentage of players put out while trying to steal a base. Formula: Caught Stealing / (Caught Stealing + Stolen Bases Allowed) |

Doubles (2B) | Number of hits that resulted in the batter reaching second base. |

Double Plays (DP) | When one continuing play results in two outs. |

Designated Player (DP) | Player designated to bat only for one of the 9 starting defensive players. |

Error (E) | When a fielder misplays a ball hit at him, which under normal circumstances would result in an out. |

Earned Runs (ER) | Any run that is directly attributable to the pitcher. |

Earned Run Average (ERA) | Represents the average number of runs given up by a pitcher during a game. Formula: (Earned Runs x Innings Per Game) / (Innings Pitched) |

Extra Player (EP) | Player added to lineup who bats as a 10th player in the linuep. |

Fielding Percentage (FLD%) | Number of attempts that resulted in an out compared to the number of total attempts. Formula: (Putouts + Assists) / (Putouts + Assists + Errors) |

Flexible Player (FLEX) | Player chosen to play defense for the designated player. |

Games (G) | Number of games the player has played in. |

Games Started (GS) | Number of games a player was in the lineup when the first pitch was thrown. |

Hits or Hits Against (H) | Number of hits a batter safely reaches a base on not including walks or sacrifices. For pitchers, the number of hits given up while pitching. |

Hit By Pitch (HBP) | Number of times a batter is struck by a pitch. |

Home Runs (HR) | Number of hits that resulted in a home run. |

Intentional Base On Balls (IBB) | When a pitcher intentionally throws four pitches far outside the strike zone to walk the batter. Note: IBBs are included in the BB total. |

Innings Pitched/Played (INN) | Cumulative number of innings (including fractional innings) pitched/played by a pitcher/fielder. A full inning pitched is 3 outs. A pitcher relieved after one out is represented by.1. After two outs is.2. |

Losses (L) | Number of games a particular pitcher’s performance resulted in a loss. |

Number (No) | The players number for easy recognition by fans. Generally on the jersey of the player. |

Opponent Batting Average (OBA) | Percentage of hits against a pitcher. Formula: (Hits) / (Batters Faced)-(Walks+HBP+Sac Flies+Sac Bunts+Catcher Interference) |

On Base Percentage (OBP) | Represents the number of times the player reaches base compared to the number of plate appearances. The higher the number the better. Formula: (Hits + Walks + Times Hit by Pitch) / (At Bats + Walks + Times Hit by Pitch + Sacrifice Flys) |

On Base Plus Slugging (OPS) | On-base percentage plus slugging percentage. See OBP, above, and SLG, below, for definitions |

Plate Appearances (PA) | Number of times a batter faces a pitcher, regardless of outcome. Formula: At Bats + Walks + Times Hit by Pitch + Sacrifice Bunts + Sacrifice Flys |

Passed Balls (PB) | Number of times a ball thrown by the pitcher was not handled by a catcher and resulted in a base runner advancing. |

Pitch Count (PC) | The total number of pitches a pitcher has thrown. |

Put Outs (PO) | Number of times a defensive player was the final player in a play, which resulted in an out. |

Position (Posn) | Any one of nine available field locations. |

Reached On Error (ROE) | When a batter reaches base due to defensive error when under normal circumstances the batter would have clearly been out. Counts as an at bat but not as a hit. |

Runs (R) | Number of times a batter crosses home plate. |

Runs Batted In (RBI) | Number of runners a batter moves across home plate resulting from his hit, walk or sacrifice. |

Sacrifice Bunts (SacB) | When a bunt results in the current base runner advancing a base and an out for the batter. |

Sacrifice Flies (SacF) | There must be fewer than 2 outs. The ball must be hit to the outfield. The batter is out – ball is caught on a fly. A runner on base scores on the play and the ball is caught. (The batter gets an RBI. The base runner gets a Run Scored. The Sacrifice Fly is not counted as an official At Bat. The Fielder gets credited with a Put Out.) |

