## On-base plus slugging – Wikipedia

A player’s on-base plus slugging (OPS) % is derived as the sum of his on-base percentage and slugging percentage, and it is a sabermetric baseball statistic. The ability of a player to get on base as well as hit for power, two crucial offensive qualities, are both illustrated in this illustration. Among Major League Baseball, a batter with an OPS of.800 or greater is considered to be in the highest tier of hitters. Typically, the league leader in OPS will have a score that is close to, and occasionally even above, 1.000.

## Equation

Where OBP represents on-base percentage and SLG represents slugging average, we have the following equation. These averages have been established. – the numerator “H + BB +HBP” essentially means “number of trips to first base at the very least” – the denominator “AB + BB + SF +HBP” basically means “total plate appearances,” but does not include sacrifice bunts. A hitter is not granted a “AB” despite the fact that he steps to the plate (BB or HBP) or puts the ball into play and is ruled out, but the action allows a run to score (as in the SF scenario) even though he has made a trip to the plate.

andwhere:

- H stands for hits
- BB stands for bases on balls
- HBP stands for times hit by pitch
- AB stands for at bats
- SF stands for sacrifice fly
- TB stands for total bases.

OPS may be expressed as follows in a single equation:

## History

The Hidden Game of Baseball, written by John Thorn and Pete Palmer in 1984, was the first book to make on-base plus slugging popular. The New York Times then began publishing the names of the top performers in this statistic in its weekly “By the Numbers” box, a feature that ran for four years and was widely adopted. Peter Gammons, a baseball journalist, popularized and evangelized the statistic, which was then picked up by other writers and announcers. Its popularity grew over time, and by 2004, it was featured on baseball cards produced by Topps Baseball Cards.

Examples include Thorn’sTotal Baseballencyclopedia and theStrat-O-Matic Computer Baseballgame, both of which contained manufacturing information in their early editions.

The availability of its components, OBP and SLG, as well as the fact that team OPS corresponds highly with the number of runs scored, contributed to the rise in popularity of OPS.

## An OPS scale

Bill James, in his essay titled “The 96 Families of Hitters,” classifies hitters into seven separate groups based on their offensive power:

Category | Classification | OPS range |
---|---|---|

A | Great | .9000 and higher |

B | Very good | .8334 to.8999 |

C | Above average | .7667 to.8333 |

D | Average | .7000 to.7666 |

E | Below average | .6334 to.6999 |

F | Poor | .5667 to.6333 |

G | Very poor | .5666 and lower |

This basically converts the ordinal scale into a seven-point ordinal scale for OPS. It is possible to provide a subjective reference for OPS numbers by substituting quality labels for the A–G categories, such as excellent (A), very good (B), good (C), average (D), fair (E), bad (F), and very poor (G).

## Leaders

With at least 3,000 plate appearances through August 5, 2020, the top 10 Major League Baseball players in terms of lifetime OPS were as follows:

- Babe Ruth has a 1.1636 rating
- Ted Williams has a 1.1155 rating
- Lou Gehrig has a 1.0798 rating
- Barry Bonds has a 1.0512 rating
- Jimmie Foxx has a 1.0376 rating
- Hank Greenberg has a 1.0169 rating
- Rogers Hornsby has a 1.0103 rating
- Mike Trout has a 1.0009 rating
- Manny Ramirez has a 0.9823 rating
- Mark McGwire has a 0.9823

The top four hitters were all left-handed, which was a rarity.

Jimmie Foxx has the best career on-base percentage (OPS) of any right-handed batter in baseball history. The following are the best 10 single-season performances in Major League Baseball (all by left-handed hitters):

- 1.4217 for Barry Bonds in 2004
- 1.3807 for Barry Bonds in 2002
- 1.3791 for Babe Ruth in 1920
- 1.3785 for Barry Bonds in 2001
- Babe Ruth in 1921
- Babe Ruth in 1923
- 1.2875 for Ted Williams in 1941
- 1.2778 for Barry Bonds in 2003
- Babe Ruth in 1927
- Ted Williams in 1957
- 1.2582 for Babe Ruth in 1927
- 1.2566 for Ted

During the 1925 season, Rogers Hornsby batted 1.2449, which ranked him 13th on the all-time list of single-season marks for right-handed hitters. For right-handed pitchers since 1935, Mark McGwire’s 1.2224 OPS in 1998 ranks 16th all-time and is the greatest single-season mark for a right-hander.

## Adjusted OPS (OPS+)

OPS+, or modified OPS, is a metric that is closely connected to OPS. OPS+ is an adjusted OPS that takes into account the park and league in which the player played, but does not take into account fielding position. The league average is defined as having an OPS+ of 100 points. An OPS+ of 150 or above is exceptional, and a score of 125 or higher is very good, but an OPS+ of 75 or below is mediocre. OPS+ may be calculated using the following equation:where *lgOBP is the league’s park adjusted OBP (excluding pitchers hitting) and *lgSLG is the league’s park adjusted SLG (excluding pitchers hitting).

Due to the additive nature of the two components of OPS+, for example a player with an OBP and SLG that are both 50 percent over average in both categories will have an OPS+ of 200 (twice the league average OPS+), while having an OPS that is only 50 percent above the league average.

