View Glossary Entries that have been struck by sacrifice. Prior to the year 1894, there was no record of it. In the years 1894 to 1907, they were virtually the same as they are now: a bunt that moved a baserunner forward. They contained what we would today refer to as a sacrificial fly between 1908 and 1925. (sacrifices increase 25 percent between 1907 and 1908 as a result). From 1926 through 1930, they counted any fly ball on which a runner progressed as a run, not simply those on which the runner was successful in scoring (another 25 percent increase in 1926).
In 1939, they reinstated the run-scoring sac fly (returning to the 1908-25 regulations), although they did so only for a short time before eliminating it completely in 1940.
Articles tagged with the letter SH will be shown.
SH appears in the followingBP GlossaryCategories:
Tony Gwynn had another outstanding season in 1997, with 592 at-bats and 220 strikeouts, and an avg of.372, which was the best in the National League. Which of these abbreviations do all of these letters stand for? The Baseball Almanac is glad to give a standard collection of acronyms that are seen and used in print on a regular basis in the sport of baseball.
|Offensive Abbreviations for Statistics|
|ABBBAVGCS2BGIDP GRSLHBPHHRRHRIBBISO LOB OBPOPSRRBISFSHSSLGSB%SBRSBSOTB3B||At BatsBases on Balls (Walks)Batting AverageCaught StealingDoublesGround into Double Plays Grand SlamsHit by PitchHitsHome Run RatioHome RunsIntentionalBasesonBalls(Walks)Isolated Power Left on Base On-Base PercentageOn-Base Plus SluggingRunsRuns Batted InSacrifice FliesSacrifice Hits (Bunts)SinglesSlugging PercentageStolen Base PercentageStolen Base RunsStolen BasesStrikeoutsTotal BasesTriples|
|Pitching Abbreviations for Statistics|
|AOBB BFPBKCBOCGCGLERERAGFGOGOAOGPGSHHBPHRIBBIPIRAIPSLMB9OBAPARRPFRWS/SHOSOSVSVOTBWWP||Fly Outs (Air)Walks (Bases on Balls) Batters Facing PitcherBalksCombined ShutoutComplete GamesComplete Game LossesEarned RunsEarned Run AverageGames FinishedGround OutsGround Outs / Fly Outs RatioGames PlayedGames StartedHitsHit BattersHome RunsIntentional WalksInnings PitchedInherited Runs AllowedInnings Per StartLossesBaserunners Per 9 InningsOpponents’ Batting AveragePlate AppearancesRunsRelief FailuresRelief WinsShutoutsStrikeoutsSavesSave OpportunitiesTotal BasesWinsWild Pitches|
|Defensive Abbreviations for Statistics|
|ACSDPEGPOFAPBPKPOSBTCTP||AssistsCaught StealingDouble PlaysErrorsGames PlayedOutfield AssistsPassed BallsPickoffsPutoutsStolen Bases Total ChancesTriple Plays|
|Miscellaneous Abbreviations for Statistics|
|ML SER||Major League Service|
|Baseball Stats Abbreviations 101|
The “common” set has several variations (DO Doubles, TR Triples, etc.), but these are the ones that are regarded “official” and are the ones that are used here at Baseball Almanac, among other places. Did you know that the National Association (a non-official league that gave rise to the National Leagueofficial )’s statistics were destroyed in a fire in the early 1900’s? Major League Baseball organized a Special Baseball Records Committee in the 1960s to examine the irregular records that had been kept previous to the 1920 season.
|Avg against left-handed pitchers|
|Avg against right-handed pitchers|
|Avg whenleading off an inning|
|Avg whenbatting with 2 outs|
|Avg whenbatting with runners on base|
|Avg whenbatting with bases empty|
|Avg whenbatting with runners on 2nd or 3rd base|
|Number of groundouts (includes SACs, but not errors)|
|Number of fly outs(incudes SFs, but not errors)|
|Fly outs to groundouts ratio|
|Avg as pinch hitter|
|with runners in scoring pos||Avg whenbatting with runners in scoring positions|
|w/rnr on 3rd and LT 2 outs||Avg whenbatting with runner on third base and less than 2 outs|
|Avg whenbatting with 2 outs|
|Runs batted in with 2 outs|
|Success advancing runners|
|Number of timesbatter made an out and advanced at least 1 runner|
|Number of runnersleft on base by last batter of inning|
|Reach first base on error|
|Reach first base on fielder’s choice|
Basic Baseball Stats Abbreviations
It is possible to make an already thrilling game even more interesting to watch by understanding the meanings of fundamental baseball statistics acronyms. If you know the W+S and BS percentages of a pitcher in the 7th inning, for example, a manager’s choice to replace him in the 7th inning signifies a lot more. Continue reading to understand the definitions of significant baseball acronyms, as well as how they impact the effectiveness of a baseball team. A large group of people is watching a baseball game.
Offensive Statistics Abbreviations
Batting practice is in session, so get ready to swing! The anticipation of seeing a hitter make his way from the strike zone to the infield is one of the most enjoyable aspects of the game. When a hitter or runner attempts to put points on the board, the following abbreviations are used to indicate their position.
What is the difference between an AB and a BA for a batter?
With the help of these abbreviations, you may become an expert in batting terminology and statistics.
