## Hit (baseball) – Wikipedia

A hit (denoted byH), also known as a base hit, is awarded to a hitter when the batter successfully reaches or passes first base after hitting the ball into fair territory, without the help of an error or a fielder’s choice, in baseball statistics.

## Scoring a hit

The batter must reach first base before any fielder can either taghim with the ball, throw the ball to another player who is covering first base before the batter reaches it, or tag first base while carrying the ball to accomplish a hit. In baseball, a hit is considered complete when the hitter safely reaches first base; even if he is out while trying to extend his hit to a double, triple, or home run on the same play, he is still given credit for a hit (according to the last base he reached safely on the play).

### Types of hits

Hitting one base is known as a single, hitting two bases is known as a double, and hitting three bases is known as atriple. A home run can also be considered a hit. Extra base hits, which include doubles, triples, and home runs, are also referred to as extra base hits. An “infield hit” is a hit in which the ball does not exit the infield of the field. In nature, infield hits are rare, and they are most typically obtained by runners who are able to outrun their opponents.

## Pitching a no-hitter

It is possible to play ano-hitters in a game if one of the teams prevents the other from getting a hit. Throwing a no-hitter is an uncommon and spectacular feat for a pitcher or pitching staff, and it is celebrated as such. In the professional game, no-hitters are most often achieved by a single pitcher who tosses a whole game of baseball. Even if a pitcher throws a no-hitter, runners may still be able to reach base safely as a result of walks, errors, hit batsmen, or batters reaching base as a result of interference or obstruction to the field.

## History

Ty Cobb amassed a career total of 4,191 hits, which he held for 57 years, making him the all-time leader in the Major Leagues. Bases on balls (walks) were counted as hits in Major League Baseball until 1887. As a result, batting averages skyrocketed, with some players hitting near.500; for example, Tip O’Neill of the St. Louis Browns batted.485 that season, which would still be a major league record if it were recognized now. The experiment was scrapped after the first season, and it was never revived.

- Due to the fact that the total number of legal walks and at-bats for all players in a given year is known, computing averages using the same technique as in previous years is uncomplicated.
- The Committee determined that walks were not to be counted as hits in the 1887 season.
- The majority of contemporary sources cite O’Neill’s 1887 average as.435, which was computed by excluding his walks from the equation.
- The disparity between the approaches, on the other hand, resulted in varying levels of respect for the 1887 National League hitting champion.

If walks are taken into consideration, Cap Anson would be the winner with a.421 average; but, if they are not, Sam Thompson would be the winner with a.372 average.

## Major League Baseball rules

Major League Baseball’s official rules, which may be found in Rule 10.05, states: A batter is awarded a base hit if the following conditions are met:(1) the batter safely reaches first base (or any succeeding base) on a fair ball that settles on the ground, touches a fence before being touched by a fielder, or clears a fence;(2) the batter safely reaches first base on a fair ball hit with such force, or at such a slow rate, that any fielder attempting to make a play with the ball has no opportunity to do so; (3) the batter 10.05 of the Rules of Civil Procedure (a) (2) Comment: If a fielder attempting to handle the ball is unable to complete a play, the official scorer will credit a hit, even if the fielder deflects the ball away from or cuts off another fielder who could have taken out a runner, the hit will be recorded.

The batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball that has not been touched by a fielder and is in fair territory when the ball reaches the pitcher’s plate or any base (including home plate) and bounces so that a fielder cannot handle the ball with ordinary effort; (4) the batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball that has not been touched by a fielder and is in fair territory when the ball reaches the pitcher’s plate or any base (including home plate) before being touched by 10.05(a) Comment: When using Rule 10.05(a), the official scorer must always give the batter a chance to prove himself/herself.

When very good fielding of a ball fails to result in a putout, it is prudent for the official scorer to record a hit as a safe line of action.

Comment on Rule 10.05(b): If a fielder just looks at or feints toward another base before attempting to make the putout at first base, Rule 10.05(b) will not apply.

In the event that a runner interferes with a fielder attempting to field a hit ball, the batter is ruled out unless, in the scorer’s opinion, the batter-runner would have been safe had the interference not taken place.