### Leaders in OPS+

Through the completion of the 2019 season, the following players ranked in the top twenty in their respective career OPS+ rankings (minimum 3,000 plate appearances):

- Babe Ruth has 206 hits
- Ted Williams has 190
- Barry Bonds has 182
- Lou Gehrig has 179
- Mike Trout has 176
- Rogers Hornsby has 175
- Mickey Mantle has 172
- Dan Brouthers has 170
- Joe Jackson has 170
- Ty Cobb has 168
- Pete Browning has 163
- Jim Foxx has 163
- Mark McGwire has 163
- Dave Orr has 162
- Stan Musial has 159
- Hank Greenberg

These are the only players on this list who are exclusively right-handed batters: Browning, Hornsby, Foxx, Trout, McGwire, Allen, Mays, and Thomas are the only players on this list who are exclusively right-handed batters. Mantle is the only player in the group who can transition from one position to another. The following were the best single-season performances:

- Barry Bonds has 268 hits in 2002
- Barry Bonds has 263 hits in 2004
- Barry Bonds has 259 hits in 2001
- Fred Dunlap has 258 hits in 1884 *
- Babe Ruth has 256 hits in 1920
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1921
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1923
- Ted Williams has 235 hits in 1941
- Ted Williams has 233 hits in 1957
- Ross Barnes has 231 hits in 1876 **
- Barry Bonds has 231 hits in 2003

* – Fred Dunlap’s remarkable 1884 season took place in the Union Association, which some baseball experts believe is not a legitimate major league in the traditional sense. It is possible that Ross Barnes was helped by a rule that declared a bunt fair if it rolled in fair territory for the first time. When this regulation was lifted, he did not perform nearly as well as he had previously, but injuries may have played a major role in this, since his fielding numbers also fell. If Dunlap’s and Barnes’ seasons were to be removed from the list, two more Ruth seasons (1926 and 1927) would be added to the list.

Barnes, the lone right-handed hitter on the list, would also be eliminated as a result of this.

## Criticism

Despite the fact that it is a straightforward computation, OPS is a contentious statistic. On-base percentage and slugging percentage are both taken into consideration when calculating OPS. On-base %, on the other hand, is a greater predictor of run production. Linear weights are used to construct statistics such as thewOBA, which capitalizes on this distinction.

Furthermore, the components of OPS are not always equal (for example, league-average slugging percentages are frequently 75–100 points higher than league-average on-base percentages). The overall OPS for all of Major League Baseball in 2019 was.758, which serves as a point of comparison.

## See also

- For further information, visit the Wayback Machine
- John Thorn and Pete Palmer, “The Hidden Game of Baseball,” on pages 69-70
- Alan Schwarz, “The Numbers Game,” on pages 165-233
- Mr. James and Mr. Bill The 96 Hitter Families have been identified. The Bill James Gold Mine, 2009, p.24
- “Career LeadersRecords for OPS”.Baseball-Reference.com. RetrievedJuly 26,2019
- “Single-Season Records for OPS”.Baseball-Reference.com. RetrievedJuly 26,2019
- “Career LeadersRecords for Adjusted OPS+”.Baseball-Reference.com. RetrievedJuly 26,2019
- “Single- Michael Lewis is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom (203). Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game
- “2019 Major League Baseball Standard Batting”.Baseball-Reference.com

## References

- John Thorn and Pete Palmer are co-authors of this work (1984). Baseball’s “Secret Game” is a little known fact. Schwarz, Alan
- Doubleday & Company, ISBN 0-385-18283-X
- Doubleday & Company, ISBN 0-385-18283-X (2004). The Game of Numbers. Books published by Thomas Dunne Books (ISBN 0-312-32222-4)

## What Does OPS Mean in Baseball – What is a Good OPS?

Baseball may just be the perfect sport for math nerds, according to some experts. The OPS package, for example, incorporates formulae from various statistics, which makes it really fascinating to use. However, despite the fact that it appears to be a convoluted method, the outcome is clear: calculating OPS, or on-base plus slugging, may be a rapid way to determine a player’s true contribution to his club. OPS (on-base percentage) is a unique baseball statistic that is explained in detail in this article.

## How is OPS Calculated?

OPS is one of those statistics that must be interpreted in conjunction with other data in order to make sense. To compute On-base plus slugging, we’ll need two statistics: first, the number of times a player has reached base.

- Percentage of time spent on base (OBP). It is a cold, hard statistic that measures how many times a player gets on base by any method in comparison to the total number of at-bats they have had throughout their career. It makes no difference how a player gets on base in the OBP game. Were they tainted with something? Walked? Did they make contact? It everything contributes to their overall batting average (OBP)
- Slugging average (SLG). Unlike other stats, this one is a system that measures the quality of a player’s strikes. The batting average of a baseball player, for example, does not tell you how often they hit the ball
- It just tells you how often they scored a hit. SLG includes the quality of those hits into the calculation by including the amount of bases reached as a component of the equation. An individual player might theoretically have a slugging average of 4.000, which would result in an optimum ratio of home runs to at-bats. That is to say, if a player only has one at-bat and hits a home run, his slugging average will be 4.000 points higher than normal. An SLG of 1.000 indicates that a single was hit in a single at-bat, and so on.

Keep in mind that there are some uncommon instances (such as sacrifice flies) that do not count toward at-bats and, as a result, have no meaningful influence on either of these statistics. The terms OBP and SLG are certainly familiar to you; OBP is a rate measure, and SLG is a rate and quality metric. When you combine the two metrics, on-base plus slugging, you get a more complete picture of a player’s ability to smash the ball hard. What is the formula for calculating it? Simply add the two numbers together.