- A total of 1BorS is a single
- A total of 2B is a double
- A total of 3B is a triple
- A total of AB is a total of at bats
- An AB/HR is a total of at bats per home run. AO- Airplane Takeoffs and Landings
- BAorAVG is the batting average
- BAorAVG is the batting average
- Bases on Balls (Walks)
- BB- Bases on Balls (Walks)
- In baseball, BABIP is for Batting Average on Balls in Play. In baseball, BB/K stands for Batting Average on Strikeouts. BRorBsR- Base Runs
- BRorBsR- Base Runs EQA is an abbreviation for Equivalent Average. Ground into Double Plays (GIDP) are a type of ground into double play. Ground Balls to Fly Balls
- GO/AO- Ground Balls to Fly Balls
- GSorGRSL- Grand Slams
- H- Hits
- HBP- Hit by Pitch
- GSorGRSL- Grand Slams
- HRR is an abbreviation for Home Run Ratio
- HR is an abbreviation for Home Runs
- HR/H is an abbreviation for Home Runs per Hit. Home Run within the park, abbreviated as ITPHR
- ISO is an abbreviation for Isolated Power
- KorSO is an abbreviation for Strikeouts
- And OBP is an abbreviation for On-Base Percentage. OPS stands for On-Base Plus Slugging
- PA stands for Plate Appearance
- PA/SO stands for Plate Appearances per Strikeout
- RBI stands for Runs Batted In
- RC stands for Runs Created. RISP stands for Runner in Scoring Position
- RP stands for Runs Produced
- SF stands for Sacrifice Flies
- SH stands for Sacrifice Hits (bunts)
- SLG stands for Slugging Average
- TA stands for Total Average
- TB stands for Total Bases
- TOB stands for Times on Base
- XBH stands for Extra Base Hits.
A total of 1BorS is a single; a total of 2B is a double; a total of 3B is a triple; a total of AB is a total of at bats; an AB/HR is a total of at bats per home run is AO- Airplane Takeoffs and Landings. AVG- Batting average; BAorAVG- Batting average; BAorAVG- Batting average; BAorAVG- Batting average; BAorAVG- Batting average Bases on Balls (Walks) are referred to as BB. Walks to Strikeouts (BB/K) are used to measure the average of balls in play (BABIP). The BRorBsR (Base Runs) acronym stands for Base Runs or Base Running.
- Double Plays on the Ground; Ground into Double Plays; Ground into Double Plays The transition from Ground Balls to Fly Balls is known as the GO/AO transition.
- A home run ratio (HRR), home runs (HR), and home runs per hit (HR/H) are all terms that are used to describe how many home runs are hit in a game.
- The terms On-Base Plus Slugging (OPS) and Plate Appearance (PA) are interchangeable; PA/SO is Plate Appearances per Strikeout (PA/SO); RBI is Runs Batted In; RC is Runs Created (RC).
- Sacrifice Flies (SF); Sacrifice Hits (SH); SLG- Slugging Average.
- CS stands for Caught Stealing
- DI stands for Defensive Indifference
- LOB stands for Left on Base (Runners)
- R stands for Runs
- SB stands for Stolen Bases. SB percent stands for Stolen Base Percentage
- SBAorATT stands for Stolen Base Attempts
- SBR stands for Stolen Base Runs
- And UBR stands for Ultimate Base Running.
Defense Statistics Abbreviations
A high-quality pitcher has the ability to influence the flow and outcome of a baseball game. An inexpensive pitcher, on the other hand, can accomplish the same result. See how the statistics of fielders and pitchers may have an impact on a baseball team’s infield and outfield defense.
What distinguishes a first baseman as one worth keeping an eye on? What about a left fielder or right fielder? With the help of these acronyms, you may get more familiar with fielding statistics.
- A stands for assists
- CI stands for Catcher’s Interference
- DP stands for double plays
- E stands for errors
- FP stands for Fielding Percentage
- GP stands for games played. The following terms are used in baseball: INN-innings (in a certain position)
- OFA-outfield assists
- PB-passed balls
- TC-total chances (assists plus putouts + errors)
- TP-triple plays
- UZR-ultimate zone rating.
Pitching statistics have the ability to make or break a team’s defensive performance. Examine the following baseball acronyms to determine what is desirable – and what is unsafe – in a pitching bullpen.
- BB- Bases on Balls
- BB/9- Bases on Balls per nine innings
- BF- Batters Faced
- BB/9- Bases on Balls per nine innings BFP stands for Batters Facing the Pitcher. Balks (illegal pitching actions)
- BK- Balks (Balks (Illegal Pitching Actions)
- BS stands for Blown Save. CERA is for Component ERA
- CBO stands for Combined Shutout
- CG stands for Complete Games
- CGL stands for Complete Game Losses
- DICE stands for Defense-Independent Component ERA. ER is for Earned Runs
- ERA stands for Earned Run Average. GorGP- Games have been pitched
- GF- Games have been completed. Double Plays or Double Play Groundouts Induced
- GIDPO- Double Play Opportunities
- GIDP- Double Plays or Double Play Groundouts Induced GIR stands for Games in Relief. GO- Ground Outs
- GO/AO- Ground Outs to Fly Outs
- GO/AO- Ground Outs to Fly Outs GS stands for Games Started
- FIP stands for Fielding Independent Pitching. HorHA stands for Hits Allowed
- H/9orHA/9 stands for Hits Allowed over 9 Innings
- HBorHBP stands for Hit Batters
- HLDorH stands for Hold
- HRorHRA stands for Home Runs Allowed. IR- Inherited Runners
- IRA- Inherited Runs Allowed
- K- Strikeouts
- K/9orSO/9- Strikeouts per nine innings
- L- Losses (while pitching)
- BB- Balls on Bases
- IPS- Innings Per Start
- IBBorIW- Intentional Walks
- IP/GS- Innings Pitched Per Games Started
- IP/GS- Innings Pitched per Games Started LOB is an abbreviation for Left on Base
- LOB percent is an abbreviation for Left on Base Percentage
- OBA is an abbreviation for Opponents’ Batting Average. The pitch count and strike count inside those pitches are denoted by the letters PC-ST. PIT or NP-Pitch Count
- MB9-Baserunners Per 9 Innings
- PIT or NP-Pitch Count
- PFR is the Power Finesse Ratio (the sum of strikeouts and walks divided by the number of innings pitched). QOP is for Quality of Pitch
- QS stands for Quality Start. RA is for Run Average (number of runs allowed over nine innings)
- RPF stands for Relief Failures
- RW stands for Relief Wins. Shutouts
- S/SHO- Shutouts SIERA (Skill-Interactive Earned Run Average) is an acronym that stands for Skill-Interactive Earned Run Average. A combination of K/SO and strikeouts. SV- Saves
- SVO- Save Opportunities
- W- Wins
- W+S- Relief Wins and Saves
- SV- Saves
- SVO- Save Opportunities WHIP is the number of walks and hits allowed per inning pitched. WP stands for Wild Pitches.