Stolen Bases (SB) | Number of times a base runner successfully advances to the next base without the help of the hitter. |

Stolen Bases Allowed (SBA) | Number of times a catcher allows a base runner to steal a base. |

Shut Outs (SHO) | When a starting pitcher leaves the game without surrendering a run and is given a win for his performance. |

Slugging Percentage (SLG) | Total number of bases a batter reaches divided by at bats. |

Strike Out (SO) | Number of times a batter swings and misses on three pitches. |

Saves (SV) | Number of times a relief pitcher finishes a game where the potential tying or winning run is on base, at home plate or in the on-deck circle. Also the number of times a relief pitcher pitches the final three innings of a win; or the number of times a reliever pitches one inning or more in which he protects a lead of three runs or less. |

Save Opportunities (SVO) | Number of times a relief pitcher enters a game in which one of the three situations under the definition of a save presents itself. |

Throws (T) | Hand in which the player throws the ball while fielding or pitching. |

Total Bases (TB) | Total number of bases a batter has reached. |

Total Chances (TC) | Putouts plus assists plus errors; total chances offered, not total chances accepted. |

Team (TEAM) | Team in which the player is currently on or was once a member of. |

Triple Plays (TP) | When one continuing play results in three outs. |

Triples (TR) | Number of hits that resulted in the batter reaching third base. |

Wins (W) | Number of games that resulted in a win for a pitcher or a team. |

WalksHits per Inning Pitched (WHIP) | Average number of walks and hits allowed by the pitcher per inning. Formula: (Hits + Walks) / Innings |

Wild Pitches (WP) | Number of times a pitcher threw a ball, which was not handled by the catcher and resulted in a base runner advancing. |

Year (YEAR) | When the stats were recorded. |

## Baseball statistics – BR Bullpen

Baseball statistics are extremely essential, probably more so than in any other sport. Because the game of baseball has a fairly ordered flow to it, it lends itself to easy record keeping and statistical analysis, which is advantageous. As a result, it is relatively simple to make comparisons between players’ on-field performances, and as a result, baseball statistics are given greater importance than they are in most other sports.

## Development of statistics

Henry Chadwick established the tradition of maintaining records of the players’ accomplishments in the 19th century, and it has continued ever since. Based on his cricketing expertise, Chadwick established the precursors of modern-day statistics such as batting average, runs scored, and runs allowed, among other things. The statistical world of baseball has traditionally been dominated by statistics such as hitters’ batting average (the number of hits divided by the number of at bats) and pitchers’ earned run average (roughly the number of runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings).

These statistics are intended to provide a more accurate representation of a player’s overall performance and contribution to his team from year to year.

In 1969, MacMillan Publishing published the firstBaseball Encyclopedia, which was the first publication to use a computer to gather statistics for the sport.

Interestingly, this research resulted in the identification of a number of players who did not appear in the official record books.

## Use of statistics

Player statistics are studied by general managers and baseball scouts in order to make conclusions about the skills of individual players. Managers, catchers, and pitchers research the statistics of opposing teams’ batters in order to determine the best way to pitch to them and place the players on the field in order to win the game. Managers and hitters research opposing pitchers in order to find out how to hit them the most effectively. Management makes personnel choices during games, such as who to start in the lineup and which relief pitcher to bring in, on the basis of statistical data collected throughout the game.

- The most frequently mentioned batting statistics are batting average, runs batted in, and home runs.
- For pitchers, wins, earned run average, and strikeouts are the classic statistics that are most frequently referenced.
- Some sabermetric data have made their way into the mainstream of baseball.
- It is calculated by multiplying the hitter’s base percentage (the number of times he or she reached base—by any means—divided by the total number of plate appearances) by the hitter’s slugging percentage (total basesdivided by at bats).
- The batting average of a pitcher is also significant in measuring his or her degree of success.
- A pitcher’s statistics may be broken down into several categories, the most important of which are K/9IP (strikeouts per nine innings), K/BB (strikeouts per walk), HR/9, WHIP (walks plus hits per inning thrown), and OOPS (opponent on-base plus slugging).
- In the case of pitchers, these statistics, such as the Defense-Independent ERA (dERA), make an attempt to evaluate a pitcher on the basis of events that are completely influenced by the pitcher’s performance and not by the strength of the defensive players behind him or her.
- An experienced manager may be more inclined to give a given batter more opportunities to face left-handed pitchers because of the hitter’s ability to hit left-handed pitchers.