## What is a Good OPS in Baseball?

For fans of Major League Baseball, it might be difficult to make sense of how OPS works on sometimes. What does it have to say about the look of the plates? What is the overall quality of the ballpark in which they are playing during the season? What is the total number of bases they have amassed? To obtain a real understanding of what a good OPS is, it’s helpful to first establish a standard of comparison. Here are a few of the top OPS in Major League Baseball history:

- With an OPS of 1.1636, Babe Ruth is the all-time leader
- Mike Trout is among the all-time OPS greats who are still active, with a career average of around 1.0000
- Barry Bonds ranks 4th on the list as of 2020, with an OPS of approximately 1.05
- Lou Gehrig ranks third with an OPS of 1.07
- And Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox is the only other player outside of Babe Ruth who has an OPS of 1.1 or higher over his This is among players who have accumulated at least 3,000 at-bats.

Of course, this only provides us only one end of the range to work with. What about the overall average of the league? A look at the data for Major League Baseball reveals that the league average in on-base plus slugging is often between 0.700 and 0.800.

## What is the Highest OPS in Baseball History?

Already, we’ve shown you the player who has the greatest careerOPS, Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees, in our previous post. His 1.1636 OPS over that many at-bats may never be surpassed, putting him in the running for the title of greatest hitter of all time. However, this is merely one method of looking at the stats. Season-to-season comparisons of metrics such as on-base percentage (OPS) are important because they reveal exactly how spectacularly certain players have reached the pinnacle of their careers.

- Babe Ruth, 1920: 1.3791
- Barry Bonds, 2001: 1.3785
- Babe Ruth, 1921: 1.3586
- Babe Ruth, 1923: 1.3089
- Babe Ruth, 2004: 1.4217
- Babe Ruth, 2002: 1.3807
- Bab

Eventually, Ted Williams enters the picture, having posted the 7th-best offensive season in baseball history. When Rogers Hornsby appears on the list, it is at the thirteenth position that a fourth player is included.

## What about High OPS Seasons in Recent Years?

- Juan Soto of the Washington Nationals had the best OPS in 2020, batting 1.1846 with a 1.1846 on-base percentage. That was good enough for the 25th greatest OPS season in baseball history
- In 2019, Christian Yelich of the Milwaukee Brewers hit 1.1001, which was strong enough for a season in the top 100 of all-time OPS rankings

## Are there Better Stats than OPS?

A hitter’s talent can be evaluated by adding up his or her slugging % or slugging average with his or her on-base percentage, which some may argue is a rudimentary method of doing so. However, it is possible that there is more to it than you realize. After all, on-base percentage (OBP) includes at-bats, walks, sacrifice flies, and the number of times a batter is hit by a pitch. Overall, the OPS statistic takes a variety of factors into consideration, including at-bats and total bases. Hits, walks, HBP, and even sacrifice fly are all accounted for in the overall calculation.

Optimal team performance (OPS) is popular because when calculated for an entire team, it has a strong correlation with how many runs the team has scored. This is why many people consider it to be an effective tool to evaluate a batter’s offensive output on a consistent basis.

## What about OPS+?

The OPS+ statistic, which takes this statistic and “normalizes” it across the league, is also available. A player’s OPS+ takes into account external factors such as the ballpark in which he or she was hitting. It is calculated such that an OPS of 100 represents the league average, which provides people with an immediate understanding of how a player’s offensive productivity compares to the rest of the team. As a result, the statistics of a Cubs player may differ from those of a Dodgers player, who in turn may differ from the statistics of a Cardinals player or a White Sox player.

When a player is free agent, OPS+ is important because he or she may benefit from primarily playing in a smaller ballpark where it is easier to hit home runs, which can increase his or her value.

## Conclusion

The on-base average and slugging percentage, when combined, can provide useful information on a player’s offensive performance in the big leagues. However, like with any other sabermetrics in baseball, it’s not always simple to quantify everything without actually seeing it firsthand in action.

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## What Is OPS in Baseball? Well, It Measures…

There are numerous approaches to evaluating baseball players, as well as numerous schools of thought regarding the most effective method of doing so. The earned run average (ERA) of a pitcher is generally considered to be the most reliable traditional statistic for determining his or her effectiveness. However, to assess batters, one prominent measure to gauge their overall performance is “OPS”. As a result, what exactly is OPS in baseball? OPS, or On-base Plus Slugging, is a statistic that aims to measure the overall effectiveness of a hitter by combining two stats that measure how good he is at reaching base and hitting for power: on-base percentage and slugging percentage.

In the meantime, we’ll dive into the pressing question…

## What Is a Batter’s OPS?

In addition to On-Base, On-Base Plus The slugging percentage of a player is the sum of the player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. The on-base percentage (OPS) of a player demonstrates his or her ability to reach base and hit for power. On-base Plus is a slang term for Slugging percentage, often known as On-base percentage (OBP), is a combination of a batter’s On-base percentage (OBP) and Slugging percentage (SP) (SLG). The stat was created to analyze a batter’s ability to reach base and hit for power, which are the two key tasks that are regarded to be the most significant for hitters in baseball at the time of its creation.

You may calculate an OPS by adding these two values together, and voilà, the league OPS for 2019 was.758.

These prices, on the other hand, will alter over time as more and more people join the club.