When it comes to baseball acronyms, the acronym NERD may come up in conversation. NERD is an abbreviation for Narration, Exposition, Reflection, and Description, which is a word used in abermetrics. In its simplest form, it is a mathematical formula that evaluates the aesthetic worth of seeing a pitcher (pNERD) or a team (tNERD) play baseball based on a variety of performance measures.
- Grades 8 through 12 are divided into four categories: middle school, high school, and college.
- Baseball Position Abbreviations and Numbers (Baseball Positions) A baseball position list may be quite useful while studying the game of baseball or when attempting to solve a baseball crossword puzzle puzzle hint. In baseball, the different player positions are sometimes reduced and replaced with standardized numbers in order to make calling and scoring a game more efficient
- For example, Baseball Abbreviations for the Scoreboard and Scorecard Baseball scorecards are used by everyone from Little League umpires to Major League umpires to baseball spectators to keep track of all the activity during a game of baseball. If you want to be able to write or read a baseball scorecard, you’ll need to start by being familiar with all of the standard baseball scorecard acronyms and symbols.
STATS Hosted Solution
|Definitions of Baseball Terms|
|% Inherited Scored||A Relief Pitching statistic indicating the percentage of runners on base at the time a relief pitcher enters a game that he allows to score.|
|1st Batter OBP||The On-Base Percentage allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces in a game.|
|Active Career Batting Leaders||Minimum of 1,000 At Bats required for Batting Average, On-Base Percentage, Slugging Percentage, At Bats Per HR, At Bats Per GDP, At Bats Per RBI, and K/BB Ratio. One hundred (100) Stolen Base Attempts required for Stolen Base Success %. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category’s minimum requirements.|
|Active Career Pitching Leaders||Minimum of 750 Innings Pitched required for Earned Run Average, Opponent Batting Average, all of the Per 9 Innings categories, and Strikeout to Walk Ratio. Two hundred fifty (250) Games Started required for Complete Game Frequency. One hundred (100) decisions required for Win-Loss Percentage. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category’s minimum requirements.|
|BA ScPos Allowed||Batting Average Allowed with Runners in Scoring Position.|
|Baserunners per Nine Innings||These are the hits, walks and hit batsmen allowed per nine innings.|
|Bases Loaded||This category shows a player’s batting average in bases loaded situation.|
|Batting Average||Hits divided by At Bats.|
|Bequeathed Runners||Any runner(s) on base when a pitcher leaves a game are considered bequeathed to the departing hurler; the opposite of inherited runners (see below).|
|Blown Saves||This is charged any time a pitcher comes into a game where a save situation is in place and he loses the lead.|
|Catcher’s ERA||The Earned Run Average of a club’s pitchers with a particular catcher behind the plate. To figure this for a catcher, multiply the Earned Runs Allowed by the pitchers while he was catching times nine and divide that by his number of Innings Caught.|
|Cheap Wins/Tough Losses/Top Game Scores||First determine the starting pitcher’s Game Score as follows:|
- Start with a number of 50
- The starting pitcher gets one point for every strikeout he records
- After the fourth inning, add 2 points for each additional inning the pitcher goes on to complete. For each strikeout, add one point to your total. For each hit that is permitted, deduct two points. For each earned run that is permitted, subtract 4 points. Add 2 points to account for an unearned run. For each stroll, deduct one point from your total.
|Cleanup Slugging%||The Slugging Percentage of a player when batting fourth in the batting order.|
|Clutch||This category shows a player’s batting average in the late innings of close games: the seventh inning or later with the batting team ahead by one, tied, or has the tying run on base, at bat or on deck.|
|Complete Game Frequency||Complete Games divided by Games Started.|
|Defensive Batting Average||A composite statistic incorporating various defensive statistics to arrive at a number akin to batting average. The formula uses standard deviations to establish a spread from best to worst.|
|Earned Run Average||(Earned Runs times 9) divided by Innings Pitched.|
|Fast-A||Otherwise known as “Advanced A,” these A-level minor leagues are the California League, Carolina League and Florida Stat League.|
|Favorite Toy||The Favorite Toy is a method that is used to estimate a player’s chance of getting to a specific goal in the following example, we’ll say 3,000 hits.Four things are considered:|
- Needed Hits – the number of hits required to get the desired result. (Of course, this could also be “Need Home Runs” or “Need Doubles” – whatever you choose to call it.)