Depending on the pitcher (or vice versa), other batters may have a track record of success against that pitcher, and the manager can utilize this knowledge to construct a beneficial matchup.

## Commonly used statistics

The majority of these words are also applicable to softball. Several commonly used statistics, as well as their acronyms, are described in this section. In order to provide a fast reference, the explanations below do not fully or totally describe the statistic; for a more thorough definition, please go to the related article for each statistic.

### Batting statistics

- A single hit that allows the batter to safely reach first base without the assistance of a fielding mistake is designated as 1B. 2B -Double-hits in which the hitter successfully advances to second base without the assistance of a fielding mistake
- 3B -Triple-hits in which the hitter successfully advances to third base without the assistance of a fielding error
- The term “at bat” refers to a batting appearance, which does not include bases-on-balls, balls hit by pitches, sacrifices, interference, or obstruction. At bats per home run (AB/HR) is the sum of at bats divided by the number of home runs. BA – Batting average (often abbreviated AVG) – the number of hits divided by the number of at bats The term “base on balls” refers to a situation in which a batter receives four balls and advances to first base. Walking to strikeout ratio (BB/K) is the number of base on balls divided by the number of outs in a game. Extra base hits (doubles, triples, and home runs) are referred to as XBH. FC (Fielder’s Choice) refers to situations when a runner reaches base after a fielder has decided to try to force an out on another runner. Number of ground balls out divided by the number of fly ball outs is known as AO/GO (Ground Ball Fly Ball Ratio). Number of ground balls that were hit and turned into double plays (also known as GDP or GiDP)
- When a home run is hit with the bases loaded, four runs are scored and four RBIs are recorded to the batter, this is known as a Grand Slam. Batted fair ball with no errors by the defense resulted in a hit, which allowed the batter to advance to second base. HBP (hit by pitch) refers to instances in which a pitch is touched and the batter is given first base as a consequence. Home runs are defined as hits on which the hitter successfully touches all four bases without the benefit of a defensive mistake. IBB stands for “intentional base on balls.” A base on balls (see BB above) is a base on balls that is intentionally thrown by the pitcher. IW (intentional walk) is another term for this activity. Number of times a strike three is taken or swung at and missed or a bunted foul is committed is denoted by the letter K. LOB (Left on Base) refers to the number of runners who are not out and have not scored at the end of an inning. OBP (On Base Percentage) is calculated by dividing the number of times a player has reached base (H + BB + HBP) by the total number of at bats plus walks plus hit by pitch plus sacrifice flies (AB + BB + HBP + SF). On-base plus slugging (OPS) is the sum of the on-base percentage and the slugging average. PA -Plate appearance – is the total number of completed batting appearances in a season. It is possible to assess how many runs a player has contributed to his team using the RC (Runs generated) statistic. In baseball, the term “run batted in” refers to the number of runners who have scored as the result of a hitter’s action, with the exception of when the batter grounds into a double play or reaches on an error. Sacrifice fly (SF) – the number of fly ball outs that allow another runner to advance on the basepaths or score a run
- Number of sacrifice bunts that have been made to allow another runner to advance on the basepaths or score
- SH -Sacrifice hit – SLG (slugging average) is the sum of all bases divided by the number of at-bats. To calculate total average, divide total bases plus walks plus steals by the number of plate appearances plus the number of times a player is caught stealing. T – Total bases: one for each single, two for each double, three for each triple, and four for each home run
- TB = Total bases
- TOB (Times on Base) refers to the number of times a player has reached base as a consequence of hits, walks, or being hit by a pitch.