Because a batter’s OPS tends to hold up better over time than counting figures, it may be used to evaluate batters even when comparing two players who have a significant difference in playing time.

## How Do You Calculate OPS?

As we previously discussed, On-Base Plus is a type of military base. Slugging percentage, often known as on-base percentage and slugging percentage, is the sum of a player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. Put another way, you can compute an OPS by simply putting the two numbers together. The on-base percentage (OPS) of a hitter cannot be calculated, however, without these data. Because the complete OPS calculation is lengthy and difficult to compute on its own, it is preferable to calculate OBP and SLG separately and then combine them.

- In order to do so, sum up all of the hits, walks, and hit by pitches, then divide the total by the number of at-bats plus walks, sacrifice flies, and hit by pitches to get the on-base percentage.
- As a consequence, the calculation for OBP looks somewhat like this: At bats + walks + hit by pitch / (at bats + walks + hit by pitch + sacrifice flies) = On Base Percentage (OBP).
- Simply combine the two figures together to obtain the overall probability of success (OPS) for each situation.
- Using the on-base percentage calculation, the values for hits (30), walks (10), and HBPs (5) total up to 45 when multiplied together.
- The hitter’s on-base percentage is calculated by dividing 45 by 120, which equals.375.
- On the batting average side, the total bases from singles (15), doubles (10), triples (15), and home runs (20) add up to a total of a.600 slugging percentage.
- For the purposes of illustration, the entire equation is written as follows: With all of that work spread out in front of you, it’s usually better to compute the two figures individually in order to keep everything a bit more organized.

## Why Is OPS a Good Stat?

On-base Plus Slugging is one metric that has remained mostly concealed in plain sight throughout history and has just lately been recognized as being significant. In the world of so-called “advanced” metrics, on-base percentage (OPS) is one of the simplest to compute and utilize. It is comprised of the two values created by the two most significant talents for hitters: reaching base and hitting for power. Because of these two elements, on-field performance (OPS) is a simple metric for fans to locate, compute, and understand.

OPS, on the other hand, is by no means impenetrable.

According to theSporting News’ evaluation of on-base percentage (OPS), David Ortiz topped all of Major League Baseball with a 1.021 OPS in 2016, yet in 2000, same score would have matched him for 16th place in the league.

Because OPS is sensitive to changes in ballpark dimensions and league-wide adjustments, it is not the be-all and end-all metric.

This statistic is far more sophisticated, since it normalizes a player’s OPS based on league and park considerations, with 100 serving as a reference point for comparison. However, we will not go into detail about this statistic in this post.

## What Is a Good OPS in Baseball?

According to what we discussed previously, OPS standards can shift over time as leagues and ballparks evolve. But there are still broad numbers that are deemed to be excellent or harmful in some way, shape or form. At any point in time in history, an OPS of over.800 has been deemed good, with an OPS of over.900 considered very good, and an OPS of 1.000 or greater considered extraordinary. On the other hand, an OPS of less than 700 is regarded bad, and anything less than 600 is considered extremely poor.

## When Did OPS Become a Stat in Baseball?

On-base Plus is made up of several components. Slugging (both on-base percentage and slugging percentage) has been around for a very long time. Branch Rickey was a pioneer in the development of the on-base percentage statistic in the 1940s and 1950s, and he was credited with inventing the concept. A metric known as “Extra Base Power” was also established by him, and he even reasoned that the two statistics might be combined to determine an individual batter’s total performance. Apparently, Rickey was decades ahead of his time in terms of thinking.

However, it wasn’t until the rise of sabermetrics in the late 1990s and early 2000s that baseball began to take the overall OPS (as well as its components) seriously.

The on-base percentage (OPS) is not regarded an official statistic by Major League Baseball, despite the fact that it is well known and highly accepted today.

After reading this, the next time you see a batter’s OPS, you will have a better understanding of whether you should be optimistic about him or if you should be concerned.

## Highest Career OPS

Babe Ruth, who is in the Hall of Fame, holds the record for the best career On-base Plus Slugging percentage with a 1.164 OPS throughout his 22-year professional baseball career. Seven batters have concluded their careers with an OPS greater than 1.000, with Mike Trout now straddling the line between the two categories.

## Highest Single Season OPS

Barry Bonds owns the single-season record for the greatest On-Base Plus Slugging percentage (1.422) with a mind-boggling 1.422 in 2004.

He also established an MLB record with an on-base percentage of.609 and a slugging percentage of.812, both of which were the highest ever recorded.

## What Is Batting Average?

The batting average demonstrates a player’s ability to put the ball in play and advance to the next base. The batting average of a hitter is derived by dividing the total number of hits he has received by the total number of at-bats he has had. It is important in measuring a player’s performance at the bat, but it does not take into consideration walks, sacrifices, and other factors.

### Related Articles

- What is the definition of a Designated Hitter in baseball? What is the definition of MVR in baseball? A Comprehensive Guide to the Rule
- What Is the Meaning of WAR in Baseball? The Complete Guide to Getting Started
- What is the definition of WHIP in baseball
- In baseball, the term “left on base” (LOB) refers to the number of runners who have been left on base.

## Let’s not use OPS any more!

Welcoming the conclusion of the 2015 season! Baseball is a strange sport, which is why the Twins and the Mets are both making strong postseason bids. Baseball is a highly predictable sport, which explains why the Cardinals and Dodgers are performing exceptionally well. Kris Bryant is fantastic, but Alex Rodriguez is as fantastic. That’s about all there is to say about baseball’s first half of the season thus far. Furthermore, we’ve been in what we may call the “sabermetric” period in baseball for perhaps seven to fifteen years.