- Years Remaining in the Contract. The formula 24-.6 is used to estimate the number of years that will be required to achieve the target (age). As a result of this approach, players under the age of 20 have 12.0 seasons left on their contract. Players under the age of 25 have nine seasons left on their contract, players under 30 have 6.0 seasons left on their contract, and players over 35 have just three season left on their contract. Any athlete who is currently actively participating in competitive sports is presumed to have at least 1.5 seasons left, regardless of his or her age. Hit Level has been established. For 1996, the established hit level would be calculated by multiplying 1993 hits by two times 1994 hits by three times 1995 hits by six, and then dividing the result by six. In order to be eligible, a player must have an established performance level that is more than three-fourths of his or her most recent performance level—for example, a player who had 200 hits in 1995 cannot have an established hit level lower than 150 hits. Hits that are expected to be made in the future. This is calculated by multiplying the second number (the number of ears left) by the third number (the established hit level)
Once you have obtained the projected remaining hits, the probability of achieving the objective is calculated as (projected remaining hits) divided by (require hits), minus.5. If your “require hits” and your “projected remaining hits” are the same, you have a 50 percent probability of achieving your target using this technique of calculation.
If your anticipated remaining hits are 20 percent greater than your required hits, you have a 70 percent probability of achieving your target in time. There are two specific rules, as well as a note:
- The probability of a player continuing to develop toward a goal cannot be more than.97 per year. For example, a player cannot calculate that they have a 148 percent probability of completing their goal because this is against the rules.)
- The possibility of a player continuing to develop toward the objective cannot be more than.75 each season if his offensive winning percentage is below.500 throughout the season. If a below-average batter is two years away from attaining a goal, his likelihood of accomplishing that objective cannot be proved to be better than nine-sixteenths of a percent, or three-fourths times three-fourths, no of his age.
- Rather of using actual figures from a complete season of play, we utilized predicted metrics for 1994 and 1995.
|Fielding Percentage||(Putouts plus Assists) divided by (Putouts plus Assists plus Errors).|
|First Batter Efficiency||This statistic tells you the batting average allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces.|
|GDP per GDP Situation||A GDP situation exists any time there is a man on first with less than two outs. This statistic measures how often a player grounds into a double play in that situation.|
|Go-Ahead RBI||Any time a player drives in a run which gives his team the lead, he is credited with a go-ahead RBI.|
|Ground/Fly Ratio (Grd/Fly)||Simply a hitter’s ground balls divided by his fly balls. All batted balls except line drives and bunts are included.|
|Hold||A Hold is credited any time a relief pitcher enters a game in a Save Situation (see definition below), records at least one out, and leaves the game never having relinquished the lead.Note: a pitcher cannot finish the game and receive credit for a Hold, nor can he earn a hold and a save.|
|Inherited Runner||Any runner(s) on base when a relief pitcher enters a game are considered “inherited” by that pitcher.|
|Isolated Power||Slugging Percentage minus Batting Average.|
|K/BB Ratio||Strikeouts divided by Walks.|
|LateClose||A LateClose situation meets the following requirements:|
- During the seventh inning or later, the batting side is either up by one run, tied, or has a possible tying run on base, at the plate, or on deck
- The game is over
|Leadoff On Base%||The On-Base Percentage of a player when batting first in the batting order.|
|No Decision (ND)||The result when a starter is credited with neither a win nor a loss.|
|OBP+SLUG (OPS)||On-base percentage plus slugging percentage.|
|Offensive Winning Percentage (OWP)||The Winning Percentage a team of nine Fred McGriffs (or anybody) would compile against average pitching and defense. The formula: (Runs Created per 27 outs) divided by the League average of runs scored per game. Square the result and divide it by (1+itself).|
|On Base Percentage||(Hits plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher) divided by (At Bats plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies).|
|Opponent Batting Average||Hits Allowed divided by (Batters Faced minus Walks minus Hit Batsmen minus Sacrifice Hits minus Sacrifice Flies minus Catcher’s Interference).|
|Outfielder Hold Percentage||A statistic used to evaluate outfielders’ throwing arms. “Hold Percentage” is computed by dividing extra bases taken (by baserunners) by the number of opportunities. For example, if a single is lined to center field with men on first and second, and one man scores while the other stops at second, that is one extra base taken on two opportunities, a 50.0 hold percentage.|
|PA*||The divisor for On Base Percentage: At Bats plus Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies; or Plate Appearances minus Sacrifice Hits and Times Reached Base on Defensive Interference.|
|PCS (Pitchers’ Caught Stealing)||The number of runners officially counted as Caught Stealing where the initiator of the fielding play was the pitcher, not the catcher. Note: such plays are often referred to as pickoffs, but appear in official records as Caught Stealings. The most common pitcher caught stealing scenario is a 1-3-6 fielding play, where the runner is officially charged a Caught Stealing because he broke for second base. Pickoff (fielding play 1-3 being the most common) is not an official statistic.|
|Percentage of Pitches Taken||This tells you how often a player lets a pitch go by without swinging.|
|Percentage of Swings Put In Play||This tells you how often a player hits the ball into fair territory, or is retired on a foul-ball out, when he swings.|
|Pickoffs (Pk)||The number of times a runner was picked off base by a pitcher.|
|Pivot Percentage||The number of double plays turned by a second baseman as the pivot man, divided by the number of opportunities.|
|PkOf Throw/Runner||The number of pickoff throws made by a pitcher divided by the number of runners on first base.|
|Plate Appearances||At Bats plus Total Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Hits plus Sacrifice Flies plus Times Reached on Defensive Interference.|
|Power/Speed Number||A way to look at power and speed in one number. A player must score high in both areas to earn a high Power/Speed Number.The formula: (HR x SB x 2) divided by (HR + SB).|
|Quality Start||Any start in which a pitcher works six or more innings while allowing three or fewer earned runs.|
|Quick Hooks and Slow Hooks||A Quick Hook is the removal of a pitcher who has pitched less than 6 innings and given up 3 runs or less. A Slow Hook occurs when a pitcher pitches more than 9 innings, or allows 7 or more runs, or whose combined innings pitched and runs allowed totals 13 or more.|
|Range Factor||The number of Chances (Putouts plus Assists) times nine divided by the number of Defensive Innings Played. The average for a Regular Player at each position in 1997:|
- 5.00 points for second base, 2.67 points for third base, 4.56 points for shortstop, and 1.99 points for left field, 2.55 points for center field, and 2.06 points for right field.