## See also

- List of Major League Baseball hit records
- List of Major League Baseball progressive career hits leaders
- List of Major League Baseball hit records by position
- Career hits leaders in Nippon Professional Baseball are listed below. List of the most successful KBO career hits
- List of Major League Baseball players who have 2,000 hits or more
- The 3,000 hit club

## References

Definitions of Baseball Terms | |

% Inherited Scored | A Relief Pitching statistic indicating the percentage of runners on base at the time a relief pitcher enters a game that he allows to score. |

1st Batter OBP | The On-Base Percentage allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces in a game. |

Active Career Batting Leaders | Minimum of 1,000 At Bats required for Batting Average, On-Base Percentage, Slugging Percentage, At Bats Per HR, At Bats Per GDP, At Bats Per RBI, and K/BB Ratio. One hundred (100) Stolen Base Attempts required for Stolen Base Success %. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category’s minimum requirements. |

Active Career Pitching Leaders | Minimum of 750 Innings Pitched required for Earned Run Average, Opponent Batting Average, all of the Per 9 Innings categories, and Strikeout to Walk Ratio. Two hundred fifty (250) Games Started required for Complete Game Frequency. One hundred (100) decisions required for Win-Loss Percentage. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category’s minimum requirements. |

BA ScPos Allowed | Batting Average Allowed with Runners in Scoring Position. |

Baserunners per Nine Innings | These are the hits, walks and hit batsmen allowed per nine innings. |

Bases Loaded | This category shows a player’s batting average in bases loaded situation. |

Batting Average | Hits divided by At Bats. |

Bequeathed Runners | Any runner(s) on base when a pitcher leaves a game are considered bequeathed to the departing hurler; the opposite of inherited runners (see below). |

Blown Saves | This is charged any time a pitcher comes into a game where a save situation is in place and he loses the lead. |

Catcher’s ERA | The Earned Run Average of a club’s pitchers with a particular catcher behind the plate. To figure this for a catcher, multiply the Earned Runs Allowed by the pitchers while he was catching times nine and divide that by his number of Innings Caught. |

Cheap Wins/Tough Losses/Top Game Scores | First determine the starting pitcher’s Game Score as follows: |

- Start with a number of 50
- The starting pitcher gets one point for every strikeout he records
- After the fourth inning, add 2 points for each additional inning the pitcher goes on to complete. For each strikeout, add one point to your total. For each hit that is permitted, deduct two points. For each earned run that is permitted, subtract 4 points. Add 2 points to account for an unearned run. For each stroll, deduct one point from your total.

Cleanup Slugging% | The Slugging Percentage of a player when batting fourth in the batting order. |

Clutch | This category shows a player’s batting average in the late innings of close games: the seventh inning or later with the batting team ahead by one, tied, or has the tying run on base, at bat or on deck. |

Complete Game Frequency | Complete Games divided by Games Started. |

Defensive Batting Average | A composite statistic incorporating various defensive statistics to arrive at a number akin to batting average. The formula uses standard deviations to establish a spread from best to worst. |

Earned Run Average | (Earned Runs times 9) divided by Innings Pitched. |

Fast-A | Otherwise known as “Advanced A,” these A-level minor leagues are the California League, Carolina League and Florida Stat League. |

Favorite Toy | The Favorite Toy is a method that is used to estimate a player’s chance of getting to a specific goal in the following example, we’ll say 3,000 hits.Four things are considered: |

- Needed Hits – the number of hits required to get the desired result. (Of course, this could also be “Need Home Runs” or “Need Doubles” – whatever you choose to call it.)
- Years Remaining in the Contract. The formula 24-.6 is used to estimate the number of years that will be required to achieve the target (age). As a result of this approach, players under the age of 20 have 12.0 seasons left on their contract. Players under the age of 25 have nine seasons left on their contract, players under 30 have 6.0 seasons left on their contract, and players over 35 have just three season left on their contract. Any athlete who is currently actively participating in competitive sports is presumed to have at least 1.5 seasons left, regardless of his or her age. Hit Level has been established. For 1996, the established hit level would be calculated by multiplying 1993 hits by two times 1994 hits by three times 1995 hits by six, and then dividing the result by six. A player, on the other hand, cannot have an established performance level that is less than three-fourths of his most recent performance level
- For example, a player who had 200 hits in 1995 cannot have an established hit level that is less than 150
- Hits that are expected to be made in the future. This is calculated by multiplying the second number (the number of ears left) by the third number (the established hit level)

Once you have obtained the projected remaining hits, the probability of achieving the objective is calculated as (projected remaining hits) divided by (require hits), minus.5. If your “require hits” and your “projected remaining hits” are the same, you have a 50 percent probability of achieving your target using this technique of calculation. If your anticipated remaining hits are 20 percent greater than your required hits, you have a 70 percent probability of achieving your target in time. There are two specific rules, as well as a note:

- The probability of a player continuing to develop toward a goal cannot be more than.97 per year. For example, a player cannot calculate that they have a 148 percent probability of completing their goal because this is against the rules.)
- The possibility of a player continuing to develop toward the objective cannot be more than.75 each season if his offensive winning percentage is below.500 throughout the season. If a below-average batter is two years away from attaining a goal, his likelihood of accomplishing that objective cannot be proved to be better than nine-sixteenths of a percent, or three-fourths times three-fourths, no of his age.
- Rather of using actual figures from a complete season of play, we utilized predicted metrics for 1994 and 1995.