While certain statistics (wins, saves, etc.) are practically completely meaningless, others are perfectly acceptable and are only waiting to be replaced by measures that are more accurate and more descriptive.

On this day, I’d want to release a quick manifesto on why utilizing OPS isn’t such a good idea, and yet, despite this, it continues to be used.

Please accept my apologies.

##### Reasons Not To Use OPS: Math

The over-under statistic (OPS), as has been stated previously, is a statistic that is not mathematically valid. The on-base percentage and slugging percentage of a baseball player are added together to create the player’s OPS. These two statistics are extremely helpful in determining how excellent a player is on the attacking end, but they are not supposed to be combined in this manner. The reason behind this is as follows: When it comes to an on-base percentage, the greatest potential score a player can get is 1.000, which signifies that a player gets on base 100 percent of the time when he steps up to the plate for a plate appearance (PA).

The highest conceivable slugging % a player may get is 4.000, which signifies that the player hits a home run on every occasion he steps up to the bat in the game.

This is something that no one accomplishes – a respectable slugging percentage is somewhere around.430.

What we have here are two mixed fractions, and if there’s one thing we learned in middle-school math class, it’s that you can’t truly combine two fractions with different denominators because they have different denominators.

However, this is not the case. If you were to combine these two statistics in any way, you’d want to make sure they were on an equal mathematical footing to begin with. That’s exactly what more effective offensive statistics accomplish in practice.

##### Reasons Not To Use OPS: Context (or, OBP is more important!)

It’s possible that the most crucial reason not to utilize OPS is that it handles OBP and SLG in the same way as it does SLG. Even if you ignore the flawed mathematical foundations of OPS, it’s easy to see that in 95 percent of circumstances, a player’s on-base percentage will be lower than their slugging percentage. When you combine the two metrics, the slugging % nearly typically accounts for the majority of the value, and men who hit for a lot of power will see an increase in their overall batting average as well.

- Unfortunately, this is not the case.
- That is not to suggest that slugging % – as well as power – are not essential, because they very certainly are!
- In each batting event, we may apply this formula to get the predicted run result.
- To be clear, this does not imply that being on-base is more essential than being powerful.
- Let’s look for a good example from this year!
- This equates to a.317 on-base percentage and a.572 slugging percentage.
- While this is happening, Buster Posey of the Giants has a fantastic.879 OPS on the season.
- Excellent, as well!
- He, on the other hand, is not.
- And that’s even before we take into consideration each player’s home park, and so on.
- That we are no longer need to utilize OPS is the most pleasant aspect of the situation.

In other words, OPS is awful and alternative measures such as wOBA (found at FanGraphs) or True Average (found atBaseball Prospectus) are superior, right? Is that correct?

##### Reasons To Use OPS: Simplicity

After discussing why OPS is computed in a “poor” method, we must realize that it does have one significant advantage as a result of the calculation: it is quite simple to figure out on your own (which is a huge plus). From nasty math analytics websites to your local TV broadcast, nearly every statistics outlet you look to delivers an on-base percentage and a slugging percentage. These numerals may be found all over the place. In addition, those two statistics are quite simple to generate from raw data, which makes them even more appealing.

- It’s just as simple as adding the two numbers together to get the overall performance score (OPS).
- But how much do you “pay” for a simple response – are you still able to utilize OPS to accurately represent a hitter’s offensive power if you employ a simplified approach?
- While on-base percentage (OPS) may not provide an accurate picture of a player’s offensive ability, it does not lead you too far afield.
- If a player’s on-base percentage (OPS) is low, that player is a poor hitter.
- The middle of the distribution is where OPS suffers the most, not the extremes.

##### Reasons To Use OPS: Availability

The power of Baseball-Reference gives OPS a significant contextual advantage over other statistics that may be used to estimate a player’s total offensive value: it is the most often utilized statistic in baseball. FanGraphs and Baseball Prospectus are both fantastic statistical tools, but they are likely to remain in the shadow of Sean Forman’s wall of data, which is a statistical monolith of unparalleled proportions. Without intending to be critical of B-R, which is the greatest, I am of the view that it is not the best place to go if you want the clearest, most complete data about modern players and statistical analysis available elsewhere.

- In spite of this, I’m not sure there’s a more valuable baseball research tool than B-ubiquitousPlay R’s Index, which is quite simply the best modest purchase any baseball researcher could ever make.
- OPS (or OPS+) is one of the few effective methods to use the tool that you have available to you.
- That isn’t really a complaint, is it?
- Because OPS is utilized on Baseball-Reference, it is more likely to be used in other contexts as well.
- Even when I’m writing for publications that aren’t analytical in nature.
- This is the most critical point to note: the alternatives to OPS that are now available are really good in today’s world.
- Additional factors such as ballpark and league-average are taken into consideration by the algorithm.
- It is not one of those numbers that is blatantly false (I’m looking at you, victories), yet it is accurate.
- You’ll undoubtedly make a mistake in the calculation – possibly something significant – but you’ll almost certainly get it correctly 75 percent of the time at the very least.
- Or, at the very least, it will take longer for them to reach the general public.
- When anything like OPS gets used, it is a very, very little victory for science and mathematics.