|Relief Points (Pts)||Wins plus saves minus losses|
|Run Support Per 9 IP||The number of runs scored by a pitcher’s team while he was still in the game times nine divided by his Innings Pitched.|
|Runs Created||A way to combine a batter’s total offensive contributions into one number. The formula:(H + BB + HBP – CS – GIDP) times (Total Bases +.26(TBB – IBB + HBP) +.52(SH + SF + SB)) divided by (AB + TBB + HBP + SH + SF).|
|Runs/Times on Base||This is calculated by dividing Runs Scored by Times on Base|
|Save Percentage||Saves (SV) divided by Save Opportunities (OP).|
|Save Situation||A Relief Pitcher is in a Save Situation when upon entering the game with his club leading, he has the opportunity to be the finishing pitcher (and is not the winning pitcher of record at the time), and meets any one of the three following conditions:|
- He enters the game with a lead of no more than three runs and has the opportunity to pitch for at least one inning, or he enters the game with the potential tying run on base, at bat, or on deck, regardless of the count, or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save
- Or he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer awards him a save
|SBA||Stolen-base attempts against a catcher|
|SB Success%||Stolen Bases divided by (Stolen Bases plus Caught Stealing).|
|Secondary Average||A way to look at a player’s extra bases gained, independent of Batting Average. The formula:(Total Bases – Hits + TBB + SB) divided by At Bats.|
|Slow-A||Otherwise known as “Regular A,” these full-season minor leagues contain less-experienced professional players. The Slow-A leagues are the Midwest League and South Atlantic League (Sally).|
|Slugging Percentage||Total Bases divided by At Bats.|
|Stolen Base Percentage Allowed||This figure indicates how successful opposing baserunners are when attempting a stolen base. It’s stolen bases divided by stolen-base attempts.|
|Times on Base||Hits plus walks plus hit by pitch|
|Total Bases||Hits plus Doubles plus (2 times Triples) plus (3 times Home runs).|
|Win-Loss Percentage or Winning Percentage||Wins divided by (Wins plus Losses).|
|Zone Rating||Simply the percentage of balls fielded by a player in his typical defensive “zone,” as measured by STATS reporters.|
|Formulas and Definitions|
|PA||AB + BB + HBP + SF + SH + defensive interference|
|PA*||AB + BB + HBP + SF|
|OBP||(H + BB = HBP)/(AB + BB + HBP + SF)|
|Ahead/Behind in Count||For hitters, ahead in count includes 1-0, 2-0, 3-0, 2-1 and 3-1. Behind in count for hitters includes 0-1, 0-2, 1-2 and 2-2. The opposite is true for pitchers.|
|Day/Night||Officially, night games in the National League are those that start after 5:00 pm, while night games in the AL begin after 6:00 pm. Therefore, a game at 5:30 in Yankee Stadium is a day game while one in Shea Stadium at the same time is a night game. We avoid this silliness by calling all games starting after 5:00pm night games.|
|First Pitch||Refers to the first pitch of a given at bat, and any walks listed here are intentional walks.|
|Grass/Turf||Grass is grass. Turf is artificial turf.|
|Groundball/Flyball Ratio||A hitter’s stats against pitchers that induce mostly grounders or flies, respectively. If the ratio is less than 1.00, then he is a Flyball hitter. If it is greater than 1.50, he is a Groundball hitter. Anything else is classified as neutral. Same cutoffs apply for classifying pitchers. Anyone with less than 50 plate appearances is automatically neutral.|
|First Inning Pitched||Describes the result of the pitcher’s work until he recorded three outs.|
|Inning 1-6 and Inning 7+||These refer to the actual innings in which a pitcher worked.|
|None On/Out||Refers to situation when there are no outs and the bases are empty (generally leadoff situations).|
|None On/Runners On||Describes the status of the baserunners|
|Number of Pitches||This section shows the results of balls put into play while his pitch count was in that range.|
|Pitcher/Batter Match-Ups||The following conditions must be met before a player is added to the list:|
- For a batter to be considered a “Hits Best Against” candidate, there must be at least 10 plate appearances between him and the pitcher
- And for a pitcher to be considered a “Pitches Best Against” candidate, the batter must have a.300 batting average against the pitcher, and the pitcher must limit the batting average of the batter to under.250.
|Scoring Position||At least one runner must be at either second or third base.|
|Vs. 1st Batr (Relief)||Describes what happened to the first batter a reliever faces.|
Baseball statistics – BR Bullpen
Baseball statistics are extremely important, perhaps more important than in any other sport. Because the game of baseball has a fairly ordered flow to it, it lends itself to easy record keeping and statistical analysis, which is advantageous. As a result, it is extremely simple to create comparisons between players’ on-field performances, and as a result, baseball statistics are given greater prominence than they are in most other sports.