Fielding Percentage | (Putouts plus Assists) divided by (Putouts plus Assists plus Errors). |

First Batter Efficiency | This statistic tells you the batting average allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces. |

GDP per GDP Situation | A GDP situation exists any time there is a man on first with less than two outs. This statistic measures how often a player grounds into a double play in that situation. |

Go-Ahead RBI | Any time a player drives in a run which gives his team the lead, he is credited with a go-ahead RBI. |

Ground/Fly Ratio (Grd/Fly) | Simply a hitter’s ground balls divided by his fly balls. All batted balls except line drives and bunts are included. |

Hold | A Hold is credited any time a relief pitcher enters a game in a Save Situation (see definition below), records at least one out, and leaves the game never having relinquished the lead.Note: a pitcher cannot finish the game and receive credit for a Hold, nor can he earn a hold and a save. |

Inherited Runner | Any runner(s) on base when a relief pitcher enters a game are considered “inherited” by that pitcher. |

Isolated Power | Slugging Percentage minus Batting Average. |

K/BB Ratio | Strikeouts divided by Walks. |

LateClose | A LateClose situation meets the following requirements: |

- During the seventh inning or later, the batting side is either up by one run, tied, or has a possible tying run on base, at the plate, or on deck
- The game is over

Leadoff On Base% | The On-Base Percentage of a player when batting first in the batting order. |

No Decision (ND) | The result when a starter is credited with neither a win nor a loss. |

OBP+SLUG (OPS) | On-base percentage plus slugging percentage. |

Offensive Winning Percentage (OWP) | The Winning Percentage a team of nine Fred McGriffs (or anybody) would compile against average pitching and defense. The formula: (Runs Created per 27 outs) divided by the League average of runs scored per game. Square the result and divide it by (1+itself). |

On Base Percentage | (Hits plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher) divided by (At Bats plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies). |

Opponent Batting Average | Hits Allowed divided by (Batters Faced minus Walks minus Hit Batsmen minus Sacrifice Hits minus Sacrifice Flies minus Catcher’s Interference). |

Outfielder Hold Percentage | A statistic used to evaluate outfielders’ throwing arms. “Hold Percentage” is computed by dividing extra bases taken (by baserunners) by the number of opportunities. For example, if a single is lined to center field with men on first and second, and one man scores while the other stops at second, that is one extra base taken on two opportunities, a 50.0 hold percentage. |

PA* | The divisor for On Base Percentage: At Bats plus Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies; or Plate Appearances minus Sacrifice Hits and Times Reached Base on Defensive Interference. |

PCS (Pitchers’ Caught Stealing) | The number of runners officially counted as Caught Stealing where the initiator of the fielding play was the pitcher, not the catcher. Note: such plays are often referred to as pickoffs, but appear in official records as Caught Stealings. The most common pitcher caught stealing scenario is a 1-3-6 fielding play, where the runner is officially charged a Caught Stealing because he broke for second base. Pickoff (fielding play 1-3 being the most common) is not an official statistic. |

Percentage of Pitches Taken | This tells you how often a player lets a pitch go by without swinging. |

Percentage of Swings Put In Play | This tells you how often a player hits the ball into fair territory, or is retired on a foul-ball out, when he swings. |

Pickoffs (Pk) | The number of times a runner was picked off base by a pitcher. |

Pivot Percentage | The number of double plays turned by a second baseman as the pivot man, divided by the number of opportunities. |

PkOf Throw/Runner | The number of pickoff throws made by a pitcher divided by the number of runners on first base. |

Plate Appearances | At Bats plus Total Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Hits plus Sacrifice Flies plus Times Reached on Defensive Interference. |

Power/Speed Number | A way to look at power and speed in one number. A player must score high in both areas to earn a high Power/Speed Number.The formula: (HR x SB x 2) divided by (HR + SB). |

Quality Start | Any start in which a pitcher works six or more innings while allowing three or fewer earned runs. |

Quick Hooks and Slow Hooks | A Quick Hook is the removal of a pitcher who has pitched less than 6 innings and given up 3 runs or less. A Slow Hook occurs when a pitcher pitches more than 9 innings, or allows 7 or more runs, or whose combined innings pitched and runs allowed totals 13 or more. |

Range Factor | The number of Chances (Putouts plus Assists) times nine divided by the number of Defensive Innings Played. The average for a Regular Player at each position in 1997: |

- 5.00 points for second base, 2.67 points for third base, 4.56 points for shortstop, and 1.99 points for left field, 2.55 points for center field, and 2.06 points for right field.