(However, whatever you do, avoid using the word “wins.”) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Besides being the Lead Writer for Beyond the Box Score, Bryan Grosnick also writes a piece for Baseball Prospectus – Boston. Seriously, avoid using the word “wins.”

## How to Calculate OPS in Baseball

Baseball statistics have long been a significant aspect of the game. When talking about baseball and its various leagues, terms such as batting average, runs batted in, hits, runs, and more have become commonplace. However, as baseball has progressed throughout the years, the statistics have gotten very intricate. It can be difficult to keep up with the new-age jargon, which includes statistics such as on-base percentage (OBP), slugging percentage (SLG), and wins above replacement (WAR), among others.

Initially glanced at, it appears to be a difficult figure to compute and comprehend, however it can be simply broken down into a series of steps.

## 1. Understanding and Calculating On Base Percentage

On Base Percentage (also known as On Base Percentage or OBP) is a crucial statistic in baseball and the first important statistic required to comprehend On Base Percentage (also known as OPS). Quite literally, the On Base Percentage tracks how many times an individual player gets on base. In order to compute this, you tally up a player’s hits, walks, and times hit by a pitch, and then divide the total by the number of plate appearances the player has made (at bats plus walks plus hit by pitch plus sacrifice flies).

## 2. Understanding and Calculating Slugging Percentage

The slugging percentage, abbreviated as SLG, is the other important statistic in the calculation of the OPS. Although similar to calculating on-base percentage (OBP), SLG is used to assess the overall quality of hits made by a player rather than amount of base hits made. It does this by giving a numerical value to each base (single = 1, double = 2, etc.) and assessing the type of hit a player receives when he smacks the ball. The formula for calculating SLG is Singles + Doubles x 2 + Triples x 3, + Home Runs x 4 divided by the number of at bats.

## 3. Calculating and Understanding OPS

So, now that we’ve learned how to compute OBP and SLG, it’s important to remember that OPS is basically On Base Percentage plus Slugging, which makes it much simpler to calculate. To compute on-base percentage and slugging % for a player, multiply their on-base percentage by their slugging percentage. For example, a player with an OBP of.280 and an SLG of.500 will have an OPS of.780 if he also has an OBP of.280 and an SLG of.500. This statistic practically reflects the best of both worlds between the two statistics because it evaluates both the amount of time a player spends on base and the quality of their hits.

## On Base Plus Slugging (OPS) All Time Leaders on Baseball Almanac

When Branch Rickey and Allan Roth invented the on base percentage statistic in the 1950s, they were looking for a way to track the number of times a player reached any base. The sacrifice fly designation was not included in the initial version, but when it was formally adopted in 1984, it was included using the procedure outlined in the preceding section. Later, Slugging Average was established, and the two were merged to form On Base Plus Slugging, which stands for On Base plus Slugging. The player must have played a minimum of 1,000 career games in order to be included on this list of the one-thousand greatest on base plus slugging leaders.

- “Similar to a dog who has never been given table scraps.
- I’m pretty curious.
- I’m hoping to be able to do so this year, and I’m hoping it will be possible.
- I have set a one-year goal for myself.” The Baseball Digest published an article by Todd Helton (May 2004) Babe Ruth owns the record for most wins in the American League, and Manny Ramirez is the only current player who “appears” to be in with a chance.
- Perhaps the 1.000 OPS Club should be established by Baseball Almanac as a new “club” inside the organization.

What do you think of the on-base plus slugging percentage? Like this one, do you find it interesting to argue and debunk complicated statistics like this one? Bring your friends and family to join us onBaseball Fever, where we have a forum dedicated to the discussion of SABRMetric statistics.

## On-base plus slugging

On-base plus slugging (sometimes known as on-base percentage and slugging percentage) is a baseball statistic that is computed as the sum of a player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. This method is excellent for determining a player’s offensive worth since it considers both the ability to get on base and the ability to hit for power, which are two crucial hitting talents, and it is simple to use. In Major League Baseball, a player with an OPS of.900 or more is considered to be in the highest tier of offensive skill.

## Formula

Where OBP represents on-base percentage and SLG represents slugging percentage, we have the following fundamental formula: These percentages are defined as follows and in which locations:

- The letters H, BB, and HBP stand for hits, bases on balls, and times hit by pitch respectively. The letters AB stand for at bats, SF stands for sacrifice fly, and TB stands for total bases.

Because the denominators of OBP and SLG are different, it is feasible to rewrite the calculation for OPS using a common denominator in order to simplify the expression. Mathematics says that this statement is the same as the simple sum of OBP and SLG, which is as follows:

## Interpretation of OPS

It should be emphasized that, in contrast to many other statistics, a player’s OPS does not have a straightforward intrinsic meaning, despite the fact that it is valuable as a comparing measure. One flaw with OPS is that it gives equal weight to both on-base average and slugging percentage, despite the fact that on-base average is more closely associated with run production. This flaw is exacerbated by the fact that the component portions of OPS are not normally close to equal in terms of numerical value (league-average slugging percentages are usually 75-100 points higher than league-average on-base percentages, while league-leading slugging percentages are often 200-300 points higher than league-leading on-base percentages).

Inconsistencies between published OPSes and the sum of on-base average and slugging percentage are due to rounding mistakes in the calculations.