Development of statistics
Henry Chadwick established the tradition of maintaining records of the players’ accomplishments in the 19th century, and it has continued ever since. Based on his cricketing expertise, Chadwick established the precursors of modern-day statistics such as batting average, runs scored, and runs allowed, among other things. The statistical world of baseball has traditionally been dominated by statistics such as hitters’ batting average (the number of hits divided by the number of at bats) and pitchers’ earned run average (roughly the number of runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings).
These statistics are intended to provide a more accurate representation of a player’s overall performance and contribution to his team from year to year.
In 1969, MacMillan Publishing published the firstBaseball Encyclopedia, which was the first publication to use a computer to gather statistics for the sport.
Interestingly, this research resulted in the identification of a number of players who did not appear in the official record books.
Use of statistics
Player statistics are studied by general managers and baseball scouts in order to make conclusions about the skills of individual players. Managers, catchers, and pitchers research the statistics of opposing teams’ batters in order to determine the best way to pitch to them and place the players on the field in order to win the game. Managers and hitters research opposing pitchers in order to find out how to hit them the most effectively. Management makes personnel choices during games, such as who to start in the lineup and which relief pitcher to bring in, on the basis of statistical data collected throughout the game.
- The most frequently mentioned batting statistics are batting average, runs batted in, and home runs.
- For pitchers, wins, earned run average, and strikeouts are the classic statistics that are most frequently referenced.
- Some sabermetric data have made their way into the mainstream of baseball.
- It is calculated by multiplying the hitter’s base percentage (the number of times he or she reached base—by any means—divided by the total number of plate appearances) by the hitter’s slugging percentage (total basesdivided by at bats).
- The batting average of a pitcher is also significant in measuring his or her degree of success.
- A pitcher’s statistics may be broken down into several categories, the most important of which are K/9IP (strikeouts per nine innings), K/BB (strikeouts per walk), HR/9, WHIP (walks plus hits per inning thrown), and OOPS (opponent on-base plus slugging).
- In the case of pitchers, these statistics, such as the Defense-Independent ERA (dERA), make an attempt to evaluate a pitcher on the basis of events that are completely influenced by the pitcher’s performance and not by the strength of the defensive players behind him or her.
- An experienced manager may be more inclined to give a given batter more opportunities to face left-handed pitchers because of the hitter’s ability to hit left-handed pitchers.
Depending on the pitcher (or vice versa), other batters may have a track record of success against that pitcher, and the manager can utilize this knowledge to construct a beneficial matchup.
Commonly used statistics
The majority of these words are also applicable to softball. Several commonly used statistics, as well as their acronyms, are described in this section. In order to provide a fast reference, the explanations below do not fully or totally describe the statistic; for a more thorough definition, please go to the related article for each statistic.
- A single hit that allows the batter to safely reach first base without the assistance of a fielding mistake is designated as 1B. 2B -Double-hits in which the hitter successfully advances to second base without the assistance of a fielding mistake
- 3B -Triple-hits in which the hitter successfully advances to third base without the assistance of a fielding error
- The term “at bat” refers to a batting appearance, which does not include bases-on-balls, balls hit by pitches, sacrifices, interference, or obstruction. At bats per home run (AB/HR) is the sum of at bats divided by the number of home runs. BA – Batting average (often abbreviated AVG) – the number of hits divided by the number of at bats The term “base on balls” refers to a situation in which a batter receives four balls and advances to first base. Walking to strikeout ratio (BB/K) is the number of base on balls divided by the number of outs in a game. Extra base hits (doubles, triples, and home runs) are referred to as XBH. FC (Fielder’s Choice) refers to situations when a runner reaches base after a fielder has decided to try to force an out on another runner. Number of ground balls out divided by the number of fly ball outs is known as AO/GO (Ground Ball Fly Ball Ratio). Number of ground balls that were hit and turned into double plays (also known as GDP or GiDP)
- When a home run is hit with the bases loaded, four runs are scored and four RBIs are recorded to the batter, this is known as a Grand Slam. Batted fair ball with no errors by the defense resulted in a hit, which allowed the batter to advance to second base. HBP (hit by pitch) refers to instances in which a pitch is touched and the batter is given first base as a consequence. Home runs are defined as hits on which the hitter successfully touches all four bases without the benefit of a defensive mistake. IBB stands for “intentional base on balls.” A base on balls (see BB above) is a base on balls that is intentionally thrown by the pitcher. IW (intentional walk) is another term for this activity. Number of times a strike three is taken or swung at and missed or a bunted foul is committed is denoted by the letter K. LOB (Left on Base) refers to the number of runners who are not out and have not scored at the end of an inning. OBP (On Base Percentage) is calculated by dividing the number of times a player has reached base (H + BB + HBP) by the total number of at bats plus walks plus hit by pitch plus sacrifice flies (AB + BB + HBP + SF). On-base plus slugging (OPS) is the sum of the on-base percentage and the slugging average. PA -Plate appearance – is the total number of completed batting appearances in a season. It is possible to assess how many runs a player has contributed to his team using the RC (Runs generated) statistic. In baseball, the term “run batted in” refers to the number of runners who have scored as the result of a hitter’s action, with the exception of when the batter grounds into a double play or reaches on an error. Sacrifice fly (SF) – the number of fly ball outs that allow another runner to advance on the basepaths or score a run
- Number of sacrifice bunts that have been made to allow another runner to advance on the basepaths or score
- SH -Sacrifice hit – SLG (slugging average) is the sum of all bases divided by the number of at-bats. To calculate total average, divide total bases plus walks plus steals by the number of plate appearances plus the number of times a player is caught stealing. T – Total bases: one for each single, two for each double, three for each triple, and four for each home run
- TB = Total bases
- TOB (Times on Base) refers to the number of times a player has reached base as a consequence of hits, walks, or being hit by a pitch.