Relief Points (Pts) | Wins plus saves minus losses |

Run Support Per 9 IP | The number of runs scored by a pitcher’s team while he was still in the game times nine divided by his Innings Pitched. |

Runs Created | A way to combine a batter’s total offensive contributions into one number. The formula:(H + BB + HBP – CS – GIDP) times (Total Bases +.26(TBB – IBB + HBP) +.52(SH + SF + SB)) divided by (AB + TBB + HBP + SH + SF). |

Runs/Times on Base | This is calculated by dividing Runs Scored by Times on Base |

Save Percentage | Saves (SV) divided by Save Opportunities (OP). |

Save Situation | A Relief Pitcher is in a Save Situation when upon entering the game with his club leading, he has the opportunity to be the finishing pitcher (and is not the winning pitcher of record at the time), and meets any one of the three following conditions: |

- He enters the game with a lead of no more than three runs and has the opportunity to pitch for at least one inning, or he enters the game with the potential tying run on base, at bat, or on deck, regardless of the count, or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save
- Or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save

SBA | Stolen-base attempts against a catcher |

SB Success% | Stolen Bases divided by (Stolen Bases plus Caught Stealing). |

Secondary Average | A way to look at a player’s extra bases gained, independent of Batting Average. The formula:(Total Bases – Hits + TBB + SB) divided by At Bats. |

Slow-A | Otherwise known as “Regular A,” these full-season minor leagues contain less-experienced professional players. The Slow-A leagues are the Midwest League and South Atlantic League (Sally). |

Slugging Percentage | Total Bases divided by At Bats. |

Stolen Base Percentage Allowed | This figure indicates how successful opposing baserunners are when attempting a stolen base. It’s stolen bases divided by stolen-base attempts. |

Times on Base | Hits plus walks plus hit by pitch |

Total Bases | Hits plus Doubles plus (2 times Triples) plus (3 times Home runs). |

Win-Loss Percentage or Winning Percentage | Wins divided by (Wins plus Losses). |

Zone Rating | Simply the percentage of balls fielded by a player in his typical defensive “zone,” as measured by STATS reporters. |

Formulas and Definitions | |

PA | AB + BB + HBP + SF + SH + defensive interference |

PA* | AB + BB + HBP + SF |

Total Bases | |

AVG | H/AB |

OBP | (H + BB = HBP)/(AB + BB + HBP + SF) |

SLG | TB/AB |

Breakdown Categories | |

Ahead/Behind in Count | For hitters, ahead in count includes 1-0, 2-0, 3-0, 2-1 and 3-1. Behind in count for hitters includes 0-1, 0-2, 1-2 and 2-2. The opposite is true for pitchers. |

Day/Night | Officially, night games in the National League are those that start after 5:00 pm, while night games in the AL begin after 6:00 pm. Therefore, a game at 5:30 in Yankee Stadium is a day game while one in Shea Stadium at the same time is a night game. We avoid this silliness by calling all games starting after 5:00pm night games. |

First Pitch | Refers to the first pitch of a given at bat, and any walks listed here are intentional walks. |

Grass/Turf | Grass is grass. Turf is artificial turf. |

Groundball/Flyball Ratio | A hitter’s stats against pitchers that induce mostly grounders or flies, respectively. If the ratio is less than 1.00, then he is a Flyball hitter. If it is greater than 1.50, he is a Groundball hitter. Anything else is classified as neutral. Same cutoffs apply for classifying pitchers. Anyone with less than 50 plate appearances is automatically neutral. |

First Inning Pitched | Describes the result of the pitcher’s work until he recorded three outs. |

Inning 1-6 and Inning 7+ | These refer to the actual innings in which a pitcher worked. |

None On/Out | Refers to situation when there are no outs and the bases are empty (generally leadoff situations). |

None On/Runners On | Describes the status of the baserunners |

Number of Pitches | This section shows the results of balls put into play while his pitch count was in that range. |

Pitcher/Batter Match-Ups | The following conditions must be met before a player is added to the list: |

- For a batter to be considered a “Hits Best Against” candidate, there must be at least 10 plate appearances between him and the pitcher
- And for a pitcher to be considered a “Pitches Best Against” candidate, the batter must have a.300 batting average against the pitcher, and the pitcher must limit the batting average of the batter to under.250.

Scoring Position | At least one runner must be at either second or third base. |

Vs. 1st Batr (Relief) | Describes what happened to the first batter a reliever faces. |

## Baseball Abbreviations

Tony Gwynn had another outstanding season in 1997, with 592 at-bats and 220 strikeouts, and an avg of.372, which was the best in the National League. Which of these abbreviations do all of these letters stand for? The Baseball Almanac is glad to give a standard collection of acronyms that are seen and used in print on a regular basis in the sport of baseball.