## History

The Hidden Game of Baseball, written by John Thorn and Pete Palmer in 1984, was the first book to make the concept of on-base plus slugging prominent. The New York Times then began publishing the names of the top performers in this statistic in its weekly “By the Numbers” box, a feature that ran for four years and garnered widespread attention. The statistics were popularized by baseball journalist Peter Gammons, who utilized them and spread the word about them to other writers and announcers.

## Leaders

The Major League Baseballplayers with a lifetime on-base percentage greater than 1.000 are as follows (through 2005, current players are shown in bold):

- Babe Ruth has a 1.1636 rating
- Ted Williams has a 1.1155 rating
- Lou Gehrig has a 1.0798 rating
- Barry Bonds has a 1.0533 rating
- Albert Pujols has a 1.0490 rating
- Todd Helton has a 1.0404 rating
- Hank Greenberg has a 1.0169 rating
- Rogers Hornsby has a 1.0103 rating
- Manny Ramirez has a 1.0076 rating
- Babe Ruth has a 1.16

Albert Pujols has the best career on-base percentage (OPS) of any right-handed batter in baseball history.

The following are the best 10 single-season performances in Major League Baseball (all by left-handed hitters):

- 1.4217 for Barry Bonds in 2004
- 1.3807 for Barry Bonds in 2002
- 1.3791 for Babe Ruth in 1920
- 1.3785 for Barry Bonds in 2001
- Babe Ruth in 1921
- Babe Ruth in 1923
- 1.2874 for Ted Williams in 1941
- 1.2778 for Barry Bonds in 2003
- Babe Ruth in 1927
- Ted Williams in 1957
- 1.2582 for Babe Ruth in 1927
- 1.2566 for Ted

Rogers Hornsby set the record for the greatest single-season batting average for a right-handed batter in 1925 with a 1.2449 mark (13th on the all-time list). Since 1925, Mark McGwire has had the greatest single-season OPS for a right-hander, with a 1.2224 mark in 1998.

## Adjusted OPS (OPS+)

OPS+, or Adjusted OPS, is a metric that is closely connected to OPS. OPS+ is an adjusted OPS that takes into account the park and league in which the player played, but does not take into account fielding position. The league average is defined as having an OPS+ of 100 points. An OPS+ of 150 or greater is considered exceptional, indicating that the player’s overall OPS was 50 percent better than the national average after adjusting for park.

### Leaders in OPS+

According to lifetime leaders in OPS+ (minimum 3000 plate appearances, current players in bold), the following players were the best through 2005:

- Babe Ruth has a 207-point lead in the American League. Ted Williams has a 190-pound frame. Barry Bonds has a career batting average of 184. Lou Gehrig, 179
- Babe Ruth, 179
- Rogers Hornsby has a 175-point lead. Mickey Mantle has a career batting average of 172. Albert Pujols is ranked 171st in the world. Dan Brouthers weighs 170 pounds. Joe Jackson weighs 170 pounds. Ty Cobb received 167 points.

The following were the best single-season performances:

- Barry Bonds has 275 hits in 2002
- Barry Bonds has 262 hits in 2001
- Barry Bonds has 260 hits in 2004
- Babe Ruth has 256 hits in 1920
- Fred Dunlap has 250 hits in 1884
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1921
- Babe Ruth has 239 hits in 1923
- Ted Williams has 235 hits in 1941
- Ted Williams has 233 hits in 1957
- Ross Barnes has 231 hits in 1876
- Barry Bonds has 231 hits in 2003
- Barry Bonds

## See also

- Sabermetrics, on-base percentage, slugging percentage, and other metrics

## Notes

- John Thorn and Pete Palmer are co-authors of this work (1984). Baseball’s “Secret Game” is a little known fact. ISBN 0-385-18283-X
- Alan Schwarz, Doubleday & Company, ISBN 0-385-18283-X (2004). The Game of Numbers. Thomas Dunne Books (ISBN 0-312-32222-4)
- Thomas Dunne Books (ISBN 0-312-32222-4)

## Newfangled Stats: What is OPS in Baseball (and other information)? –

Baseball cards were a hobby of mine when I was younger. Remember, this was at the height of the crap wax era (e.g., 1991 Donrussor90’s era Pinnacle), so keep that in mind. This didn’t important to me at the time and continues to be irrelevant now. Cards provided me with an opportunity to grasp in my hand a sport that I liked both playing and watching. Many days were spent staring at the backs of the cards, examining and remembering the information on the backs. Simple, easy-to-understand statistics include batting average, RBI, home runs, strikeouts, and earned run average (ERA).

- A younger version of myself would have been completely unaware that OPS is actually rather simple.
- The on-base percentage (OPS) of a player is a measure of his or her ability to both hit for power and get on base.
- If you are familiar with such statistics, you may have noticed that they cannot be mathematically put together so rapidly due to the fact that they have distinct numerators.
- But let’s get back to those baseball cards from the 1990s.
- Although I refer to OPS as a “newfangled metric” in the headline, it is not actually that new.

### When was the OPS stat created?

Despite the fact that Pete Palmer invented the OPS metric before 1978, the Dodgers, under Branch Rickey, were utilizing a measure that was very similar to OPS as early as 1954. Though it gained popularity after Pete Palmer and John Thorn published their bookThe Hidden Game of Baseball in 1984, the OPS statistic is still not universally accepted in baseball according to a 2000 article in the St Petersburg Times: “statistic is popular among younger general managers and is gaining acceptance among the mainstream media.” So, how is OPS seen now, in the year 2021?