- If someone is caught stealing, they are tagged out for a certain amount of time. Number of bases advanced other than through batted balls, walks, or hits by pitch
- SB -Stolen base R – Runscored – times when the player returned to home base legally and safely
- R – Runscored – times when the player returned to home base illegally and safely
- R – Runsscored – times when the player returned to home base illegally and safely
- R – Run
- BABIP (Batting Average on Balls in Play) is a batting average against a pitcher on batted balls that end a plate appearance, excluding home runs, that is calculated after a plate appearance. BB is an abbreviation for “base on balls” (also called a “walk”) times throwing four balls, allowing the batter-runner to make it to first base on four different occasions In baseball, BB/9 is defined as the number of base on balls multiplied by nine and divided by the number of innings pitched (bases on balls for every nine innings pitched). BF – total batters faced – the total number of plate appearances made by the opponent In baseball, BK stands for the number of times a pitcher executes an unlawful throwing motion or other illegal activity while in contact with the pitching rubber, resulting in baserunners moving forward. Number of times a player has entered the game in a save position and then been charged with a run that ties the game
- BS -Blown save- CERA is an acronym that stands for Component In baseball, the term “earned run average” (ERA) refers to an estimate of a pitcher’s ERA based on the separate components of his statistical line (Ks, H, 2B, 3B, HR, BB, HBP)
- CG -Complete game – the number of games in which a player was the lone pitcher for his side
- A player’s CG -Complete game – DICE (Defense-Independent Component) is an acronym that stands for Defense-Independent Component. the estimated earned run average (ERA) of a pitcher based on the components of his statistical line that are not reliant on defense (K, HR, BB, HBP)
- In baseball, earned runs are the number of runs that are not scored as a consequence of mistakes or passed balls. ERA (earned run average) is calculated as follows: earned runs multiplied by the number of innings in a game (typically nine) divided by the number of innings pitched
- G -Games thrown (also known as’Appearances ‘) – the number of times a pitcher throws a pitch in a season. The number of games pitched in which the player was the last pitcher for his club is denoted by the letter GF (Games completed). Ground ball to fly ball ratio (G/F) is the number of ground balls permitted divided by the number of fly balls allowed. A player’s number of games pitched when he was the first pitcher for his team is denoted by the letter GS. H/9 -Hits per nine innings – Hits allowed multiplied by nine divided by the number of innings pitched (also known as H/9IP -Hits allowed per nine innings pitched)
- H/9IP -Hits allowed per nine innings pitched H -Hits Allowed – total number of hits permitted
- HB -Hit batsman – refers to a hitter who has been hit by a pitch, allowing the runner to reach first base. HLD (or H) -Hold- is the number of games in which a save situation has been entered, where the save situation has been abandoned, where at least one out has been recorded, and where the lead has not been relinquished
- HR -Home runs permitted – total number of home runs permitted It is permissible to use intentional base on balls (IBB). It stands for inherited runners, which is the amount of runners on base when the pitcher comes into the game. IRA (Inherited Runs Allowed) is the maximum number of inherited runners that can score. Innings pitched is the product of the number of outs recorded while pitching multiplied by three. Innings pitched per game (IP/GS) is the average number of innings pitched each game. K – Strikeout – the number of hitters that were hit with a third strike
- AKA K/9 (Strikeouts per nine innings) is calculated by multiplying the number of strikeouts by nine and dividing the number of innings pitched (Strikeouts per nine innings pitched). A ratio of strikeouts to walks is calculated by dividing the number of strikeouts by the number of base on balls. Winning percentage of games in which pitcher was pitching when the opposition side gained an early lead, never relinquished control of the lead, and went on to win
- Opponents batting average (OBA) is calculated by dividing the number of hits allowed by the number of at-bats faced. PITCH COUNT – Number of pitches thrown (Pitch Count)
- RA (Run Average) is the product of the number of runs allowed multiplied by nine and divided by the number of innings pitched. Running against the average is a sabermetric statistic that may be used to forecast victory %. SO – Shutout – the amount of complete games thrown without allowing a single run
- A pitcher’s save is the number of games in which a pitcher enters a game with a lead held by the pitcher’s team and exits that game with no loss of the lead, is not the winning pitcher, and either (a) the lead was three runs or less when the pitcher entered the game
- (b) the potential tying run was on base or at bat
- Or (c) the pitcher pitched three or more innings. In games when a pitcher was pitching while his team gained the lead and went on to win (also known as winning percentage), W represents the number of games won. When a pitch is thrown too high, too low, or too wide of home plate for the catcher to field, a wild pitch charge is applied, enabling one or more runners to advance or score.