## Baseball Stats

Baseball Abbreviations 101Offensive Abbreviations for Statistics | |

ABBBAVGCS2BGIDP GRSLHBPHHRRHRIBBISO LOB OBPOPSRRBISFSHSSLGSB%SBRSBSOTB3B | At BatsBases on Balls (Walks)Batting AverageCaught StealingDoublesGround into Double Plays Grand SlamsHit by PitchHitsHome Run RatioHome RunsIntentionalBasesonBalls(Walks)Isolated Power Left on Base On-Base PercentageOn-Base Plus SluggingRunsRuns Batted InSacrifice FliesSacrifice Hits (Bunts)SinglesSlugging PercentageStolen Base PercentageStolen Base RunsStolen BasesStrikeoutsTotal BasesTriples |

Pitching Abbreviations for Statistics | |

AOBB BFPBKCBOCGCGLERERAGFGOGOAOGPGSHHBPHRIBBIPIRAIPSLMB9OBAPARRPFRWS/SHOSOSVSVOTBWWP | Fly Outs (Air)Walks (Bases on Balls) Batters Facing PitcherBalksCombined ShutoutComplete GamesComplete Game LossesEarned RunsEarned Run AverageGames FinishedGround OutsGround Outs / Fly Outs RatioGames PlayedGames StartedHitsHit BattersHome RunsIntentional WalksInnings PitchedInherited Runs AllowedInnings Per StartLossesBaserunners Per 9 InningsOpponents’ Batting AveragePlate AppearancesRunsRelief FailuresRelief WinsShutoutsStrikeoutsSavesSave OpportunitiesTotal BasesWinsWild Pitches |

Defensive Abbreviations for Statistics | |

ACSDPEGPOFAPBPKPOSBTCTP | AssistsCaught StealingDouble PlaysErrorsGames PlayedOutfield AssistsPassed BallsPickoffsPutoutsStolen Bases Total ChancesTriple Plays |

Miscellaneous Abbreviations for Statistics | |

ML SER | Major League Service |

Baseball Stats Abbreviations 101 |

The “common” set has several variations (DO Doubles, TR Triples, etc.), but these are the ones that are regarded “official” and are the ones that are used here at Baseball Almanac, among other places. Did you know that the National Association (a non-official league that gave rise to the National Leagueofficial )’s statistics were destroyed in a fire in the early 1900’s? Major League Baseball organized a Special Baseball Records Committee in the 1960s to examine the irregular records that had been kept previous to the 1920 season.

## How to read a baseball scoreboard or line score

BaseballLine Score The line score is the very basic display, similar to a scoreboard, that you will need to know how to read at a live game or on television.Teams:On the far left, you will see both teams listed, with the home team on the bottom. Runs by inning:The numbers 1-9 indicate the inning, while the numbers even with the team name represent the runs scored in each inning. R:Runs. The total number of runs scored by each team. This is the most important number as it represents the score. H:Hits. Total hits awarded to the team. The number of times batters successfully reached first base. E:Errors. Total errors, or mistakes that should have resulted in an out, committed by each team. Should be low, usually 0. W/L:Win or Loss for a pitcher along with their record. 3-2 would be 3 wins and 2 losses. Only one pitcher per game is awarded a win or loss.When I look at the line score above from the 2006 World Series, I can quickly tell then following. Saint Loius (STL) won the game 5 to 4 at home. They were behind from the second inning to the 7 th inning. Detroit tied up the game in the top of the eighth inning, but then St. Louis scored in the bottom of the eighth, which they were able to hold onto. Since they were up in the ninth inning, they didn’t need to bat in the bottom of the ninth because the victory was already locked up. Detriot had one more hit than St. Louis, but they also committed an error. I am curious if the error led to a run being scored, and will look into that when I examine the box score by seeing how many runs were “earned.” Wainwright was awarded the win, while Zumaya was awarded a loss. |

## Beginner’s Guide: How to Read a Baseball Scoreboard

When you attend a baseball game, you will almost always see a massive scoreboard in the outfield that provides a seemingly limitless amount of information. Numerous numbers, letters, and statistics may be found, and each of these objects has its own distinct significance. How can you interpret a baseball scoreboard when you’re being bombarded with so much information at your disposal? Baseball scoreboards are read from left to right, with the names of the teams posted at the far left of the board to indicate who is playing.

The letters R, H, and E represent the number of runs, hits, and errors that happened throughout the whole game.

So let’s take a closer look at some of the more typical areas featured on baseball scoreboards, as well as those sections that are less popular.

## Four Common Sections on All Baseball Scoreboards

It is not all baseball scoreboards are created equal, as you will see in some of the examples in this article. Aside from the fact that they do not all look the same, they also do not all carry the exact same information. However, there are four areas that can be seen on practically every baseball scoreboard.