### Baserunning statistics

- If someone is caught stealing, they are tagged out for a certain amount of time. SB -Stolen base- number of bases advanced other than on batted balls, walks, or hits by pitch
- R – Runscored – times when the player returned to home base legally and safely
- R – Runscored – times when the player returned to home base illegally and safely
- R – Runsscored – times when the player returned to home base illegally and safely
- R – Run

### Pitching statistics

- BABIP (Batting Average on Balls in Play) is a batting average against a pitcher on batted balls that end a plate appearance, excluding home runs, that is calculated after a plate appearance. BB is an abbreviation for “base on balls” (also called a “walk”) times throwing four balls, allowing the batter-runner to make it to first base on four different occasions In baseball, BB/9 is defined as the number of base on balls multiplied by nine and divided by the number of innings pitched (bases on balls for every nine innings pitched). BF – total batters faced – the total number of plate appearances made by the opponent In baseball, BK stands for the number of times a pitcher executes an unlawful throwing motion or other illegal activity while in contact with the pitching rubber, resulting in baserunners moving forward. Number of times a player has entered the game in a save position and then been charged with a run that ties the game
- BS -Blown save- CERA is an acronym that stands for Component In baseball, the term “earned run average” (ERA) refers to an estimate of a pitcher’s ERA based on the separate components of his statistical line (Ks, H, 2B, 3B, HR, BB, HBP)
- CG -Complete game – the number of games in which a player was the lone pitcher for his side
- A player’s CG -Complete game – DICE (Defense-Independent Component) is an acronym that stands for Defense-Independent Component. the estimated earned run average (ERA) of a pitcher based on the components of his statistical line that are not reliant on defense (K, HR, BB, HBP)
- In baseball, earned runs are the number of runs that are not scored as a consequence of mistakes or passed balls. ERA (earned run average) is calculated as follows: earned runs multiplied by the number of innings in a game (typically nine) divided by the number of innings pitched
- G -Games thrown (also known as’Appearances ‘) – the number of times a pitcher throws a pitch in a season. The number of games pitched in which the player was the last pitcher for his club is denoted by the letter GF (Games completed). Ground ball to fly ball ratio (G/F) is the number of ground balls permitted divided by the number of fly balls allowed. A player’s number of games pitched when he was the first pitcher for his team is denoted by the letter GS. H/9 -Hits per nine innings- hits allowed times nine divided by innings pitched (also known asH/9IP-Hits allowed per 9 innings pitched)
- H -Hits Allowed- total hits allowed
- HB -Hit batsman- times hit a batter with pitch, allowing runner to advance to first base
- HLD (or H) -Hold- number of games entered in a save scenario, left in save situation, recorded at least one out, and without having relinquished the lead
- HR -Home runs permitted- total home runs allowed
- IBB -Intentional base on ballsallowed
- IR -Inherited runners- amount of runners on base when the pitcher enters the game
- IRA -Inherited runs allowed- amount of inherited runners permitted to score
- IP -Innings pitched- amount of outs recorded while pitching divided by three
- Innings pitched per game (IP/GS) is the average number of innings pitched each game. K – Strikeout – the number of hitters that were hit with a third strike
- K/9 -Strikeouts per nine innings- strikeouts times nine divided by innings pitched (Strikeouts per 9 innings pitched)
- A ratio of strikeouts to walks is calculated by dividing the number of strikeouts by the number of base on balls. Winning percentage of games in which pitcher was pitching when the opposition side gained an early lead, never relinquished control of the lead, and went on to win
- OBA -Opponents batting average- hits allowed divided by at-bats faced
- PITCH COUNT – Number of pitches thrown (Pitch Count)
- RA (Run Average) is the product of the number of runs allowed multiplied by nine and divided by the number of innings pitched. Running against the average is a sabermetric statistic that may be used to forecast victory %. SO -Shutout- amount of full games thrown with no runs allowed
- SV -Save- number of games where the pitcher enters a game led by the pitcher’s team, finishes the game without surrendering the lead, is not the winning pitcher, and either (a) the lead was three runs or less when the pitcher entered the game
- (b) the potential tying run was on base, at bat, or on deck
- Or (c) the pitcher pitched three or more innings
- W -Win- amount of games when pitcher was throwing while his team gained the lead and went on to win (also related:winning %)
- When a pitch is thrown too high, too low, or too wide of home plate for the catcher to field, a wild pitch charge is applied, enabling one or more runners to advance or score.