- It is possible to record the number of outs on a play in which a fielder touches the ball, save if such touching is for a putout, as a “Assist.” One for each double play in which the fielder recorded a putout or an assist, and one for each double play in which the fielder recorded an assist
- DP -Double plays Number of times a fielder fails to make a play that he should have made with reasonable effort, and the offense gains as a result of this failure
- To calculate fielding percentage, divide the total number of plays (chances less mistakes) by the total number of opportunities. INN -Innnings – the number of innings that a player spends in a specific position on the field When the ball is dropped and one or more runners advance, the catcher is charged with a passed ball (also known as a passed ball charge). Number of times a fielder tags, forces, or appeals a runner and the runner is subsequently thrown out
- PO – Putout Ranging factor (*9) divided by the number of innings played. When determining how much field a player can cover, this is taken into consideration. Stolen bases (also known as stolen bases) refer to the number of times a runner advances on a pitch without being caught by the catcher. TC stands for total chances, which includes assists, putouts, and mistakes. Each triple play during which the fielder recorded a putout or an assist is denoted by the letters TP (triple play).
- G -Games played – the total number of games in which the player participated in full or in part
- Baseball, Statistics, and the Role of Chance in the Game by Jim Albert and Jay Bennett was published by Copernicus Books in New York in 2001 with the ISBN 978-0387988160
- Jim Albert and Jay Bennett’s Curve Ball is available on Amazon.com for $9.99. Jim Albert: Teaching Statistics Using Baseball, 2nd edition, Mathematical Association of America Press, Providence, RI, 2017.ISBN 978-1-93951-216-1
- Gabriel B. Costa, Michael R. Huber, and John T. Saccoman: Understanding Sabermetrics: An Introduction to the Science of Baseball Statistics, 2nd edition, Mathematical Association of America Press, Providence, RI, 2017.ISBN 978-1-93951-216-1
- Jim Albert: Teaching Statistics Using Baseball McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2008
- William Darby: Deconstructing Major League Baseball, 1991-2004: How Statistics Illuminate Individual and Team Performances, McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2008. McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2006. Steve Gardner (interviewer): “According to Gary Gillette and Lyle Spatz: “Not chiseled in stone. A guide to advanced baseball statistics like as WAR, BABIP, FIP, and more”, USA Today, July 17, 2019. Baseball’s Enduring Records and the SABR Era”, The Baseball Research Journal, SABR, Volume 40, Number 2 (Fall 2011), pp. 7-11
- Glenn Guzzo, “The New Ballgame: Understanding Baseball Statistics for the Casual Fan,” ACTA Sports, Skokie, IL, 2007
- Bill James, “Stats in Baseball,” The Baseball Research Journal, SABR, Volume 40, Number 2 (Fall 2011), pp. 7-11
- Bill James, “Stats “Kevin Reavy and Ryan Spaeder:Is Baseball a Simple Game?, in: Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns:Baseball: an Illustrated History, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, 1994, pp. 101-103
- Keith Law:Smart Baseball: The Story Behind the Old Stats That Are Ruining the Game, the New Stats That Are Running It, and the Right Way to Think About Baseball, HarperCollins, New York, NY, 2017.
Some or all of the information in this article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, which you can read more about here. “Baseball statistics” is taken from the Wikipedia page “Baseball statistics.”
MLB Baseball Abbreviations Legend
MLB Abbreviations and Symbols
|W / L||Wins / Losses||C||Catcher|
|ATS||Record Against The Spread||1B||First Base|
|Slug||Slugging Percentage||2B||Second Base|
|Ho||Home record||3B||Third Base|
|Aw||Away Record||SS||Short Stop|
|O/U||Over/Under Record||LF||Left Field|
|AF||Average Runs For||CF||Center Field|
|AA||Average Runs Against||RF||Right Field|
|BA||Batting Average||DH||Designated Hitter|
|SLG||Slugging Percentage||SP||Starting Pitcher|
|HR||Home Runs For||RP||Relief Pitcher|
|ERA||Earned Run Average|
|OBP||On Base Percentage|
|Home-Away||Home Score – Away Score|
|H Starter||Home Starter in that particular game|
|A Starter||Away Starter in that particular game|
|LOB:R||Left On Base to Runs ratio|
|OPS||Slugging Percentage + On Base Percentage|
|AVG||Batting Average for that game|
|Starter||Team’s Starter for that game|
|IP||Innings the starter pitched|
|Opp Starter||Innings the starter pitched|
|H||Hits Allowed by the starter|
|R||Runs Allowed by the starter|
|ER||Earned Runs Allowed by the starter|
|SO||Strikeouts by the starter|
|BB||Base on Balls allowed by the starter|
|PIT||Total Pitches by the starter|
|P/IP||Pitches divided by the number of Innings Pitched|
|G/F||Number of Ground Ball outs divided by the Fly Ball outs|
|OBA||Opposition Batting Average|
|WHIP||Walks and Hits per Inning Pitched|
|GB:FB||Ground Ball to Fly Ball Ratio|
|SB%||Stolen Base Percentage|
|QS%||Quality Start Percentage|
|TWL||Team Win – Team Loss|
|vs. R||vs. Right-handed Pitchers|
|vs. L||vs. Left-handed Pitchers|
|R/9||Runs per nine innings|
|$||Units Won or Lost|
|Line||Line for the game|
|$ Won||Units Won|
|$ Loss||Units Lost|