### Names of Each Team

One of the first things you’ll notice on a scoreboard is the names of the teams who are taking part in the competition. On the left-hand side of the scoreboard, these names are presented in alphabetical order, with the visiting team listed first and the home team listed last, starting with the visiting team. The fact that the home team is always ranked below the visiting team is due to the fact that the home team always bats second. Consequently, when we look at the next portion of the scoreboard, which is comprised of innings, we will be able to tell whether a game is in the top of an inning or the bottom of an inning.

The teams’ names will either be “Visitor” and “Home,” the real names of each club, or (in the case of certain Major League scoreboards) merely the team’s emblem, depending on the style of scoreboard being used and the sort of league in which you are playing.

### Number of Runs Scored Per Inning

One of the first things you’ll notice on a scoreboard is the names of the teams who are taking part in the game. On the left-hand side of the scoreboard, these names are written in alphabetical order, with the visiting team listed first and the home team listed last. There is a good reason why the home team is always mentioned after the visiting team: the home team always bats last. If we look at the next portion of the scoreboard, which is the innings section, we will be able to tell if the game is at the top of the inning or the bottom of the inning.

### Runs, Hits, and Errors

Moving on to the number of runs scored each inning, we find three more columns labeled R, H, and E. These are the number of runs scored per inning in the previous inning. Is there any significance to the lettering on a baseball scoreboard? Runs is represented by the letter R on a baseball scoreboard, and it indicates how many total runs have been scored by each side throughout the game. It will rise in value as the game proceeds and more runs are scored, so that the overall amount of runs scored is reflected in this figure.

This total includes all singles, doubles, triples, and home runs, among other things.

This statistic is calculated from all of a team’s defensive mistakes, and it provides fans with a broad notion of how well a team is performing defensively.

### Balls, Strikes, and Outs

Another area of a baseball scoreboard that is fairly popular is a section that displays the number of balls, strikes, and outs for each half-inning of the game. This area will either be either above or directly below the portion that displays the overall amount of runs scored every inning, depending on which is most appropriate. During each pitch of an at-bat, the balls and strikes are updated, allowing viewers to see how many strikes the hitter currently has on him at any one time. It will be updated when each offensive player is retired, and it will inform viewers of the number of outs that have been achieved thus far in this half-inning of baseball action.

## Other Common Stats on a Baseball Scoreboard

Another area of a baseball scoreboard that is fairly frequent is a section that displays the number of balls, strikes, and outs for each half-inning of the contest. This area will either be either above or directly below the portion that displays the overall amount of runs scored every inning, depending on your preference. During each pitch of an at-bat, the balls and strikes are updated, allowing viewers to see how many strikes the hitter currently has.

It will be updated when each offensive player is retired, and it will inform viewers of the number of outs that have been obtained thus far in this half-inning of baseball action.

### Number of the Batter

A part of many baseball scoreboards is dedicated to showing the jersey number of the hitter who is currently on the mound. This portion, which is generally named something like “At Bat,” serves the function of informing fans of who is about to take the field.

### Batting Statistics

In addition to the other elements described in this article, the majority of Major League Baseball scoreboards will display batting statistics for each individual player. Typically, a batting order will be displayed, with each player’s season-long batting average displayed next to his or her name. When that player comes up to bat, the scoreboard will spotlight him or her and provide additional batting statistics pertaining to what that player has accomplished thus far in the game. These additional statistics often include things like runs batted in, stolen bases, how many hits they’ve gotten today, and what kind of hits they got today, among other things (single double, triple, home run).

### Additional Lights When the Play Results in a Hit or Error

While playing baseball, it might be difficult to judge if a hard hit ball was an RBI or an error at times over the course of the game. However, what about those hard-hit, non-routine situations when the player didn’t quite get a clean fielding? Are they considered mistakes as well? Some scoreboards will feature an additional “H” and “E” to assist spectators comprehend what is going on on the field, however there will be circular lights beneath these letters to help them see what is going on. In addition to “Hit” and “Mistake,” these letters are used to inform all fans and players if a ruling on the field was a hit or an error, depending on the situation.

### Left On Base (LOB)

In addition to the R, H, and E letters on the scoreboard, certain Major League clubs have added an extra acronym to the right of the R, H, and E. LOB is an abbreviation that stands for “Left On Base,” which means “left behind.” The Left on Base stat (LOB) is shown on baseball scoreboards and estimates the total number of runners that were left on base at the conclusion of each inning. All runners that were left stranded for the length of the game are represented by this number, which represents a grand total.

### Mound Visits Remaining (MVR)

There is one extra acronym on the scoreboard that is directly to the right of the R, H, and E on the scoreboard of several Major League clubs. For Left On Base, this acronym is LOB, which is an abbreviation for Left On Base. At the end of each inning, the Left on Base stat (LOB) on a baseball scoreboard estimates the total number of runners that are still on base. All runners that were left stranded for the length of the game are represented by this number, which is the grand total.