### Fielding statistics

- It is possible to record the number of outs on a play in which a fielder touches the ball, save if such touching is for a putout, as a “Assist.” DP -Double plays- one for each double play during which the fielder recorded a putout or an assist
- E -Errors- amount of times a fielder fails to make a play he should have made with ordinary effort, and the offense benefits as a consequence
- To calculate fielding percentage, divide the total number of plays (chances less mistakes) by the total number of opportunities. INN -Innings- amount of innings that a player is at one given position
- When the ball is dropped and one or more runners advance, the catcher is charged with a passed ball (also known as a passed ball charge). Number of times a fielder tags, forces, or appeals a runner and the runner is subsequently thrown out
- PO – Putout RF -Range factor- (*9)/innings played. Used to determine the amount of field that the athlete can cover
- Stolen bases (also known as stolen bases) refer to the number of times a runner advances on a pitch without being caught by the catcher. TC stands for total chances, which includes assists, putouts, and mistakes. TP -Triple play- one for each triple play during which the fielder recorded a putout or an assist

### General statistics

- G -Games played- number of games where the player played, in whole or in part

## Further Reading

- Baseball, Statistics, and the Role of Chance in the Game by Jim Albert and Jay Bennett was published by Copernicus Books in New York in 2001 with the ISBN 978-0387988160
- Jim Albert and Jay Bennett’s Curve Ball is available on Amazon.com for $9.99. Jim Albert: Teaching Statistics Using Baseball, 2nd edition, Mathematical Association of America Press, Providence, RI, 2017.ISBN 978-1-93951-216-1
- Gabriel B. Costa, Michael R. Huber, and John T. Saccoman: Understanding Sabermetrics: An Introduction to the Science of Baseball Statistics, 2nd edition, Mathematical Association of America Press, Providence, RI, 2017.ISBN 978-1-93951-216-1
- Jim Albert: Teaching Statistics Using Baseball McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2008
- William Darby: Deconstructing Major League Baseball, 1991-2004: How Statistics Illuminate Individual and Team Performances, McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2008. McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2006. Steve Gardner (interviewer): “According to Gary Gillette and Lyle Spatz: “Not chiseled in stone. A guide to advanced baseball statistics like as WAR, BABIP, FIP, and more”, USA Today, July 17, 2019. Baseball’s Enduring Records and the SABR Era”, The Baseball Research Journal, SABR, Volume 40, Number 2 (Fall 2011), pp. 7-11
- Glenn Guzzo, “The New Ballgame: Understanding Baseball Statistics for the Casual Fan,” ACTA Sports, Skokie, IL, 2007
- Bill James, “Stats,” The Baseball Research Journal, SABR, Volume 40, Number 2 (Fall 2011), pp. 7-11
- Bill James, “Stats,” The “Baseball: an Illustrated History, edited by Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, 1994, pp. 101-103
- Keith Law: Smart Baseball: The Story Behind the Old Stats That Are Ruining the Game, the New Stats That Are Running It, and the Right Way to Think About Baseball, HarperCollins, New York, NY, 2017.ISBN 978-0062490223
- Bob Morris:Base Ball: Simple Stat

Some or all of the information in this article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, which you can read more about here. “Baseball statistics” is taken from the Wikipedia page “Baseball statistics.”