### Opinions on OPS

Even while OPS was considered “in vogue” in the early 2000s, it is now broadly acknowledged across the baseball community as well as media sources. However, this does not necessarily imply that it is a high-quality metric to employ. According to Fangraphs, the on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG) metrics have a fault because they are weighted equally. However, this is not entirely correct. When compared to slugging percentage, on-base percentage has a 1.8x greater impact on run scoring.

- So, should you make use of the statistical evidence?
- I’d like to think I’m up to date on baseball player assessment techniques (understanding at a fundamental level to help me in my fantasy baseball leagues, not at a professional or deep analytical level).
- When I’m talking to people who don’t follow baseball as closely as I do, I don’t try to take the conversation beyond the batting average or OPS.
- Explaining the difference in player quality may be as simple as emphasizing players who have a high OBP or SLG and comparing them to players who have a high OPS, for example.

### Who are the Players with High OPS? (2019 Season Example)

The term “on-base percentage” (OPS) was formerly considered “in vogue” in baseball, but it is now universally recognized across the sport and media. Nonetheless, this does not automatically imply that it is a high-quality metric to employ. In the opinion of Fangraphs, the on-base percentage (OBP) and the slugging percentage (SLG) are not weighted equally in the overall batting average (OPS). In reality, however, this is not the case. When compared to slugging percentage, on-base percentage has a 1.8x greater impact on run production.

In such case, should you rely on the data?

Baseball player evaluations keep me on the cutting edge, so I like to think I’m current (understanding at a fundamental level to help me in my fantasy baseball leagues, not at a professional or deep analytical level).

When I’m talking to people who don’t follow baseball as closely as I do, I don’t try to take the topic beyond the batting average.

For example, emphasizing players with high OBP or SLG and comparing them to players with high OPS might be an easy way of explaining the difference in player quality. You can find a breakdown in the next section.

Christian Yelich | 1.100 |

Mike Trout | 1.083 |

Yordan Alvarez | 1.067 |

Cody Bellinger | 1.035 |

Nelson Cruz | 1.031 |

Alex Bregman | 1.015 |

Anthony Rizzo | 1.010 |

Exactly the kind of players you’d expect to see. Each of these players has an OPS in excess of 1.000. Starting with players who have the greatest OBP, you can see why OPS might be useful to examine in addition to OBP when evaluating a player’s performance. The OBPs of Luis Arraez and Matt Joyce were both in the top ten in 2019, yet each had an OPS of less than.900 in 2019. (i.e., low slugging percentage). Examine the average OPS in 2019 to see how it compares to previous years.

### What is the average OPS for major league baseball players?

A big league baseball player’s average on-base percentage (OPS) is.758 based on a one-year sample (2019). Christian Yelich, the league’s top offensive player in terms of OPS in 2019, had a 45 percent better OPS in 2019. (1.100). The following players were in the league’s middle of the pack:

Evan Longoria | .762 |

Paul DeJong | .762 |

Oscar Mercado | .761 |

Amed Rosario | .755 |

Dexter Fowler | .755 |

### Highest Career OPS

Further illustrating how exceptional the 2019 season was for players with above 1.000 OPS, consider that just eight players have accomplished this feat throughout their careers:

Babe Ruth | 1.164 |

Ted Williams | 1.116 |

Lou Gehrig | 1.080 |

Barry Bonds | 1.051 |

Jimmie Foxx | 1.038 |

Hank Greenberg | 1.017 |

Roger Hornsby | 1.010 |

Mike Trout (active) | 1.002 |

If you’re searching for a list of some of the greatest baseball players of all time, here is a good place to start your search for information. Is it feasible, though, that some of the players profited from playing at their home stadium? Or from the time period in which they played? The players and their statistics alone cannot tell me this, but OPS+ is able to provide me this information.

### How are OPS and OPS+ different?

To begin answering that question, let’s take a look at the top ten OPS leaders as well as their OPS+ scores. Please keep in mind that this does not include players who exclusively competed in the Negro Leagues.

Player Name | Career OPS Rank | Career OPS+ Rank |
---|---|---|

Babe Ruth | 1st (1.164) | 1st (206) |

Ted Williams | 2nd (1.116) | 2nd (191) |

Lou Gehrig | 3rd (1.080) | 4th (179) |

Barry Bonds | 4th (1.051) | 3rd (182) |

Jimmie Foxx | 5th (1.038) | 11th (163) |

Hank Greenberg | 6th (1.017) | 15th (159) |

Roger Hornsby | 7th (1.010) | 6th (175) |

Mike Trout (active) | 8th (1.002) | 5th (176) |

The players with the highest lifetime OPS continue to appear towards the top of the OPS+ rankings, but I have seen some fluctuation, notably with Foxx and Greenberg moving down the ranks; it is possible that this is a coincidence, but both guys played during the 1930s and into the mid-1940s. But what does the OPS+ tell us about the situation?

### What is OPS+ and How Does it Compare to OPS?

According to the Major League Baseball website, OPS+ is calculated by taking a player’s on-base plus slugging percentage and normalizing the result across the whole league. It takes into consideration extrinsic features such as ballparks. It then makes adjustments so that a score of 100 represents league average performance and a score of 150 represents 50 percent higher performance than league average. In other words, OPS+ makes an attempt to put everyone on an equal footing with one another.

There will be no dead ball period, and there will be no HR-happy ball age either.

I hope you find normalization to be as enjoyable as I do.