#### What Happens if you Go Over Mound Visits in MLB?

According to the official Major League Baseball regulations, a manager who exceeds the allocated mound visits must make a pitching change as a result of the punishment. The punishment for a position player who exceeds the authorized number of mound visits results in the possibility of that player being ejected from the game.

## MLB Baseball Abbreviations Legend

MLB Abbreviations and Symbols

Heading | Explanation | Position | Explanation |

W / L | Wins / Losses | C | Catcher |

ATS | Record Against The Spread | 1B | First Base |

Slug | Slugging Percentage | 2B | Second Base |

Ho | Home record | 3B | Third Base |

Aw | Away Record | SS | Short Stop |

O/U | Over/Under Record | LF | Left Field |

AF | Average Runs For | CF | Center Field |

AA | Average Runs Against | RF | Right Field |

BA | Batting Average | DH | Designated Hitter |

SLG | Slugging Percentage | SP | Starting Pitcher |

HR | Home Runs For | RP | Relief Pitcher |

ERA | Earned Run Average | ||

OBP | On Base Percentage | ||

Home-Away | Home Score – Away Score | ||

H Starter | Home Starter in that particular game | ||

A Starter | Away Starter in that particular game | ||

LOB:R | Left On Base to Runs ratio | ||

OPS | Slugging Percentage + On Base Percentage | ||

AVG | Batting Average for that game | ||

Starter | Team’s Starter for that game | ||

IP | Innings the starter pitched | ||

Opp Starter | Innings the starter pitched | ||

H | Hits Allowed by the starter | ||

R | Runs Allowed by the starter | ||

ER | Earned Runs Allowed by the starter | ||

SO | Strikeouts by the starter | ||

BB | Base on Balls allowed by the starter | ||

PIT | Total Pitches by the starter | ||

P/IP | Pitches divided by the number of Innings Pitched | ||

G/F | Number of Ground Ball outs divided by the Fly Ball outs | ||

OBA | Opposition Batting Average | ||

WHIP | Walks and Hits per Inning Pitched | ||

GB:FB | Ground Ball to Fly Ball Ratio | ||

SB | Stolen Bases | ||

CS | Caught Stealing | ||

SB% | Stolen Base Percentage | ||

QS% | Quality Start Percentage | ||

TWL | Team Win – Team Loss | ||

W/L% | Winning Percentage | ||

vs. R | vs. Right-handed Pitchers | ||

vs. L | vs. Left-handed Pitchers | ||

Start | Starters | ||

Rel | Relievers | ||

R/9 | Runs per nine innings | ||

K | Strikeouts | ||

Doub | Doubles | ||

Trip | Triples | ||

$ | Units Won or Lost | ||

Line | Line for the game | ||

$ Won | Units Won | ||

$ Loss | Units Lost |

## A complete beginner’s guide to baseball stats: Pitching statistics, and what they mean

Pitching is a difficult task to master. Using a mix of at least a half-dozen pitches, each with a distinct spin rate and delivered to different positions in the strikezone, pitchers may achieve a range of results. As a result, there is an abundance of statistics that might be confusing to novice baseball fans. We will take a more in-depth look at the more sophisticated statistics later in the week, but for now, we want to make sure that all of the fundamentals are covered. Let’s start with our old buddy the box score and then move on to a few other important pitching statistics to make sure you’re prepared before we go too far into the remainder of the discussion.

Once again, we’ll use the game versus the Tampa Bay Rays on July 10, 2018 as an illustration of what we mean. ESPN provided the image.

### Pitching Basics

The value in this field shows the number of innings a pitcher pitched in a game. He tossed a whole six innings for Matthew Boyd, who is seen above. It is possible to see the innings pitch reported as 6.1 or 6.2 on occasion. These decimal points tell us how many outs the pitcher had left in the inning at that point. An innings pitched number of 6.11 indicates that a pitcher went six innings and got one batter out in the seventh inning before being relieved by another reliever. Because a third out would bring the inning to a close, you will only see a.1 or a.2.

#### Hits (H), Runs (R), and Earned Runs (ER)

Hits are treated the same way they are for a batter in this situation. Except in the case of errors and fielder’s choice, each time a hitter reaches at least first base. In our batting 101 introduction, we went into further detail about this topic. Running backs are the same as pitchers in that they signify each time the pitcher reaches home plate and scores a run on the pitching mound. It is only possible for pitchers to accumulate earned runs (ER), which signifies that the run scored was a direct result of the batter’s efforts.

Considering that these runs were not scored as a consequence of the batter’s efforts, they are called unearned runs.

For example, Matthew Boyd has 87 runs on his record in 2018, yet only 83 of those runs were earned.

#### Base on balls (BB), strikes (K), and home runs (HR)

All of these statistics are rather self-explanatory. The number of hitters who were walked, also known as base on balls (BB), indicates how many batters were walked by the pitcher. This total will include walks that are done on purpose (IBB). The number of batters that a pitcher struck out throughout the course of the game is indicated by the strikeouts. The number of home runs allowed by the pitcher is referred to as the home run total.

#### Pitch count (PC) and Strikes (ST)

This figure is only available in box scores, but it still provides some valuable insight into how well a pitcher performed in a certain game at the time. The number of total pitches thrown by a pitcher is known as the pitch count, but the number of strikes is the number of times each of those pitches was designated a strike by the home plate umpire.

### Wins (W) and losses (L)

As we can see from the table above, Matthew Boydis was deemed the losing pitcher in this game. The letters L and 4-8 next to his name show that he suffered a defeat and that his overall season record is four wins and eight defeats. A team’s win or loss is determined by whose pitcher was on the mound for their team at the time their team gained the advantage. Alternatively, which pitcher was on the mound when the lead in the game was surrendered. For a better understanding, let’s take a look at the Rays’ side of the box score.

- Because he was pitching during the Rays’ five-run third inning, Jose Alvarado earned the honor of being named the game’s most valuable pitcher.
- Asave is represented by the ” S ” in brackets beneath Sergio Romo’s name on the team’s roster.
- Not every game comes to a close with a saving scenario.
- In the first inning, Romo entered the game with a three-run lead, which put the game in a save situation.
- Similarly, if Romo entered the game with the bases loaded with the final run on deck or at the plate, it would be deemed a successful save.
- When a middle reliever enters the game with his side leading and does not allow a tying or advancing run before passing the ball over to another pitcher, he is awarded a hold on the game.
- When it comes to player statistics, holds are rarely kept, although they are frequently indicated in a box score, sometimes with the abbreviationHLD.
- Take, for example, the 2018 National League Cy Young Award winner, who played in 32 games but only won ten of them.

This was clearly not the fault of his fantastic performance, but victories continue to be a statistic by which many Cy Young voters evaluate the overall quality of a season, particularly in the American League.

### Pitching Averages

It is one of those statistics where the lower the earned run average, the more effective a pitching staff is. The earned run average (ERA) of a pitcher is derived by dividing the number of earned runs allowed (ER) by the number of innings pitched (IP) multiplied by nine (the traditional inning length of a game). As previously stated, unearned runs are not included in this calculation, which results in a more true representation of a pitcher’s success. Although the earned run average (ERA) is perhaps one of the most often utilized pitcher numbers, it is no longer considered to be the most accurate indication of a pitcher’s true skill as it once was.

#### Field Independent Pitching (FIP)

A pitcher’s performance is evaluated based on his or her ability to throw without being influenced by the team’s defense. Field independent pitching attempts to remove defensive fielding factors from a pitcher’s overall performance in order to more accurately represent a pitcher’s true value when evaluated without regard to the team defense. The FIP measures elements that are under the control of the pitcher, including as strikes, walks, hit by pitches, and home runs. FIP is a useful statistic since it is represented by a figure that is virtually equal to ERA but is a more accurate measure of a pitcher’s overall performance than ERA.

While Michael Fulmer had a 4.69 earned run average and a 4.52 fielding percentage average, his genuine results as a pitcher were slightly better than his earned run average would imply.

FIP (Fielding Independent Pitching) is not a perfect measure of pitcher quality, but it is a more accurate representation of a pitcher’s individual talent than the earned run average (ERA).

#### Adjusted ERA (ERA+)

OPS+ is a similar concept. The adjusted ERA aims to account for a pitcher’s home ballpark while calculating his or her overall ERA (which can be beneficial to pitchers who work in a hitter-friendly park, and negatively impact pitchers in a pitcher-friendly park). Similarly to OPS+, the league average is set at 100, and whatever amount a pitcher gets in excess of that figure represents their percentage improvement over the league mean. Despite only having 10 victories, Jacob deGrom had an ERA+ of 216, which meant that he was 116 percent better than the league average in terms of performance.

In this case, the formula is as follows: Thanks to Wikipedia for this image.

#### Walks plus hits per inning pitched (WHIP)

OPS+ is a good example of this. In order to account for a pitcher’s home stadium, the adjusted ERA is calculated (which can be beneficial to pitchers who work in a hitter-friendly park, and negatively impact pitchers in a pitcher-friendly park). Similarly to OPS+, the league average is set at 100, and whatever amount a pitcher gets in excess of that number represents their percentage improvement over the league standard. Despite only having 10 wins, Jacob deGrom had an ERA+ of 216, which meant that he was 116% better than the league average.

To compute ERA+, first factor in the player’s ERA, then divide it by the league ERA, before taking into consideration park effects. As an example, consider the following formula: Wikipedia has provided this image.